The cytokine TGFβ provides important information during embryonic development, adult tissue homeostasis, and regeneration. Alterations in the cellular response to TGFβ are involved in severe human diseases. To understand how cells encode the extracellular input and transmit its information to elicit appropriate responses, we acquired quantitative time-resolved measurements of pathway activation at the single-cell level. We established dynamic time warping to quantitatively compare signaling dyna ...[more]
Project description:BMAL1 directs the circadian expression of many genes implicated in cartilage matrix homeostasis including those involved in catabolic/anabolic and apoptosis pathways. We maitained mice in 12:12 light and dark cyclle and sequenced mRNA from both wild type and BMAL1 knockout mice from time point at 5am, 9am, 5pm and 9pm.
Project description:K? valence-to-core (V2C) X-emission spectroscopy (XES) has gained prominence as a tool for molecular inorganic chemists to probe the occupied valence orbitals of coordination complexes, as illustrated by recent evaluation of K? V2C XES ranging from titanium to iron. However, cobalt K? V2C XES has not been studied in detail, limiting the application of this technique to probe cobalt coordination in molecular catalysts and bioinorganic systems. In addition, the community still lacks a complete understanding of all factors that dictate the V2C peak area. In this manuscript, we report experimental cobalt K? V2C XES spectra of low-spin octahedral Co(iii) complexes with different ligand donors, in conjunction with DFT calculations. Cobalt K? V2C XES was demonstrated to be sensitive to cobalt-ligand coordination environments. Notably, we recognize here for the first time that there is a linear correlation between the V2C area and the spectrochemical series for low-spin octahedral cobalt(iii) complexes, with strong field ? acceptor ligands giving rise to the largest V2C area. This unprecedented correlation is explained by invoking different levels of ?-interaction between cobalt p orbitals and ligand orbitals that modulate the percentage of cobalt p orbital character in donor MOs, in combination with changes in the average cobalt-ligand distance.