Sheep longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from 40 individual progeny belonging to six Poll Dorset industry sires
ABSTRACT: Expression profiling of sheep born to Australian industry sires with high and low genetic merit (Estimated Breeding Values or EBVs) for eye muscle depth (EMD). Progeny (40) from six Poll Dorset sires representing well defined extremes of EBVs for Eye Muscle Depth (low EBV EMD and high EBV EMD) were selected for analysis. The six sires were Australian industry sires with three sires representative of low EBV EMD and three representing high EBV EMD. Microarrays were used for transcription profiling of skeletal muscle samples taken from 40 individual progeny belonging to six Poll Dorset industry sires, with 3 sires extreme for high and 3 sires extreme for low muscling (based on EBV for EMD). Sheep longissimus dorsi (LD) skeletal muscle samples were collected from 40 individual progeny belonging to six Poll Dorset industry sires, with 3 sires extreme for high and 3 sires extreme for low muscling (based on EBV for EMD).
Project description:Expression profiling of sheep born to Australian industry sires with high and low genetic merit (Estimated Breeding Values or EBVs) for eye muscle depth (EMD). Progeny (40) from six Poll Dorset sires representing well defined extremes of EBVs for Eye Muscle Depth (low EBV EMD and high EBV EMD) were selected for analysis. The six sires were Australian industry sires with three sires representative of low EBV EMD and three representing high EBV EMD. Microarrays were used for transcription profiling of skeletal muscle samples taken from 40 individual progeny belonging to six Poll Dorset industry sires, with 3 sires extreme for high and 3 sires extreme for low muscling (based on EBV for EMD). Overall design: Sheep longissimus dorsi (LD) skeletal muscle samples were collected from 40 individual progeny belonging to six Poll Dorset industry sires, with 3 sires extreme for high and 3 sires extreme for low muscling (based on EBV for EMD).
Project description:Expression profiling of sheep born to Australian industry sires with high and low genetic merit (Estimated Breeding Values or EBVs) for eye muscle depth (EMD). Progeny (40) from six Poll Dorset sires representing well defined extremes of EBVs for Eye Muscle Depth (low EBV EMD and high EBV EMD) were selected for analysis. The six sires were Australian industry sires with three sires representative of low EBV EMD and three representing high EBV EMD. Microarrays were used for transcription profiling of skeletal muscle samples taken from 40 individual progeny belonging to six Poll Dorset industry sires, with 3 sires extreme for high and 3 sires extreme for low muscling (based on EBV for EMD). Sheep longissimus dorsi (LD) skeletal muscle samples were collected from 40 individual progeny belonging to six Poll Dorset industry sires, with 3 sires extreme for high and 3 sires extreme for low muscling (based on EBV for EMD).
Project description:BACKGROUND: The current investigation surveyed genetic polymorphism at the ovine GDF8 locus and determined its contribution to variation in muscling and fatness in sheep. RESULTS: Re-sequencing 2988 bp from a panel of 15 sires revealed a total of six SNP, none of which were located within exons of the gene. One of the identified SNP, g+6723G>A, is known to increase muscularity within the Belgian Texel. A genetic survey of 326 animals revealed that the mutation is near fixation within Australian Texels and present in additional breeds including White Suffolk, Poll Dorset and Lincoln. Using a resource population comprising 15 sires and 1191 half-sib progeny with genotypic data, the effect of this and other SNP was tested against a set of 50 traits describing growth, muscling, fatness, yield, meat and eating quality. The loss of function allele (g+6723A) showed significant effects on slaughter measurements of muscling and fatness. No effect was detected on objectively assessed meat quality however evidence was found for an association between g+6723G>A, decreased intramuscular fat and reduced eating quality. Haplotype analysis using flanking microsatellites was performed to search for evidence of currently unidentified mutations which might affect production traits. Four haplotypes were identified that do not carry g+6723A but which showed significant associations with muscling and fatness. CONCLUSION: The finding that g+6723G>A is present within Australian sheep facilitated an independent evaluation into its phenotypic consequence. Testing was conducted using a separate genetic background and animals raised in different environments to the Belgian Texel in which it was first identified. The observation that the direction and size of effects for g+6723A is approximately consistent represented a robust validation of the effects of the mutation. Based on observed allele frequencies within breeds, selection for g+6723A will have the largest impact within the White Suffolk. GDF8 may harbour additional mutations which serve to influence economically important traits in sheep.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In livestock populations the genetic contribution to muscling is intensively monitored in the progeny of industry sires and used as a tool in selective breeding programs. The genes and pathways conferring this genetic merit are largely undefined. Genetic variation within a population has potential, amongst other mechanisms, to alter gene expression via cis- or trans-acting mechanisms in a manner that impacts the functional activities of specific pathways that contribute to muscling traits. By integrating sire-based genetic merit information for a muscling trait with progeny-based gene expression data we directly tested the hypothesis that there is genetic structure in the gene expression program in ovine skeletal muscle.<h4>Results</h4>The genetic performance of six sires for a well defined muscling trait, longissimus lumborum muscle depth, was measured using extensive progeny testing and expressed as an Estimated Breeding Value by comparison with contemporary sires. Microarray gene expression data were obtained for longissimus lumborum samples taken from forty progeny of the six sires (4-8 progeny/sire). Initial unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed strong genetic architecture to the gene expression data, which also discriminated the sire-based Estimated Breeding Value for the trait. An integrated systems biology approach was then used to identify the major functional pathways contributing to the genetics of enhanced muscling by using both Estimated Breeding Value weighted gene co-expression network analysis and a differential gene co-expression network analysis. The modules of genes revealed by these analyses were enriched for a number of functional terms summarised as muscle sarcomere organisation and development, protein catabolism (proteosome), RNA processing, mitochondrial function and transcriptional regulation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study has revealed strong genetic structure in the gene expression program within ovine longissimus lumborum muscle. The balance between muscle protein synthesis, at the levels of both transcription and translation control, and protein catabolism mediated by regulated proteolysis is likely to be the primary determinant of the genetic merit for the muscling trait in this sheep population. There is also evidence that high genetic merit for muscling is associated with a fibre type shift toward fast glycolytic fibres. This study provides insight into mechanisms, presumably subject to strong artificial selection, that underpin enhanced muscling in sheep populations.
Project description:Selective breeding programs aiming to increase the productivity and profitability of the sheep meat industry use elite, progeny tested sires. The broad genetic traits of primary interest in the progeny of these sires include skeletal muscle yield, fat content, eating quality, and reproductive efficiency. Natural mutations in sheep that enhance muscling have been identified, while a number of genome scans have identified and confirmed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for skeletal muscle traits. The detailed phenotypic characteristics of sheep carrying these mutations or QTL affecting skeletal muscle show a number of common biological themes, particularly changes in developmental growth trajectories, alterations of whole animal morphology, and a shift toward fast twitch glycolytic fibers. The genetic, developmental, and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the actions of some of these genetic variants are described. This review critically assesses this research area, identifies gaps in knowledge, and highlights mechanistic linkages between genetic polymorphisms and skeletal muscle phenotypic changes. This knowledge may aid the discovery of new causal genetic variants and in some cases lead to the development of biochemical and immunological strategies aimed at enhancing skeletal muscle.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Discerning the traits evolving under neutral conditions from those traits evolving rapidly because of various selection pressures is a great challenge. We propose a new method, composite selection signals (CSS), which unifies the multiple pieces of selection evidence from the rank distribution of its diverse constituent tests. The extreme CSS scores capture highly differentiated loci and underlying common variants hauling excess haplotype homozygosity in the samples of a target population. RESULTS: The data on high-density genotypes were analyzed for evidence of an association with either polledness or double muscling in various cohorts of cattle and sheep. In cattle, extreme CSS scores were found in the candidate regions on autosome BTA-1 and BTA-2, flanking the POLL locus and MSTN gene, for polledness and double muscling, respectively. In sheep, the regions with extreme scores were localized on autosome OAR-2 harbouring the MSTN gene for double muscling and on OAR-10 harbouring the RXFP2 gene for polledness. In comparison to the constituent tests, there was a partial agreement between the signals at the four candidate loci; however, they consistently identified additional genomic regions harbouring no known genes. Persuasively, our list of all the additional significant CSS regions contains genes that have been successfully implicated to secondary phenotypic diversity among several subpopulations in our data. For example, the method identified a strong selection signature for stature in cattle capturing selective sweeps harbouring UQCC-GDF5 and PLAG1-CHCHD7 gene regions on BTA-13 and BTA-14, respectively. Both gene pairs have been previously associated with height in humans, while PLAG1-CHCHD7 has also been reported for stature in cattle. In the additional analysis, CSS identified significant regions harbouring multiple genes for various traits under selection in European cattle including polledness, adaptation, metabolism, growth rate, stature, immunity, reproduction traits and some other candidate genes for dairy and beef production. CONCLUSIONS: CSS successfully localized the candidate regions in validation datasets as well as identified previously known and novel regions for various traits experiencing selection pressure. Together, the results demonstrate the utility of CSS by its improved power, reduced false positives and high-resolution of selection signals as compared to individual constituent tests.
Project description:Epstein Barr virus (EBV) sequence variation is thought to contribute to Burkitt lymphoma (BL), but lack of data from primary BL tumors hampers efforts to test this hypothesis. We directly sequenced EBV from 12?BL biopsies from Ghana, Brazil, and Argentina, aligned the obtained reads to the wild-type (WT) EBV reference sequence, and compared them with 100 published EBV genomes from normal and diseased people from around the world. The 12?BL EBVs were Type 1. Eleven clustered close to each other and to EBV from Raji BL cell line, but away from 12?EBVs reported from other BL-derived cell lines and away from EBV from NPC and healthy people from Asia. We discovered 23 shared novel nucleotide-base changes in the latent membrane protein (LMP)-1 promoter and gene (associated with 9 novel amino acid changes in the LMP-1 protein) of the 11 BL EBVs. Alignment of this region for the 112 EBV genomes revealed four distinct patterns, tentatively termed patterns A to D. The distribution of BL EBVs was 48%, 8%, 24% and 20% for patterns A to D, respectively; the NPC EBV's were Pattern B, and EBV-WT was pattern D. Further work is needed to investigate the association between EBV LMP-1 patterns with BL.
Project description:Accurate pedigree information is critical to animal breeding systems to ensure the highest rate of genetic gain and management of inbreeding. The abundance of available genomic data, together with development of high throughput genotyping platforms, means that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now the DNA marker of choice for genomic selection studies. Furthermore the superior qualities of SNPs compared to microsatellite markers allows for standardization between laboratories; a property that is crucial for developing an international set of markers for traceability studies. The objective of this study was to develop a high throughput SNP assay for use in the New Zealand sheep industry that gives accurate pedigree assignment and will allow a reduction in breeder input over lambing. This required two phases of development--firstly, a method of extracting quality DNA from ear-punch tissue performed in a high throughput cost efficient manner and secondly a SNP assay that has the ability to assign paternity to progeny resulting from mob mating. A likelihood based approach to infer paternity was used where sires with the highest LOD score (log of the ratio of the likelihood given parentage to likelihood given non-parentage) are assigned. An 84 "parentage SNP panel" was developed that assigned, on average, 99% of progeny to a sire in a problem where there were 3,000 progeny from 120 mob mated sires that included numerous half sib sires. In only 6% of those cases was there another sire with at least a 0.02 probability of paternity. Furthermore dam information (either recorded, or by genotyping possible dams) was absent, highlighting the SNP test's suitability for paternity testing. Utilization of this parentage SNP assay will allow implementation of progeny testing into large commercial farms where the improved accuracy of sire assignment and genetic evaluations will increase genetic gain in the sheep industry.
Project description:Governed by melatonin, ovine reproductive seasonality limits production outcomes due to periods of decreased reproductive efficiency. Though it is established that slow-release melatonin implants improve out of season reproductive performance in the ewe, the comprehensive effects of exogenous melatonin in the ram remain inconclusive. This study aimed to ultimately clarify the ability of exogenous melatonin to alter ram reproductive function during the non-breeding season and the subsequent breeding season. Hence, we investigated the effect of exogenous melatonin on reproductive endocrinology, semen quality and production, testicular size and libido in Merino and Poll Dorset rams (n?=?31, using a subset of 18 rams for analysis of semen production and quality). Melatonin treatment resulted in elevation of melatonin in seminal plasma from 1-8 weeks post-implantation and in blood plasma at 6 weeks post-implantation. The blood plasma testosterone of implanted rams was greater than controls at both 6 weeks post-implantation and during the following breeding season. Implanted rams exhibited increased testicular size and number of sperm per ejaculate from 3-12 weeks post-implantation but did not demonstrate any change in sperm motility or morphology in response to treatment. Compared to their control counterparts, melatonin-treated Poll Dorset rams exhibited a lower percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation during several weeks of the non-breeding season. Though melatonin increased the likelihood of ejaculate collection in Poll Dorset rams (P?<?0.05), libido was otherwise unaffected by treatment. Melatonin did not alter seminal plasma concentrations of inhibin A or Anti-Mullerian hormone, however, for the first time in the ram we have shown Anti-Mullerian hormone to be positively correlated with the number of sperm per ejaculate and sperm motility (r?=?0.464 and 0.3242 respectively, P?<?0.001), and inhibin A to be correlated to the number of sperm per ejaculate (r?=?0.1786, P?=?0.0135). These results indicate that melatonin is able to both systemically upregulate reproduction and act directly upon testicular function in the ram.