Project description:Mouse embryos conditionally lacking Tgif1 and Tgif2 have holoprosencephaly and defects in left-right asymmetry. To identify pathways affected by loss of Tgif function during embryogenesis, we performed transcriptome profiling on whole mouse embryos. Among the genes with altered expression in embryos lacking Tgifs were a number with links to cilium function. One of these, <i>Evi5l</i>, encodes a RabGAP that is known to block the formation of cilia when overexpressed. <i>Evi5l</i> expression is increased in <i>Tgif1</i>; <i>Tgif2</i>-null embryos and in double-null mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). Knockdown of Tgifs in a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line also increased <i>EVI5L</i> expression. We show that TGIF1 binds to a conserved consensus TGIF site 5' of the human and mouse <i>Evi5l</i> genes and represses Evi5l expression. In primary MEFs lacking both Tgifs, the number of cells with primary cilia was significantly decreased, and we observed a reduction in the transcriptional response to Shh pathway activation. Reducing Evi5l expression in MEFs lacking Tgifs resulted in a partial restoration of cilium numbers and in the transcriptional response to activation of the Shh pathway. In summary, this work shows that Tgifs regulate ciliogenesis and suggests that Evi5l mediates at least part of this effect.
Project description:Obese women are at high risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, miscarriage, preterm birth, stillbirth, and neonatal death. In the current study, we aimed to determine the effects of obesity on pregnancy outcome and placental gene expression in preclinical mouse models of genetic and nutritional obesity. The leptin receptor (LepR) null-reactivatable (LepRloxTB), LepR-deficient (Leprdb/+), and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were assessed for fertility, pregnancy outcome, placental morphology, and placental transcriptome using standard quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qPCR arrays. The restoration of fertility of LepRloxTB was performed by stereotaxic delivery of adeno-associated virus-Cre into the hypothalamic ventral premammillary nucleus. Fertile LepRloxTB females were morbidly obese, whereas the wild-type mice-fed HFD showed only a mild increase in body weight. Approximately 80% of the LepRloxTB females had embryo resorptions (∼40% of the embryos). In HFD mice, the number of resorptions was not different from controls fed a regular diet. Placentas of resorbed embryos from obese mice displayed necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate in the labyrinth and changes in the expression of genes associated with angiogenesis and inflammation (e.g., Vegfa, Hif1a, Nfkbia, Tlr3, Tlr4). In contrast, placentas from embryos of females on HFD showed changes in a different set of genes, mostly associated with cellular growth and response to stress (e.g., Plg, Ang, Igf1, Igfbp1, Fgf2, Tgfb2, Serpinf1). Sexual dimorphism in gene expression was only apparent in placentas from obese LepRloxTB mice. Our findings indicate that an obese environment and HFD have distinct effects on pregnancy outcome and the placental transcriptome.
Project description:Lamin proteins form a meshwork beneath the nuclear envelope and contribute to many different cellular processes. Mutations in lamins cause defective organogenesis in mouse models and human diseases that affect adipose tissue, brain, skeletal muscle, and the heart. In vitro cell culture studies have shown that lamins help maintain nuclear shape and facilitate cell migration. However, whether these defects contribute to improper tissue building in vivo requires further clarification. By studying the heart epicardium during embryogenesis, we show that Lb1-null epicardial cells exhibit in vivo and in vitro migratory delay. Transcriptome analyses of these cells suggest that Lb1 influences the expression of cell adhesion genes, which could affect cell migration during epicardium development. These epicardial defects are consistent with incomplete development of both vascular smooth muscle and compact myocardium at later developmental stages in Lb1-null embryos. Further, we found that Lb1-null epicardial cells have a delayed nuclear morphology change in vivo, suggesting that Lb1 facilitates morphological changes associated with migration. These findings suggest that Lb1 contributes to nuclear shape maintenance and migration of epicardial cells and highlights the use of these cells for in vitro and in vivo study of these classic cell biological phenomena.
Project description:Transcriptome regionalization is an essential polarity determinant among metazoans, directing embryonic axis formation during normal development. Although conservation of this principle in mammals is assumed, recent evidence is conflicting and it is not known whether transcriptome asymmetries exist within unfertilized mammalian eggs or between the respective cleavage products of early embryonic divisions. We here address this by comparing transcriptome profiles of paired single cells and sub-cellular structures obtained microsurgically from mouse oocytes and totipotent embryos. Paired microsurgical spindle and remnant samples from unfertilized metaphase II oocytes possessed distinguishable profiles. Fertilization produces a totipotent 1-cell embryo (zygote) and associated spindle-enriched second polar body whose paired profiles also differed, reflecting spindle transcript enrichment. However, there was no programmed transcriptome asymmetry between sister cells within 2- or 3-cell embryos. Accordingly, there is transcriptome asymmetry within mouse oocytes, but not between the sister blastomeres of early embryos. This work places constraints on pre-patterning in mammals and provides documentation correlating potency changes and transcriptome partitioning at the single-cell level.
Project description:Rudhira/Breast Carcinoma Amplified Sequence 3 (BCAS3) is a cytoskeletal protein that promotes directional cell migration and angiogenesis in vitro and is implicated in human carcinomas and coronary artery disease. To study the role of Rudhira during development in vivo, we generated the first knockout mouse for rudhira and show that Rudhira is essential for mouse development. Rudhira null embryos die at embryonic day (E) 9.5 accompanied by severe vascular patterning defects in embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues. To identify the molecular processes downstream of rudhira, we analyzed the transcriptome of intact knockout yolk sacs. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis showed that Rudhira functions in angiogenesis and its related processes such as cell adhesion, extracellular matrix organization, peptidase activity and TGFβ signaling. Since Rudhira is also expressed in endothelial cells (ECs), we further generated Tie2Cre-mediated endothelial knockout (CKO) of rudhira. CKO embryos survive to E11.5 and similar to the global knockout, display gross vascular patterning defects, showing that endothelial Rudhira is vital for development. Further, Rudhira knockdown ECs in culture fail to sprout in a spheroid-sprouting assay, strongly supporting its role in vascular patterning. Our study identifies an essential role for Rudhira in blood vessel remodeling and provides a mouse model for cardiovascular development.
Project description:We investigated whether Tbx1, the gene for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and Foxi3, both required for segmentation of the pharyngeal apparatus (PA) to individual arches, genetically interact. We found that all Tbx1+/-;Foxi3+/- double heterozygous mouse embryos had thymus and parathyroid gland defects, similar to those in 22q11.2DS patients. We then examined Tbx1 and Foxi3 heterozygous, null as well as conditional Tbx1Cre and Sox172A-iCre/+ null mutant embryos. While Tbx1Cre/+;Foxi3f/f embryos had absent thymus and parathyroid glands, Foxi3-/- and Sox172A-iCre/+;Foxi3f/f endoderm conditional mutant embryos had in addition, interrupted aortic arch type B and retroesophageal origin of the right subclavian artery, which are all features of 22q11.2DS. Tbx1Cre/+;Foxi3f/f embryos had failed invagination of the third pharyngeal pouch with greatly reduced Gcm2 and Foxn1 expression, thereby explaining the absence of thymus and parathyroid glands. Immunofluorescence on tissue sections with E-cadherin and ZO-1 antibodies in wildtype mouse embryos at E8.5-E10.5, revealed that multilayers of epithelial cells form where cells are invaginating as a normal process. We noted that excessive multilayers formed in Foxi3-/-, Sox172A-iCre/+;Foxi3f/f as well as Tbx1 null mutant embryos where invagination should have occurred. Several genes expressed in the PA epithelia were downregulated in both Tbx1 and Foxi3 null mutant embryos including Notch pathway genes Jag1, Hes1, and Hey1, suggesting that they may, along with other genes, act downstream to explain the observed genetic interaction. We found Alcam and Fibronectin extracellular matrix proteins were reduced in expression in Foxi3 null but not Tbx1 null embryos, suggesting that some, but not all of the downstream mechanisms are shared.
Project description:In vitro culture (IVC) and IVF of preimplantation mouse embryos are associated with changes in gene expression. It is however not known whether ICSI has additional effects on the transcriptome of mouse blastocysts.We compared gene expression and development of mouse blastocysts produced by ICSI and cultured in Whitten's medium (ICSI(WM)) or KSOM medium with amino acids (ICSI(KSOMaa)) with control blastocysts flushed out of the uterus on post coital Day 3.5 (in vivo). In addition, we compared gene expression in embryos generated by IVF or ICSI using WM. Global pattern of gene expression was assessed using the Affymetrix 430 2.0 chip.Blastocysts from ICSI fertilization have a reduction in the number of trophoblastic and inner cell mass cells compared with embryos generated in vivo. Approximately 1000 genes are differentially expressed between ICSI blastocyst and in vivo blastocysts; proliferation, apoptosis and morphogenetic pathways are the most common pathways altered after IVC. Unexpectedly, expression of only 41 genes was significantly different between embryo cultured in suboptimal conditions (WM) or optimal conditions (KSOM(aa)).Our results suggest that fertilization by ICSI may play a more important role in shaping the transcriptome of the developing mouse embryo than the culture media used.
Project description:We report the transcriptome changes that result of the genomic deletion of one or two alleles of an islet-specific long non-coding RNA (Blinc1) in isolated pancreas from e15.5 mouse embryos. Pancreas from e15.5 embryos were dissected and total RNA extracted. Libraries were prepared from total RNA (RIN>8) with the TruSeq RNA prep kit (Illumina) and sequenced using the HiSeq2000 (Illumina) instrument. More than 20 million reads were mapped to the mouse genome (UCSC/mm9) using Tophat (version 2.0.4) with 4 mismatches and 10 maximum multiple hits. Significantly differentially expressed genes were calculated using DEseq.
Project description:During organogenesis, the final size of mature cell populations depends on their rates of differentiation and expansion. Because transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in progenitor cells in the developing pancreas initiates their differentiation to mature islet cells, we examined the role of Neurog3 in cell cycle control during this process. We found that mitotically active pancreatic progenitor cells in mouse embryos exited the cell cycle after the initiation of Neurog3 expression. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that the Neurog3-expressing cells dramatically up-regulated the mRNA encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1a (Cdkn1a). In Neurog3 null mice, the islet progenitor cells failed to activate Cdkn1a expression and continued to proliferate, showing that their exit from the cell cycle requires Neurog3. Furthermore, induced transgenic expression of Neurog3 in mouse ?-cells in vivo markedly decreased their proliferation, increased Cdkn1a levels, and eventually caused profound hyperglycemia. In contrast, in Cdkn1a null mice, proliferation was incompletely suppressed in the Neurog3-expressing cells. These studies reveal a crucial role for Neurog3 in regulating the cell cycle during the differentiation of islet cells and demonstrate that the subsequent down-regulation of Neurog3 allows the mature islet cell population to expand.