Soni2018 - IL6 induced M2 Phenotype in Leishmania major infected macrophage
IL-6 has been proposed to favor the development of Th2 responses and play an important role in the communication between cells of multicellular organisms. They are involved in the regulation of complex cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and act as key player during inflammation and immune response. Th2 cytokines play an immunoregulatory role in early infection. Literature says in mice infected with L. major, IL-6 may promote the development of both Th1 and Th2 responses. IL-4 is also considered to be the signature cytokine of Th-2 response. IL6 was initially characterized as a Th1 cytokine but later on it was proved to be a pleiotropic cytokine, secreted from different cell types including the macrophages. A major challenge is to understand how these complex non-linear processes are connected and regulated. Systems biology approaches may be used to tackle this challenge in an iterative process of quantitative mathematical analysis. In this study, we created an in silico model of IL6 mediated macrophage activation which suffers from an excessive impact of the negative feedback loop involving SOCS1. The strategy adopted in this framework may help to reduce the complexity of the leishmanial IL6 model analysis and also laydown various physiological or pathological conditions of IL6 signaling in future.
Project description:IL-6 has been proposed to favor the development of Th2 responses and play an important role in the communication between cells of multicellular organisms. They are involved in the regulation of complex cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and act as key player during inflammation and immune response. Th2 cytokines play an immunoregulatory role in early infection. Literature says in mice infected with L. major, IL-6 may promote the development of both Th1 and Th2 responses. IL-4 is also considered to be the signature cytokine of Th-2 response. IL6 was initially characterized as a Th1 cytokine but later on it was proved to be a pleiotropic cytokine, secreted from different cell types including the macrophages. A major challenge is to understand how these complex non-linear processes are connected and regulated. Systems biology approaches may be used to tackle this challenge in an iterative process of quantitative mathematical analysis. In this study, we created an in silico model of IL6 mediated macrophage activation which suffers from an excessive impact of the negative feedback loop involving SOCS1. The strategy adopted in this framework may help to reduce the complexity of the leishmanial IL6 model analysis and also laydown various physiological or pathological conditions of IL6 signaling in future.
Project description:An altered balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines is responsible for a variety of immunoinflammatory disorders such as asthma, yet the role of posttranscriptional mechanisms, such as those mediated by microRNAs (miRs), in adjusting the relative magnitude and balance of Th cytokine expression have been largely unexplored. In this study, we show that miR-21 has a central role in setting a balance between Th1 and Th2 responses to Ags. Targeted ablation of miR-21 in mice led to reduced lung eosinophilia after allergen challenge, with a broadly reprogrammed immunoactivation transcriptome and significantly increased levels of the Th1 cytokine IFN-?. Biological network-based transcriptome analysis of OVA-challenged miR-21(-/-) mice identified an unexpected prominent dysregulation of IL-12/IFN-? pathways as the most significantly affected in the lungs, with a key role for miR-21 in IFN-? signaling and T cell polarization, consistent with a functional miR-21 binding site in IL-12p35. In support of these hypotheses, miR-21 deficiency led dendritic cells to produce more IL-12 after LPS stimulation and OVA-challenged CD4(+) T lymphocytes to produce increased IFN-? and decreased IL-4. Further, loss of miR-21 significantly enhanced the Th1-associated delayed-type hypersensitivity cutaneous responses. Thus, our results define miR-21 as a major regulator of Th1 versus Th2 responses, defining a new mechanism for regulating polarized immunoinflammatory responses.
Project description:We investigated how apoptosis pathways mediated by death receptors and caspase-8 affect cytokine responses and immunity to Leishmania major parasites. Splenic CD4 T cells undergo activation-induced apoptosis, and blockade of FasL-Fas interaction increased IFN-? and IL-4 cytokine responses to L. major antigens. To block death receptor-induced death, we used mice expressing a T cell-restricted transgene for vFLIP. Inhibition of caspase-8 activation in vFLIP mice enhanced Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to L. major infection, even in the Th1-prone B6 background. We also observed increased NO production by splenocytes from vFLIP mice upon T cell activation. Despite an exacerbated Th2 response, vFLIP mice controlled better L. major infection, with reduced lesions and lower parasite loads compared with WT mice. Moreover, injection of anti-IL-4 mAb in infected vFLIP mice disrupted control of parasite infection. Therefore, blockade of caspase-8 activity in T cells improves immunity to L. major infection by promoting increased Th1 and Th2 responses.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem of global concern. The control of this disease requires appropriate preventive measures, including vaccines. In TB, T helper (Th)1 cytokines provide protection whereas Th2 and T regulatory (Treg) cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis and Th17 cytokines play a role in both protection and pathogenesis. Previous studies with Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific proteins have identified seven low molecular weight proteins, PE35, ESXA, ESXB, Rv2346c, Rv2347c, Rv3619c, and Rv3620c, as immunodominant antigens inducing Th1-cell responses in humans following natural infection with M. tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to characterize the cytokine responses induced in mice immunized with these proteins, using various adjuvants and delivery systems, i.e. chemical adjuvants (Alum and IFA), non-pathogenic mycobacteria (M. smegmatis and M. vaccae) and a DNA vaccine plasmid (pUMVC6). The immune responses were monitored by quantifying the marker cytokines secreted by Th1 (IFN-?), Th2 (IL-5), Treg (IL-10), and Th17 (IL-17A) cells. DNA corresponding to pe35, esxa, esxb, rv2346c, rv2347c, rv3619c, and rv3620c genes were cloned into the expression vectors pGES-TH-1, pDE22 and pUMVC6 for expression in Escherichia coli, mycobacteria and eukaryotic cells, respectively. Mice were immunized with the recombinants using different adjuvants and delivery systems, and spleen cells were stimulated in vitro with peptides of immunizing proteins to investigate antigen-specific secretion of Th1 (IFN-?), Th2 (IL-5), Treg (IL-10), and Th17 (IL-17A) cytokines. The results showed that spleen cells, from mice immunized with all antigens, secreted the protective Th1 cytokine IFN-?, except ESXB, with one or more adjuvants and delivery systems. However, only Rv3619c consistently induced Th1-biased responses, without the secretion of significant concentrations of Th2, Th17 and Treg cytokines, with all adjuvants and delivery systems. Rv3619c also induced antigen-specific IgG antibodies in immunized mice.
Project description:Infection with schistosomes invokes severe fibrotic granulomatous responses in the liver of the host. Schistosoma mansoni infection induces dramatic fluctuations in Th1 or Th2 cytokine responses systemically; Th1 reactions are provoked in the early phase, whilst Th2 responses become dominant after oviposition begins. In the liver, various unique immune cells distinct from those of conventional immune competent organs or tissues exist, resulting in a unique immunological environment. Recently, we demonstrated that S. mansoni infection induces unique CD4+ T cell populations exhibiting unconventional cytokine profiles in the liver of mice during the period between Th1- and Th2-phases, which we term the transition phase. They produce both IFN-? and IL-4 or both IFN-? and IL-13 simultaneously. Moreover, T cells secreting triple cytokines IFN-?, IL-13 and IL-4 were also induced. We term these cells Multiple Cytokine Producing Hepatic T cells (MCPHT cells). During the transition phase, when MCPHT cells increase, IL-18 secretion was up-regulated in the liver and sera. In S. mansoni-infected IL-18-deficient mice, expansion of MCPHT cells was curtailed. Thus our data suggest that IL-18 produced during S. mansoni infection play a role in the expansion of MCPHT cells.
Project description:Leishmania spp. infection is a global health problem affecting more than 2 million people every year with 300 million at risk worldwide. It is well established that a dominant Th1 response (IFN-?, a hallmark Th1 cytokine) provides resistance, whereas a dominant Th2 response (IL-4, a hallmark Th2 cytokine) confers susceptibility during infection. Given the important role of IL-4 during L. major infection, we used IL-4-neutralizing Abs to investigate the cellular and molecular events regulated by IL-4 signaling. As previously published, neutralization of IL-4 in L. major-infected BALB/c mice (a Leishmania susceptible strain) provided protection when compared with control L. major-infected BALB/c mice. Despite this protection, IFN-? production by T cells was dramatically reduced. Temporal neutralization of IL-4 revealed that acute IL-4 produced within the first days of infection is critical for not only programming IL-4-producing Th2 CD4+ T cells, but for promoting IFN-? produced by CD8+ T cells. Mechanistically, IL-4 signaling enhances anti-CD3-induced Tbet and IFN-? expression in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Given the pathogenic role of IFN-?-producing CD8+ T cells, our data suggest that IL-4 promotes cutaneous leishmaniasis pathology by not only promoting Th2 immune responses but also pathogenic CD8+ T cell responses. Our studies open new research grounds to investigate the unsuspected role of IL-4 in regulating both Th1 and Th2 responses.
Project description:T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) is a surface molecule that is preferentially expressed on activated Th1 cells in comparison to Th2 cells. Blockade of Tim-3 has been shown to enhance Th1-driven pathology in vivo, suggesting that blockade of Tim-3 may improve the development of Th2-associated responses such as allergy. To examine the effects of Tim-3 blockade on the Th2 response in vivo, we administered anti-Tim-3 antibody during pulmonary inflammation induced by transfer of ovalbumin (OVA)-reactive Th2 cells, and subsequent aerosol challenge with OVA. In this model, anti-Tim-3 antibody treatment before each airway challenge significantly reduced airway hyperreactivity, with a concomitant decrease in eosinophils and Th2 cells in the lung. We examined Th1 and Th2 cytokine levels in the lung after allergen challenge and found that pulmonary expression of the Th2 cytokine IL-5 was significantly reduced, whereas IFN-gamma levels were significantly increased by anti-Tim-3 antibody treatment. Thus, blocking Tim-3 function has a beneficial effect during pulmonary inflammation by skewing the Th2 response toward that of a Th1 type, suggesting an important role for Tim-3 in the regulation of allergic disease.
Project description:Varying concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in ovalbumin (OVA) may influence the airway response to allergic sensitization and challenge. We assessed the contribution of LPS to allergic airway inflammatory responses following challenge with LPS-rich and LPS-free commercial OVA. BALB/c mice were sensitized with LPS-rich OVA and alum and then underwent challenge with the same OVA (10 µg intranasally) or an LPS-free OVA. Following challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), airway responsiveness to methacholine and the lung regulatory T cell population (Treg) were assessed. Both OVA preparations induced BAL eosinophilia but LPS-rich OVA also evoked BAL neutrophilia. LPS-free OVA increased interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-5 whereas LPS-rich OVA additionally increased IL-1?, IL-12, IFN-?, TNF-? and KC. Both OVA-challenged groups developed airway hyperresponsiveness. TLR4-deficient mice challenged with either OVA preparation showed eosinophilia but not neutrophilia and had increased IL-5. Only LPS-rich OVA challenged mice had increased lung Tregs and LPS-rich OVA also induced in vitro Treg differentiation. LPS-rich OVA also induced a Th1 cytokine response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.We conclude that LPS-rich OVA evokes mixed Th1, Th2 and innate immune responses through the TLR-4 pathway, whereas LPS-free OVA evokes only a Th2 response. Contaminating LPS is not required for induction of airway hyperresponsiveness but amplifies the Th2 inflammatory response and is a critical mediator of the neutrophil, Th1 and T regulatory cell responses to OVA.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DC) and cytokines produced by DC play crucial roles in inducing and regulating pro-/anti-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 responses. DC are known to produce a Th1-promoting cytokine, interleukin (IL)-12, in response to malaria and other pathogenic infections, but it is thought that DC do not produce Th2-promoting cytokine, IL-4. Here, we show that a protein factor of malaria parasites induces IL-4 responses by CD11chiMHCIIhiCD3ϵ-CD49b-CD19-FcϵRI- DC via PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling independent of TLR-MyD88/TRIF. Malaria parasite-activated DC induced IL-4 responses by T cells both in vitro and in vivo, favoring Th2, and il-4-deficient DC were unable to induce IL-4 expression by T cells. Interestingly, lethal parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei ANKA, induced IL-4 response primarily by CD8α- DC, whereas nonlethal Plasmodium yoelii induced IL-4 by both CD8α+ and CD8α- DC. In both P. berghei ANKA- and P. yoelii-infected mice, IL-4-expressing CD8α- DC did not express IL-12, but a distinct CD8α- DC subset expressed IL-12. In P. berghei ANKA infection, CD8α+ DC expressed IL-12 but not IL-4, whereas in P. yoelii infection, CD8α+ DC expressed IL-4 but not IL-12. These differential IL-4 and IL-12 responses by DC subsets may contribute to different Th1/Th2 development and clinical outcomes in lethal and nonlethal malaria. Our results for the first time demonstrate that a malaria protein factor induces IL-4 production by DC via PI3K-Akt-NF-κB signaling, revealing signaling and molecular mechanisms that initiate and promote Th2 development.
Project description:Current treatments for allergic asthma primarily ameliorate symptoms rather than inhibit disease progression. Regulating the excessive T helper type 2 (Th2) responses may prevent asthma exacerbation. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Ad5-gsgAM, an adenovirus vector carrying two mycobacterial antigens Ag85A and Mtb32, against allergic asthma. Using an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mouse model, we found that Ad5-gsgAM elicited much more Th1-biased CD4+T and CD8+T cells than bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). After OVA challenge, Ad5-gsgAM-immunized mice showed significantly lowered airway inflammation in comparison with mice immunized with or without BCG. Total serum immunoglobulin E and pulmonary inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase were efficiently reduced. The cytokine profiles in bronchial-alveolar-lavage-fluids (BALFs) were also modulated, as evidenced by the increased level of interferon-? (IFN-?) and the decreased level of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was sharply increased, whereas pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-33 was significantly decreased. Importantly, exogenous IL-33 abrogated the protective effects of Ad5-gsgAM, revealing that the suppression of IL-33/ST2 axis substantially contributed to protection against allergic inflammation. Moreover, regulatory T cells were essential for regulating aberrant Th2 responses as well as IL-33/ST2 axis. These results suggested that modulating the IL-33/ST2 axis via adenovirus-vectored mycobacterial antigen vaccination may provide clinical benefits in allergic inflammatory airways disease.•Ad5-gsgAM elicits Th1 responses and suppresses Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice. •Ad5-gsgAM inhibits IL-33/ST2 axis by reducing IL-33 secretion but not ILC2 recruiting. •Treg is essential for modulating Th2 responses and IL-33/ST2 axis by Ad5-gsgAM.