Project description:Estrogen enhances dopamine-mediated behaviors, which make women and female rats more sensitive to the effects of the psychostimulant drugs, cocaine and amphetamine. How cocaine and amphetamine elicit more robust behavioral responses in females remains unclear, but studies have shown that the Regulator of G-protein Signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) protein is an important modulator of the behavioral responses to these drugs. Previously, we reported that 17-beta estradiol reduced RGS9-2 mRNA expression in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, but not the core. The present studies were designed to further evaluate the involvement of RGS9-2 in estradiol enhancement of amphetamine-induced place preference behavior and to examine which estrogen receptor subtype mediates the effect of estradiol. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and treated for 14 days with an inert vehicle or 17-beta estradiol (by Silastic implant or injection [80 microg/kg]). 17-beta-Estradiol-treated female rats had enhanced amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference behavior compared to vehicle-treated, ovariectomized female rats. In situ hybridization histochemistry and Western blotting identified an inverse relationship between RGS9-2 protein expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and the hormonal enhancement of amphetamine-induced place preference behavior. A similar relationship was not found between place preference behavior and RGS9-2 expression in the accumbens core. Moreover, treatment of ovariectomized female rats with the selective estrogen receptor-beta agonist, diarylpropionitrile (1 mg/kg), for 2 weeks also facilitated amphetamine-induced place preference behavior and selectively reduced nucleus accumbens shell RGS9-2 protein expression. These data provide insight into a potential mechanism by which estrogen and/or sex modulate mesoaccumbal dopamine receptor signaling and possibly, addictive behaviors.
Project description:The cardiovascular effects of estrogen are mediated in part by augmenting the function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity is dependent on many cofactors including Ca(2+). Hence, we investigated the effect of chronic 17 beta-estradiol treatment on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression in the human endothelial cell line, EA.hy926, using spectrofluorometry and Western blot, respectively. Inhibiting the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase with thapsigargin caused an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which was higher in chronically 17 beta-estradiol-treated (1muM, 24h) cells loaded with Fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester compared to vehicle-treated cells, suggesting a higher endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) content in 17 beta-estradiol-treated cells. An enhanced Ca(2+) influx pathway in chronically 17 beta-estradiol-treated cells was also observed. In addition, 17 beta-estradiol-treated cells expressed higher levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein in comparison to vehicle-treated cells. The chronic effect of 17 beta-estradiol on Ca(2+) homeostasis and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression was attenuated with the nonselective estrogen receptor inhibitor, ICI 182,780 (10muM, 7alpha, 17beta-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5-Pentafluoropentyl)sulfinyl]nonyl] estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol). Furthermore, analysis of the thapsigargin-evoked Ca(2+) response in chronically 17 beta-estradiol-treated estrogen receptor alpha-knockdown cells showed no significant difference in Ca(2+) response compared to vehicle-treated estrogen receptor alpha-knockdown cells, indicating that the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis by 17 beta-estradiol is mediated through an estrogen receptor alpha-dependent pathway. These data revealed an estrogen receptor alpha-dependent modulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis accompanying the enhancement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in 17 beta-estradiol-treated human endothelial cells.
Project description:We used RNA-Seq analysis to identify the sexually dimorphic pravastatin regulated gene expression profile in primary cultures of mouse embryonic cerebral cortical neural progenitor/stem cells. Overall design: RNAseq on primary E14.5 mouse cerebral cortical neurosphere cultures. 4 conditions - Male Cortex Pravastatin, Male Cortex Vehicle, Female Cortex Pravastatin, Female Cortex Vehicle. There are 3 biological replicates for each condition and all the 12 samples were run on two lanes (technical duplicates).
Project description:17?-estradiol (E2) plays critical roles in a number of target tissues including the mammary gland, reproductive tract, bone, and brain. Although it is clear that E2 reduces inflammation and ischemia-induced damage in the cerebral cortex, the molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of E2 in this brain region are lacking. Thus, we examined the cortical transcriptome using a mouse model system. Female adult mice were ovariectomized and implanted with silastic tubing containing oil or E2. After 7 days, the cerebral cortices were dissected and RNA was isolated and analyzed using RNA-sequencing. Analysis of the transcriptomes of control and E2-treated animals revealed that E2 treatment significantly altered the transcript levels of 88 genes. These genes were associated with long term synaptic potentiation, myelination, phosphoprotein phosphatase activity, mitogen activated protein kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. E2 also altered the expression of genes linked to lipid synthesis and metabolism, vasoconstriction and vasodilation, cell-cell communication, and histone modification. These results demonstrate the far-reaching and diverse effects of E2 in the cerebral cortex and provide valuable insight to begin to understand cortical processes that may fluctuate in a dynamic hormonal environment.
Project description:Although estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and 17?-estradiol play critical roles in protecting the cerebral cortex from ischemia-induced damage, there has been some controversy about the expression of ER? in this region of the brain. We have examined ER? mRNA and protein levels in the cerebral cortices of female mice at postnatal days 5 and 17 and at 4, 13, and 18 months of age. We found that although ER? transcript levels declined from postnatal day 5 through 18 months of age, ER? protein levels remained stable. Importantly, expression of the E2-regulated progesterone receptor gene was sustained in younger and in older females suggesting that age-related changes in estrogen responsiveness in the cerebral cortex are not due to the absence of ER? protein.
Project description:Several studies have shown that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) attenuates epileptic seizures; however, the molecular mechanism by which it achieves this effect is still largely unknown. DHA stimulates the retinoid X receptor, which reportedly regulates the expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom). This study aimed to clarify how DHA suppresses seizures, focusing on the regulation of 17?-estradiol synthesis in the brain. Dietary supplementation with DHA increased not only the expression of P450arom, but also 17?-estradiol in the cerebral cortex. While DHA did not affect the duration or scores of the seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole, DHA significantly prolonged the seizure latency. A P450arom inhibitor, letrozole, reduced 17?-estradiol levels and completely suppressed the elongation of seizure latency elicited by DHA. These results suggest that DHA delays the onset of seizures by promoting the synthesis of 17?-estradiol in the brain. DHA upregulated the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes in the cerebral cortex. The oxidation in the cerebral cortex induced by pentylenetetrazole was significantly attenuated by DHA, and letrozole completely inhibited this suppressive action. Thus, the anti-oxidative effects of 17?-estradiol may be involved in the prevention of seizures mediated by DHA. This study revealed that 17?-estradiol in the brain mediated the physiological actions of DHA.
Project description:We used RNA-Seq analysis to identify the sexually dimorphic dexamethasone regulated gene expression profile in primary mouse embryonic cerebral cortical and hypothalamic neural progenitor/stem cells. Overall design: RNAseq on primary E14.5 mouse cerebral cortical and hypothalamic (hypo) neurosphere cultures. 8 conditions - Male Cortex Dex, Male Cortex Ethanol vehicle (EtOH), Female Cortex Dex, Female Cortex EtOH, Male Hypo Dex, Male Hypo EtOH, Female Hypo Dex and Female Hypo EtOH. There are 3 biological replicates for each condition and all the 24 samples were run on two lanes (technical duplicates).
Project description:Estradiol exerts a neuroprotective effect against focal cerebral ischemic injury through the inhibition of apoptotic signals. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA-15) is mainly expressed in brain that perform anti-apoptotic functions. This study investigated whether estradiol modulates the expression of PEA-15 and two phosphorylated forms of PEA-15 (Ser 104 and Ser 116) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced injury and glutamate exposure-induced neuronal cell death. Adult female rats were ovariectomized to remove endogenous estradiol and treated with vehicle or estradiol prior to MCAO. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by MCAO and cerebral cortices were collected 24 h after MCAO. Western blot analysis indicated that estradiol prevents the MCAO-induced decrease in PEA-15, phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104), phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 116). Glutamate exposure induced a reduction in PEA-15, phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104), phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 116) in cultured neurons, whereas estradiol treatment attenuated the glutamate toxicity-induced decrease in the expression of these proteins. It has been known that phosphorylation of PEA-15 is an important step in carrying out its anti-apoptotic function. Thus, these findings suggest that the regulation of PEA-15 phosphorylation by estradiol contributes to the neuroprotective function of estradiol in ischemic brain injury.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Acute kidney injury is a serious,sexually dimorphic perioperative complication, primarily attributed to hypoperfusion. We previously found that estradiol is renoprotective after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in ovariectomized female mice. Additionally, we found that neither estrogen receptor alpha nor beta mediated this effect. We hypothesized that the G protein estrogen receptor (GPR30) mediates the renoprotective effect of estrogen.<h4>Methods</h4>Ovariectomized female and gonadally intact male wild-type and GPR30 gene-deleted mice were treated with either vehicle or 17?-estradiol for 7 days, then subjected to cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Twenty four hours later, serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were measured, and histologic renal injury was evaluated by unbiased stereology.<h4>Results</h4>In both males and females, GPR30 gene deletion was associated with reduced serum creatinine regardless of treatment. Estrogen treatment of GPR30 gene-deleted males and females was associated with increased preprocedural weight. In ovariectomized female mice, estrogen treatment did not alter resuscitation, but was renoprotective regardless of GPR30 gene deletion. In males, estrogen reduced the time-to-resuscitate and epinephrine required. In wild-type male mice, serum creatinine was reduced, but neither serum urea nitrogen nor histologic outcomes were affected by estrogen treatment. In GPR30 gene-deleted males, estrogen did not alter renal outcomes. Similarly, renal injury was not affected by G1 therapy of ovariectomized female wild-type mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Treatment with 17?-estradiol is renoprotective after whole-body ischemia-reperfusion in ovariectomized female mice irrespective of GPR30 gene deletion. Treatment with the GPR30 agonist G1 did not alter renal outcome in females. We conclude GPR30 does not mediate the renoprotective effect of estrogen in ovariectomized female mice. In males, estrogen therapy was not renoprotective. Estrogen treatment of GPR30 gene-deleted mice was associated with increased preprocedural weight in both sexes. Of significance to further investigation, GPR30 gene deletion was associated with reduced serum creatinine, regardless of treatment.