Project description:BXH/HXB rat recombinant inbred (RI) strains are derived from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR/Ola) and the Brown Norway congenic strains carrying the polydactylyl-luxate mutation (BN-Lx). Tissue from the apex of left ventricle of the heart was disected from 128 RI SHR/Ola and BN-Lx parental strains, RNA was extracted and labelled and hybridised to Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2.0 Arrays.
Project description:Two features of alcohol addiction that have been widely studied in animal models are relapse drinking following periods of alcohol abstinence and the escalation of alcohol consumption after chronic continuous or intermittent alcohol exposure. The genetic contribution to these phenotypes has not been systematically investigated.HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI) rat strains were given access to alcohol sequentially as follows: alcohol (10%) as the only fluid for 1 week; alcohol (10%) and water in a 2-bottle choice paradigm for 7 weeks ("pre-alcohol deprivation effect [ADE] alcohol consumption"); 2 weeks of access to water only (alcohol deprivation); and 2 weeks of reaccess to 10% alcohol and water ("post-ADE alcohol consumption"). The periods of deprivation and reaccess to alcohol were repeated 3 times. The ADE was defined as the amount of alcohol consumed in the first 24 hours after deprivation minus the average daily amount of alcohol consumed in the week prior to deprivation. Heritability of the phenotypes was determined by analysis of variance, and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified.All strains showed increased alcohol consumption, compared to the predeprivation period, in the first 24 hours after each deprivation (ADE). Broad-sense heritability of the ADEs was low (ADE1, 9.1%; ADE2, 26.2%; ADE3, 16.3%). Alcohol consumption levels were relatively stable over weeks 2 to 7. Post-ADE alcohol consumption levels consistently increased in some strains and were decreased or unchanged in others. Heritability of pre- and post-ADE alcohol consumption was high and increased over time (week 2, 38.5%; week 7, 51.1%; week 11, 56.8%; week 15, 63.3%). QTLs for pre- and post-ADE alcohol consumption were similar, but the strength of the QTL association with the phenotype decreased over time.In the HXB/BXH RI rat strains, genotypic variance does not account for a large proportion of phenotypic variance in the ADE phenotype (low heritability), suggesting a role of environmental factors. In contrast, a large proportion of the variance across the RI strains in pre- and post-ADE alcohol consumption is due to genetically determined variance (high heritability).
Project description:BACKGROUND:With the advent of next generation sequencing it has become possible to detect genomic variation on a large scale. However, predicting which genomic variants are damaging to gene function remains a challenge, as knowledge of the effects of genomic variation on gene expression is still limited. Recombinant inbred panels are powerful tools to study the cis and trans effects of genetic variation on molecular phenotypes such as gene expression. RESULTS:We generated a comprehensive inventory of genomic differences between the two founder strains of the rat HXB/BXH recombinant inbred panel: SHR/OlaIpcv and BN-Lx/Cub. We identified 3.2 million single nucleotide variants, 425,924 small insertions and deletions, 907 copy number changes and 1,094 large structural genetic variants. RNA-sequencing analyses on liver tissue of the two strains identified 532 differentially expressed genes and 40 alterations in transcript structure. We identified both coding and non-coding variants that correlate with differential expression and alternative splicing. Furthermore, structural variants, in particular gene duplications, show a strong correlation with transcriptome alterations. CONCLUSIONS:We show that the panel is a good model for assessing the genetic basis of phenotypic heterogeneity and for providing insights into possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results reveal a high diversity and complexity underlying quantitative and qualitative transcriptional differences.
Project description:In the HXB and BXH recombinant inbred strains derived from the spontaneously hypertensive rat and the normotensive Brown Norway rat, we determined the strain distribution patterns of 500 genetic markers to scan the rodent genome for quantitative trait loci regulating cardiac mass and blood pressure. The markers spanned approximately 1,139 cM of the genome and were tested for correlations with left ventricular mass adjusted for body weight, and with systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures. The marker for the dopamine 1A receptor (Drd1a) on chromosome 17 showed the strongest correlation with left ventricular heart weight (P = .00038, r = -0.59) and the relationship to heart weight was independent of blood pressure. The markers showing the strongest correlations with systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure were D19Mit7 on chromosome 19 (P = .0012, r = .55), D2N35 on chromosome 2 (P = .0008, r = .56), and Il6 on chromosome 4 (P = .0018, r = .53), respectively. These studies demonstrate that the HXB and BXH strains can be effectively used for genome scanning studies of complex traits and have revealed several chromosome regions that may be involved in the genetic control of blood pressure and cardiac mass in the rat.
Project description:Background Electrocardiographic ( ECG ) parameters are regarded as intermediate phenotypes of cardiac arrhythmias. Insight into the genetic underpinnings of these parameters is expected to contribute to the understanding of cardiac arrhythmia mechanisms. Here we used HXB / BXH recombinant inbred rat strains to uncover genetic loci and candidate genes modulating ECG parameters. Methods and Results RR interval, PR interval, QRS duration, and QT c interval were measured from ECG s obtained in 6 male rats from each of the 29 available HXB / BXH recombinant inbred strains. Genes at loci displaying significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) effects were prioritized by assessing the presence of protein-altering variants, and by assessment of cis expression QTL ( eQTL ) effects and correlation of transcript abundance to the respective trait in the heart. Cardiac RNA -seq data were additionally used to generate gene co-expression networks. QTL analysis of ECG parameters identified 2 QTL for PR interval, respectively, on chromosomes 10 and 17. At the chromosome 10 QTL , cis- eQTL effects were identified for Acbd4, Cd300lg, Fam171a2, and Arhgap27; the transcript abundance in the heart of these 4 genes was correlated with PR interval. At the chromosome 17 QTL , a cis- eQTL was uncovered for Nhlrc1 candidate gene; the transcript abundance of this gene was also correlated with PR interval. Co-expression analysis furthermore identified 50 gene networks, 6 of which were correlated with PR interval or QRS duration, both parameters of cardiac conduction. Conclusions These newly identified genetic loci and gene networks associated with the ECG parameters of cardiac conduction provide a starting point for future studies with the potential of identifying novel mechanisms underlying cardiac electrical function.
Project description:BXH-2 mice develop a fatal myeloid leukemia by a two-step mutagenic process. First, a BXH-2-specific recessive mutation causes a myeloproliferative syndrome. Second, retroviral insertions alter oncogenes or tumor suppressors, resulting in clonal expansion of leukemic cells. We have identified a recessive locus on chromosome 8 (Myls) that is responsible for myeloproliferation in BXH-2. This Myls interval has been narrowed down to 2 Mb and found to contain several positional candidates, including the interferon consensus sequence-binding protein 1 gene (Icsbp, also known as interferon regulatory factor 8 [IRF8]). We show that BXH-2 mice carry a mutation (915 C to T) resulting in an arginine-to-cysteine substitution at position 294 within the predicted IRF association domain of the protein. Although expression of Icsbp1 mRNA transcripts is normal in BXH-2 splenocytes, these cells are unable to produce interleukin 12 and interferon-gamma in response to activating stimuli, confirming that R294C behaves as a loss-of-function mutation. Myeloproliferation in BXH-2 mice is concomitant to increased susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) despite the presence of resistance alleles at the Nramp1 locus. These results suggest a two-step model for chronic myeloid leukemia in BXH-2, in which inactivation of Icsbp1 predisposes to myeloproliferation and immunodeficiency. This event is required for retroviral replication, and subsequent insertional mutagenesis that causes leukemia in BXH-2 mice.
Project description:Gene expression data was generated in BN and SHR rats to correlate gene expression differences with CpG methylation differences detected between the strains by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing.
Project description:Susceptibility genes for TSH receptor (TSHR) antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be probed in recombinant inbred (RI) mice immunized with adenovirus expressing the TSHR A-subunit. The RI set of CXB strains, derived from susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mice, were studied previously. High-resolution genetic maps are also available for RI BXH strains, derived from B6 and C3H/He parents. We found that C3H/He mice develop TSHR antibodies, and some animals become hyperthyroid after A-subunit immunization. In contrast, the responses of the F1 progeny of C3H/He x B6 mice, as well as most BXH RI strains, are dominated by the B6 resistance to hyperthyroidism. As in the CXB set, linkage analysis of BXH strains implicates different chromosomes (Chr) or loci in the susceptibility to induced TSHR antibodies vs. hyperthyroidism. Importantly, BXH and CXB mice share genetic loci controlling the generation of TSHR antibodies (Chr 17, major histocompatibility complex region, and Chr X) and development of hyperthyroidism (Chr 1 and 3). Moreover, some chromosomal linkages are unique to either BXH or CXB strains. An interesting candidate gene linked to thyroid-stimulating antibody generation in BXH mice is the Ig heavy chain locus, suggesting a role for particular germline region genes as precursors for these antibodies. In conclusion, our findings reinforce the importance of major histocompatibility complex region genes in controlling the generation of TSHR antibodies measured by TSH binding inhibition. Moreover, these data emphasize the value of RI strains to dissect the genetic basis for induced TSHR antibodies vs. their effects on thyroid function in Graves' disease.