Rodríguez-Jorge2019 - Boolean model of TCR signaling for CD4 + T cell activation
ABSTRACT: CD4+ T cells recognize antigens through their T cell receptors (TCRs); however, additional signals involving costimulatory receptors, for example, CD28, are required for proper T cell activation. Alternative costimulatory receptors have been proposed, including members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, such as TLR5 and TLR2. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying a potential costimulatory role for TLR5, we generated detailed molecular maps and logical models for the TCR and TLR5 signaling pathways and a merged model for cross-interactions between the two pathways. Furthermore, we validated the resulting model by analyzing how T cells responded to the activation of these pathways alone or in combination, in terms of the activation of the transcriptional regulators CREB, AP-1 (c-Jun), and NF-κB (p65). Our merged model accurately predicted the experimental results, showing that the activation of TLR5 can play a similar role to that of CD28 activation with respect to AP-1, CREB, and NF-κB activation, thereby providing insights regarding the cross-regulation of these pathways in CD4+ T cells.
Project description:CD4+ T cells recognize antigens through their T cell receptors (TCRs); however, additional signals involving costimulatory receptors, for example, CD28, are required for proper T cell activation. Alternative costimulatory receptors have been proposed, including members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, such as TLR5 and TLR2. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying a potential costimulatory role for TLR5, we generated detailed molecular maps and logical models for the TCR and TLR5 signaling pathways and a merged model for cross-interactions between the two pathways. Furthermore, we validated the resulting model by analyzing how T cells responded to the activation of these pathways alone or in combination, in terms of the activation of the transcriptional regulators CREB, AP-1 (c-Jun), and NF-κB (p65). Our merged model accurately predicted the experimental results, showing that the activation of TLR5 can play a similar role to that of CD28 activation with respect to AP-1, CREB, and NF-κB activation, thereby providing insights regarding the cross-regulation of these pathways in CD4+ T cells.
Project description:The NF-κB and IRF transcription factor families are major players in inflammation and antiviral response and act as two major effectors of the innate immune response (IIR). The regulatory mechanisms of activation of these two pathways and their interactions during the IIR are only partially known.Our in silico findings report that there is cross-regulation between both pathways at the level of gene transcription regulation, mediated by the presence of binding sites for both factors in promoters of genes essential for these pathways. These findings agree with recent experimental data reporting crosstalk between pathways activated by RIG-I and TLR3 receptors in response to pathogens.We present an extended crosstalk diagram of the IRF - NF-κB pathways. We conclude that members of the NF-κB family may directly impact regulation of IRF family, while IRF members impact regulation of NF-κB family rather indirectly, via other transcription factors such as AP-1 and SP1.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Different protease-activated receptors (PARs) activated by thrombin are involved in cardiovascular disease, via up-regulation of inflammatory proteins including COX-2. However, the mechanisms underlying thrombin-regulated COX-2 expression in human cardiomyocytes remain unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Human cardiomyocytes were used in the study. Thrombin-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression, and signalling pathways were determined by Western blot, real-time PCR and COX-2 promoter luciferase reporter assays, and pharmacological inhibitors or siRNAs. PGE2 generation and cell proliferation were also determined. KEY RESULTS: Thrombin-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression, promoter activity and PGE2 release was attenuated by the PAR1 antagonist (SCH79797) or the inhibitors of proteinase activity (PPACK), MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190) or JNK1/2 (SP600125), and transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PAR1, p38, p42 or JNK2. These results suggested that PAR1-dependent MAPKs participate in thrombin-induced COX-2 expression in human cardiomyocytes. Moreover, thrombin stimulated phosphorylation of MAPKs, which was attenuated by PPACK and SCH79797. Furthermore, thrombin-induced COX-2 expression was blocked by the inhibitors of AP-1 (tanshinone IIA) and NF-κB (helenalin). Moreover, thrombin-stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun/AP-1 and p65/NF-κB was attenuated by tanshinone IIA and helenalin, respectively, suggesting that thrombin induces COX-2 expression via PAR1/MAPKs/AP-1 or the NF-κB pathway. Functionally, thrombin increased human cardiomyocyte proliferation through the COX-2/PGE2 system linking to EP2 receptors, as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1 expression. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These findings demonstrate that MAPKs-mediated activation of AP-1/NF-κB pathways is, at least in part, required for COX-2/PGE2 /EP2 -triggered cell proliferation in human cardiomyocytes.
Project description:The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of a high-lipid diet (HLD) on cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 expression and the signalling pathways related to low-grade inflammation in the large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). An isolated 2508 bp cDNA clone of cox-2 contained an open reading frame spanning 1827 bp encoding a protein with 608 amino acid residues. The over-expression of cox-2 was consistent with the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in HLD-fed fish. The activation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) and the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signalling pathways in HLD-fed fish and the significant increase of cox-2 promoter-luciferase activity in vitro indicated that AP-1 and NF-κB could combine cox-2 promoter to promote its transcription, respectively. Together, HLD-induced inflammation up-regulates cox-2 expression via JNKs and p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB and AP-1 pathways. The present study provides important insight into the signal transduction pathways involved in HLD-induced inflammation, which is detrimental to the health and production of fish as well as to the health of fish consumers.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) link innate and adaptive immunity and use a host of innate immune and inflammatory receptors to respond to pathogens and inflammatory stimuli. Although DC maturation via canonical NF-κB signaling is critical for many of these functions, the role of noncanonical NF-κB signaling via the serine/threonine kinase NIK (NF-κB-inducing kinase) remains unclear. Because NIK-deficient mice lack secondary lymphoid organs, we generated transgenic mice with targeted NIK deletion in CD11c(+) cells. Although these mice exhibited normal lymphoid organs, they were defective in cross-priming naive CD8(+) T cells following vaccination, even in the presence of anti-CD40 or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid to induce DC maturation. This impairment reflected two intrinsic defects observed in splenic CD8(+) DCs in vitro, namely antigen cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells and secretion of IL-12p40, a cytokine known to promote cross-priming in vivo. In contrast, antigen presentation to CD4(+) T cells was not affected. These findings reveal that NIK, and thus probably the noncanonical NF-κB pathway, is critical to allow DCs to acquire the capacity to cross-present antigen and prime CD8 T cells after exposure to licensing stimuli, such as an agonistic anti-CD40 antibody or Toll-like receptor 3 ligand.
Project description:Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and type 2 helper T cells (Th2 cells) are the primary source of interleukin 5 (IL-5) and IL-13 during type 2 (allergic) inflammation in the lung. In Th2 cells, T cell receptor (TCR) signaling activates the transcription factors nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and activator protein 1 (AP-1) to induce type 2 cytokines. ILC2s lack a TCR and respond instead to locally produced cytokines such as IL-33. Although IL-33 induces AP-1 and NF-κB, NFAT signaling has not been described in ILC2s. In this study, we report a nonredundant NFAT-dependent role for lipid-derived leukotrienes (LTs) in the activation of lung ILC2s. Using cytokine reporter and LT-deficient mice, we find that complete disruption of LT signaling markedly diminishes ILC2 activation and downstream responses during type 2 inflammation. Type 2 responses are equivalently attenuated in IL-33- and LT-deficient mice, and optimal ILC2 activation reflects potent synergy between these pathways. These findings expand our understanding of ILC2 regulation and may have important implications for the treatment of airways disease.
Project description:Maraviroc is a CCR5 antagonist used in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. We and others have suggested that maraviroc could reactivate latent HIV-1. To test the latency-reversing potential of maraviroc and the mechanisms involved, we performed a phase II, single-center, open-label study in which maraviroc was administered for 10 days to 20 HIV-1-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (EudraCT registration no. 2012-003215-66). All patients completed full maraviroc dosing and follow-up. The primary endpoint was to study whether maraviroc may reactivate HIV-1 latency, eliciting signaling pathways involved in the viral reactivation. An increase in HIV-1 transcription in resting CD4+ T cells, estimated by levels of HIV-1 unspliced RNA, was observed. Moreover, activation of the NF-κB transcription factor was observed in these cells. To elucidate the mechanism of NF-κB activation by maraviroc, we have evaluated in HeLa P4 C5 cells, which stably express CCR5, whether maraviroc could be acting as a partial CCR5 agonist, with no other mechanisms or pathways involved. Our results show that maraviroc can induce NF-κB activity and that NF-κB targets gene expression by CCR5 binding, since the use of TAK779, a CCR5 inhibitor, blocked NF-κB activation and functionality. Taking the results together, we show that maraviroc may have a role in the activation of latent virus transcription through the activation of NF-κB as a result of binding CCR5. Our results strongly support a novel use of maraviroc as a potential latency reversal agent in HIV-1-infected patients.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 persistence in a small pool of long-lived latently infected resting CD4+ T cells is a major barrier to viral eradication in HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. A potential strategy to cure HIV-1-infection is the use of latency-reversing agents to eliminate the reservoirs established in resting CD4+ T cells. As no drug has been shown to be completely effective so far, the search for new drugs and combinations remains a priority for HIV cure. We examined the ability of maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist used as an antiretroviral drug, to activate latent HIV-1 in infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. The study showed that maraviroc can activate NF-κB and, subsequently, induce latent HIV-1-transcription in resting CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Additional interventions will be needed to eliminate latent HIV-1 infection. Our results suggest that maraviroc may be a new latency-reversing agent to interfere with HIV-1 persistence during antiretroviral therapy.
Project description:NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) family transcription factors are master regulators of immune and inflammatory processes in response to both injury and infection. In the latent state, NF-κBs are sequestered in the cytosol by their inhibitor IκB (inhibitor of NF-κB) proteins. Upon stimulations of innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors and cytokine receptors such as those in the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) receptor superfamily, a series of membrane proximal events lead to the activation of the IKK (IκB kinase). Phosphorylation of IκBs results in their proteasomal degradation and the release of NF-κB for nuclear translocation and activation of gene transcription. Here, we review the plethora of structural studies in these NF-κB activation pathways, including the TRAF (TNF receptor-associated factor) proteins, IKK, NF-κB, ubiquitin ligases, and deubiquitinating enzymes. Although these structures only provide snapshots of isolated processes, an emerging picture is that these signaling cascades coalesce into large oligomeric signaling complexes, or signalosomes, for signal propagation.
Project description:Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia results from clonal expansion of CD3+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes or CD3- natural killer (NK) cells. Chronic antigen stimulation is postulated to promote long-term survival of LGL leukemia cells through constitutive activation of multiple survival pathways, resulting in global dysregulation of apoptosis and resistance to activation-induced cell death. We reported previously that nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a central regulator of the survival network for leukemic LGL. However, the mechanisms that trigger constitutive activation of NF-κB in LGL leukemia remain undefined. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is known to induce apoptosis in tumor cells but can also activate NF-κB through interaction with TRAIL receptors 1, 2, and 4 (also known as DR4, DR5, and DcR2, respectively). The role of TRAIL has not been studied in LGL leukemia. In this study, we hypothesized that TRAIL interaction with DcR2 contributes to NF-κB activation in LGL leukemia. We observed upregulated TRAIL messenger RNA and protein expression in LGL leukemia cells with elevated levels of soluble TRAIL protein in LGL leukemia patient sera. We also found that DcR2 is the predominant TRAIL receptor in LGL leukemia cells. We demonstrated that TRAIL-induced activation of DcR2 led to increased NF-κB activation in leukemic LGL. Conversely, interruption of TRAIL-DcR2 signaling led to decreased NF-κB activation. Finally, a potential therapeutic application of proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and ixazomib), which are known to inhibit NF-κB, was identified through their ability to decrease proliferation and increase apoptosis in LGL leukemia cell lines and primary patient cells.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) proteins are cytoplasmic regulatory molecules that function as signal transducers for receptors involved in both innate and adaptive humoral immune responses. In this study, we show that TRAF7, the unique noncanonical member of the TRAF family, physically associates with IκB kinase/NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) and with the RelA/p65 (p65) member of the NF-κB transcription factor family. TRAF7 promotes Lys-29-linked polyubiquitination of NEMO and p65 that results in lysosomal degradation of both proteins and altered activation. TRAF7 also influences p65 nuclear distribution. Microarray expression data are consistent with an inhibitory role for TRAF7 on NF-κB and a positive control of AP-1 transcription factor. Finally, functional data indicate that TRAF7 promotes cell death. Thus, this study identifies TRAF7 as a NEMO- and p65-interacting molecule and brings important information on the ubiquitination events that control NF-κB transcriptional activity.