Heinemann2005 - Genome-scale reconstruction of Staphylococcus aureus (iMH551)
Heinemann2005 - Genome-scale reconstruction
of Staphylococcus aureus (iMH551)
This model is described in the article:
In silico genome-scale
reconstruction and validation of the Staphylococcus aureus
Heinemann M, Kümmel A,
Ruinatscha R, Panke S.
Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2005 Dec; 92(7):
A genome-scale metabolic model of the Gram-positive,
facultative anaerobic opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus
aureus N315 was constructed based on current genomic data,
literature, and physiological information. The model comprises
774 metabolic processes representing approximately 23% of all
protein-coding regions. The model was extensively validated
against experimental observations and it correctly predicted
main physiological properties of the wild-type strain, such as
aerobic and anaerobic respiration and fermentation. Due to the
frequent involvement of S. aureus in hospital-acquired
bacterial infections combined with its increasing antibiotic
resistance, we also investigated the clinically relevant
phenotype of small colony variants and found that the model
predictions agreed with recent findings of proteome analyses.
This indicates that the model is useful in assisting future
experiments to elucidate the interrelationship of bacterial
metabolism and resistance. To help directing future studies for
novel chemotherapeutic targets, we conducted a large-scale in
silico gene deletion study that identified 158 essential
intracellular reactions. A more detailed analysis showed that
the biosynthesis of glycans and lipids is rather rigid with
respect to circumventing gene deletions, which should make
these areas particularly interesting for antibiotic
development. The combination of this stoichiometric model with
transcriptomic and proteomic data should allow a new quality in
the analysis of clinically relevant organisms and a more
rationalized system-level search for novel drug targets.
This model is hosted on
and identified by:
To cite BioModels Database, please use:
An enhanced, curated and annotated resource for published
quantitative kinetic models.
To the extent possible under law, all copyright and related or
neighbouring rights to this encoded model have been dedicated to
the public domain worldwide. Please refer to
Public Domain Dedication for more information.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance is a key medical concern, with antibiotic use likely being an important cause. However, here we describe an alternative route to clinically relevant antibiotic resistance that occurs solely due to competitive interactions among bacterial cells. We consistently observe that isolates of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus diversify spontaneously into two distinct, sequentially arising strains. The first evolved strain outgrows the parent strain via secretion of surfactants and a toxic bacteriocin. The second is resistant to the bacteriocin. Importantly, this second strain is also resistant to intermediate levels of vancomycin. This so-called VISA (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus) phenotype is seen in many hard-to-treat clinical isolates. This strain diversification also occurs during in vivo infection in a mouse model, which is consistent with the fact that both coevolved phenotypes resemble strains commonly found in clinic. Our study shows how competition between coevolving bacterial strains can generate antibiotic resistance and recapitulate key clinical phenotypes.
Project description:Hydantoin (imidazolidinedione) derivatives such as nitrofurantoin are small molecules that have aroused considerable interest recently due to their low rate of bacterial resistance. However, their moderate antimicrobial activity may hamper their application combating antibiotic resistance in the long run. Herein, we report the design of bacterial membrane-active hydantoin derivatives, from which we identified compounds that show much more potent antimicrobial activity than nitrofurantoin against a panel of clinically relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. These compounds are able to act on bacterial membranes, analogous to natural host-defense peptides. Additionally, these hydantoin compounds not only kill bacterial pathogens rapidly but also prevent the development of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacterial resistance under the tested conditions. More intriguingly, the lead compound exhibited in vivo efficacy that is much superior to vancomycin by eradicating bacteria and suppressing inflammation caused by MRSA-induced pneumonia in a rat model, demonstrating its promising therapeutic potential.
Project description:The World Health Organization reports that antibiotic-resistant pathogens represent an imminent global health disaster for the 21st century. Gram-positive superbugs threaten to breach last-line antibiotic treatment, and the pharmaceutical industry antibiotic development pipeline is waning. Here we report the synergy between ionophore-induced physiological stress in Gram-positive bacteria and antibiotic treatment. PBT2 is a safe-for-human-use zinc ionophore that has progressed to phase 2 clinical trials for Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease treatment. In combination with zinc, PBT2 exhibits antibacterial activity and disrupts cellular homeostasis in erythromycin-resistant group A Streptococcus (GAS), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We were unable to select for mutants resistant to PBT2-zinc treatment. While ineffective alone against resistant bacteria, several clinically relevant antibiotics act synergistically with PBT2-zinc to enhance killing of these Gram-positive pathogens. These data represent a new paradigm whereby disruption of bacterial metal homeostasis reverses antibiotic-resistant phenotypes in a number of priority human bacterial pathogens.IMPORTANCE The rise of bacterial antibiotic resistance coupled with a reduction in new antibiotic development has placed significant burdens on global health care. Resistant bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus are leading causes of community- and hospital-acquired infection and present a significant clinical challenge. These pathogens have acquired resistance to broad classes of antimicrobials. Furthermore, Streptococcus pyogenes, a significant disease agent among Indigenous Australians, has now acquired resistance to several antibiotic classes. With a rise in antibiotic resistance and reduction in new antibiotic discovery, it is imperative to investigate alternative therapeutic regimens that complement the use of current antibiotic treatment strategies. As stated by the WHO Director-General, "On current trends, common diseases may become untreatable. Doctors facing patients will have to say, Sorry, there is nothing I can do for you."
Project description:Bacterial resistance to antibiotics remains an imposing global public health challenge. Of the most serious pathogens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is problematic given strains have emerged that exhibit resistance to several antibiotic classes including β-lactams and agents of last resort such as vancomycin. New antibacterial agents composed of unique chemical scaffolds are needed to counter this public health challenge. The present study examines two synthetic diphenylurea compounds 1 and 2 that inhibit growth of clinically-relevant isolates of MRSA at concentrations as low as 4 µg/mL and are non-toxic to human colorectal cells at concentrations up to 128 μg/mL. Both compounds exhibit rapid bactericidal activity, completely eliminating a high inoculum of MRSA within four hours. MRSA mutants exhibiting resistance to 1 and 2 could not be isolated, indicating a low likelihood of rapid resistance emerging to these compounds. Bacterial cytological profiling revealed the diphenylureas exert their antibacterial activity by targeting bacterial cell wall synthesis. Both compounds demonstrate the ability to resensitize vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to the effect of vancomycin. The present study lays the foundation for further investigation and development of diphenylurea compounds as a new class of antibacterial agents.
Project description:The use of antibiotics on a mass scale, particularly in farming, and their release into the environment has led to a rapid emergence of resistant bacteria. Once emerged, resistance determinants are spread by horizontal gene transfer among strains of the same as well as disparate bacterial species. Their accumulation in free-living as well as livestock and community-associated strains results in the widespread multiple-drug resistance among clinically relevant species posing an increasingly pressing problem in healthcare. One of these clinically relevant species is Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of hospital and community outbreaks. Among the rich diversity of mobile genetic elements regularly occurring in S. aureus such as phages, pathogenicity islands, and staphylococcal cassette chromosomes, plasmids are the major mean for dissemination of resistance determinants and virulence factors. Unfortunately, a vast number of whole-genome sequencing projects does not aim for complete sequence determination, which results in a disproportionately low number of known complete plasmid sequences. To address this problem we determined complete plasmid sequences derived from 18 poultry S. aureus strains and analyzed the prevalence of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance determinants, genes of virulence factors, as well as genetic elements relevant for their maintenance. Some of the plasmids have been reported before and are being found in clinical isolates of strains typical for humans or human ones of livestock origin. This shows that livestock-associated staphylococci are a significant reservoir of resistance determinants and virulence factors. Nevertheless, nearly half of the plasmids were unknown to date. In this group we found a potentially mobilizable plasmid pPA3 being a unique example of accumulation of resistance determinants and virulence factors likely stabilized by a presence of a toxin-antitoxin system.
Project description:Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactam antibiotics has led to increasing use of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin as a life-saving treatment for major S. aureus infections. Coinfection by an unrelated bacterial species may necessitate concurrent treatment with a second antibiotic that targets the coinfecting pathogen. While investigating factors that affect bacterial antibiotic sensitivity, we discovered that susceptibility of S. aureus to vancomycin is reduced by concurrent exposure to colistin, a cationic peptide antimicrobial employed to treat infections by Gram-negative pathogens. We show that colistin-induced vancomycin tolerance persists only as long as the inducer is present and is accompanied by gene expression changes similar to those resulting from mutations that produce stably inherited reduction of vancomycin sensitivity (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus [VISA] strains). As colistin-induced vancomycin tolerance is reversible, it may not be detected by routine sensitivity testing and may be responsible for treatment failure at vancomycin doses expected to be clinically effective based on such routine testing.Commonly, antibiotic resistance is associated with permanent genetic changes, such as point mutations or acquisition of resistance genes. We show that phenotypic resistance can arise where changes in gene expression result in tolerance to an antibiotic without any accompanying genetic changes. Specifically, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) behaves like vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) upon exposure to colistin, which is currently used against infections by Gram-negative bacteria. Vancomycin is a last-resort drug for treatment of serious S. aureus infections, and VISA is associated with poor clinical prognosis. Phenotypic and reversible resistance will not be revealed by standard susceptibility testing and may underlie treatment failure.
Project description:Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are becoming increasingly recognized as an important cause of human and animal infections. Notwithstanding their clinical relevance, annotation of genes potentially involved in pathogenicity and/or antibiotic resistance in the CoNS species Staphylococcus arlettae (SAR) is currently very limited. In the current work we describe the genome of a novel methicillin resistant isolate of SAR, which we named Bari, and present a comprehensive analysis of predicted antibiotic resistance profiles and virulence determinants for all the 22 currently available SAR genomes. By comparing predicted antibiotic resistance and virulence-associated genes with those obtained from a manual selection of 148 bacterial strains belonging to 14 different species of staphylococci and to two "outgroup" species, Bacillus subtilis (BS) and Macrococcus caseoliticus (MC), we derived some interesting observations concerning the types and number of antibiotic resistance-related and virulence-like genes in SAR. Interestingly, almost 50% of the putative antibiotic resistance determinants identified in this work, which include the clinically relevant mec, van, and cls genes, were shared among all the SAR strains herein considered (Bari included). Moreover, comparison of predicted antibiotic resistance profiles suggest that SAR is closely related to well-known pathogenic Staphylococcus species, such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE). A similar analysis of predicted virulence factors, revealed that several genes associated with pathogenesis (including, for example, ica, nuc, and ssp), which are commonly found in the genomes of pathogenic staphylococci such as Staphylococcus haemolyticus (SH) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (SS), are observed also in the SAR strains for which a genomic sequence is available. All in all, we believe that the analyses presented in the current study, by providing a consistent and comprehensive annotation of virulence and antibiotic resistance-related genes in SAR, can constitute a valuable resource for the study of molecular mechanisms of opportunistic pathogenicity in this species.
Project description:Novel approaches targeting the host's immune response to treat Staphylococcus aureus infections have significant potential to improve clinical outcomes, in particular during infection with antibiotic-resistant strains. The hyaluronic acid-binding peptide (HABP) PEP35 was assessed for its ability to treat S. aureus infections using a clinically relevant murine model of surgical wound infection. PEP35 demonstrated no direct antimicrobial activity against a range of antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. However, when this peptide was administered at the onset of infection and up to 4 h postchallenge with a methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) or a methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strain of S. aureus, it significantly reduced the bacterial burden at the wound infection site. PEP35 reduced the tissue bacterial burden by exclusively modulating the local neutrophil response. PEP35 administration resulted in a significant early increase in local CXCL1 and CXCL2 production, which resulted in a more rapid influx of neutrophils to the infection site. Importantly, neutrophil influx was not sustained after treatment with PEP35, and administration of PEP35 alone did not induce a local inflammatory response. The immunomodulatory effects of PEP35 on CXC chemokine production were TLR2 and NF-?B dependent. We propose a novel role for a HABP as an innate immunomodulator in the treatment of MSSA and MRSA surgical wound infection through enhancement of the local CXC chemokine-driven neutrophil response.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a significant infectious threat to global public health. Acquisition or synthesis of heme is required for S. aureus to capture energy through respiration, but an excess of this critical cofactor is toxic to bacteria. S. aureus employs the heme sensor system (HssRS) to overcome heme toxicity; however, the mechanism of heme sensing is not defined. Here, we describe the identification of a small molecule activator of HssRS that induces endogenous heme biosynthesis by perturbing central metabolism. This molecule is toxic to fermenting S. aureus, including clinically relevant small colony variants. The utility of targeting fermenting bacteria is exemplified by the fact that this compound prevents the emergence of antibiotic resistance, enhances phagocyte killing, and reduces S. aureus pathogenesis. Not only is this small molecule a powerful tool for studying bacterial heme biosynthesis and central metabolism; it also establishes targeting of fermentation as a viable antibacterial strategy.
Project description:Phenotypically distinct cellular (sub)populations are clinically relevant for the virulence and antibiotic resistance of a bacterial pathogen, but functionally different cells are usually indistinguishable from each other. Herein, we introduce fluorescent activity-based probes as chemical tools for the single-cell phenotypic characterization of enzyme activity levels in Staphylococcus aureus. We screened a 1,2,3-triazole urea library to identify selective inhibitors of fluorophosphonate-binding serine hydrolases and lipases in S. aureus and synthesized target-selective activity-based probes. Molecular imaging and activity-based protein profiling studies with these probes revealed a dynamic network within this enzyme family involving compensatory regulation of specific family members and exposed single-cell phenotypic heterogeneity. We propose the labeling of enzymatic activities by chemical probes as a generalizable method for the phenotyping of bacterial cells at the population and single-cell level.