Staphylococcus aureus small colony variant (JKD6229) vs. parent strain (JKD6210)
ABSTRACT: Transcriptional profiling of the small colony variant (SCV) S. aureus isolate (JKD6229) compared to the parent isolate with a normal phenotype (JKD6210). Both isolates were from a patient with persistent S. aureus infection, and the SCV strain arose during failed antibiotic therapy. Two condition experiment JKD6229 vs JKD6210. 4 biological replicates, one replicate per slide.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of the small colony variant (SCV) S. aureus isolate (JKD6229) compared to the parent isolate with a normal phenotype (JKD6210). Both isolates were from a patient with persistent S. aureus infection, and the SCV strain arose during failed antibiotic therapy. Overall design: Two condition experiment JKD6229 vs JKD6210. 4 biological replicates, one replicate per slide.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of the small colony variant (SCV) S. aureus isolate (JKD6229) compared to the parent isolate with a normal phenotype (JKD6210). Both isolates were from a patient with persistent S. aureus infection, and the SCV strain arose during failed antibiotic therapy. Two condition experiment JKD6229 vs JKD6210. 4 biological replicates, one replicate per slide.
Project description:Small-colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are associated with persistent infections and may be selectively enriched during antibiotic therapy. Three pairs of clonally related S. aureus isolates were recovered from patients receiving systemic antibiotic therapy. Each pair consisted of an isolate with a normal phenotype and an isolate with an SCV phenotype. These SCVs were characterized by reduced susceptibility to gentamicin, reduced hemolytic activity, slow growth, and menadione auxotrophy. Sequencing of the genes involved in menadione biosynthesis revealed mutations in menB, the gene encoding naphthoate synthase, in all three strains with the SCV phenotype. The menB mutations were (i) a 9-bp deletion from nucleotides 55 to 63, (ii) a frameshift mutation that resulted in a premature stop codon at position 230, and (iii) a point mutation that caused the amino acid substitution Gly to Val at codon 233. Fluctuation tests showed that growth-compensated mutants arose in the SCV population of one strain, strain OM1b, at a rate of 1.8 x 10(-8) per cell per generation. Sequence analyses of 23 independently isolated growth-compensated mutants of this strain revealed alterations in the menB sequence in every case. These alterations included reversions to the wild-type sequence and intragenic second-site mutations. Each of the growth-compensated mutants showed a restoration of normal growth and a loss of menadione auxotrophy, increased susceptibility to gentamicin, and restored hemolytic activity. These data show that mutations in menB cause the SCV phenotype in these clinical isolates. This is the first report on the genetic basis of menadione-auxotrophic SCVs determined in clinical S. aureus isolates.
Project description:<b>Background:</b><i>Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)</i> small colony variants (SCVs) can survive within the host intracellular milieu and are associated with chronic relapsing infections. However, it is unknown whether host invasion rates and immune responses differ between SCVs and their wild-type counterparts. This study used a stable <i>S. aureus</i> SCV (WCH-SK2<sup>SCV</sup>) developed from a clinical isolate (WCH-SK2<sup>WT</sup>) in inflammation-relevant conditions. Intracellular infection rates as well as host immune responses to WCH-SK2<sup>WT</sup> and WCH-SK2<sup>SCV</sup> infections were investigated. <b>Method:</b> NuLi-1 cells were infected with either WCH-SK2<sup>WT</sup> or WCH-SK2<sup>SCV</sup>, and the intracellular infection rate was determined over time. mRNA expression of cells infected with each strain intra- and extra-cellularly was analyzed using a microfluidic qPCR array to generate an expression profile of thirty-nine genes involved in the host immune response. <b>Results:</b> No difference was found in the intracellular infection rate between WCH-SK2<sup>WT</sup> and WCH-SK2<sup>SCV</sup>. Whereas, extracellular infection induced a robust pro-inflammatory response, intracellular infection elicited a modest response. Intracellular WCH-SK2<sup>WT</sup> infection induced mRNA expression of <i>TLR2</i>, pro-inflammatory cytokines (<i>IL1B, IL6</i>, and <i>IL12</i>) and tissue remodeling factors (<i>MMP9</i>). In contrast, intracellular WCH-SK2<sup>SCV</sup> infection induced up regulation of only <i>TLR2</i>. <b>Conclusions:</b> Whereas, host intracellular infection rates of WCH-SK2<sup>SCV</sup> and WCH-SK2<sup>WT</sup> were similar, WCH-SK2<sup>SCV</sup> intracellular infection induced a less widespread up regulation of pro-inflammatory and tissue remodeling factors in comparison to intracellular WCH-SK2<sup>WT</sup> infection. These findings support the current view that SCVs are able to evade host immune detection to allow their own survival.
Project description:WalKR is an essential two component regulatory system in S. aureus, thought to control cell wall metabolism. Using genome sequencing of 5 paired clinical isolates of vancomycin-susceptible and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus we found frequent, but unique, mutations in this locus. To investigate the contribution of these mutations to vancomycin resistance allelic replacement WalK (G223D) and WalR (K208R) mutants were generated and compared to the parent strains. Mutations in walk and walR led to increased vancomycin resistance, reduced biofilms formation and attenuation of virulence, demonstrating that minor genetic changes in this locus can lead to significant changes in bacterial resistance and virulence. Microarray transcriptional comparisons were performed to investigate the regulatory effects of the WalK (G223D) and WalR (K208R) mutations, and demonstrated that while changes in genes affecting cell wall metabolism were detected, more dramatic changes were found in regulation of cellular metabolism. Transcriptional profiling of laboratory derived S. aureus walKR mutants compared to the parent isolates. TPS3130 has a single point mutation in walK, and TPS3190 has a single point mutation in walR. Two condition experiment TPS3130 vs JKD6009 and TPS3190 vs JKD6004. 3 biological replicates per isolate pair, one replicate per slide.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants (SCVs) emerge frequently during chronic infections and are often associated with worse disease outcomes. There are no standardized methods for SCV antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) due to poor growth and reversion to normal-colony (NC) phenotypes on standard media. We sought to identify reproducible methods for AST of S. aureus SCVs and to determine whether SCV susceptibilities can be predicted on the basis of treatment history, SCV biochemical type (auxotrophy), or the susceptibilities of isogenic NC coisolates. We tested the growth and stability of SCV isolates on 11 agar media, selecting for AST 2 media that yielded optimal SCV growth and the lowest rates of reversion to NC phenotypes. We then performed disk diffusion AST on 86 S. aureus SCVs and 28 isogenic NCs and Etest for a subset of 26 SCVs and 24 isogenic NCs. Growth and reversion were optimal on brain heart infusion agar and Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with compounds for which most clinical SCVs are auxotrophic: hemin, menadione, and thymidine. SCVs were typically nonsusceptible to either trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or aminoglycosides, in accordance with the auxotrophy type. In contrast, SCVs were variably nonsusceptible to fluoroquinolones, macrolides, lincosamides, fusidic acid, and rifampin; mecA-positive SCVs were invariably resistant to cefoxitin. All isolates (both SCVs and NCs) were susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin, vancomycin, minocycline, linezolid, chloramphenicol, and tigecycline. Analysis of SCV auxotrophy type, isogenic NC antibiograms, and antibiotic treatment history had limited utility in predicting SCV susceptibilities. With clinical correlation, this AST method and these results may prove useful in directing treatment for SCV infections.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants (SCVs) are associated with unusually chronic and persistent infections despite active antibiotic treatment. The molecular basis for this clinically important phenomenon is poorly understood, hampered by the instability of the SCV phenotype. Here we investigated the genetic basis for an unstable S. aureus SCV that arose spontaneously while studying rifampicin resistance. This SCV showed no nucleotide differences across its genome compared with a normal-colony variant (NCV) revertant, yet the SCV presented the hallmarks of S. aureus linked to persistent infection: down-regulation of virulence genes and reduced hemolysis and neutrophil chemotaxis, while exhibiting increased survival in blood and ability to invade host cells. Further genome analysis revealed chromosome structural variation uniquely associated with the SCV. These variations included an asymmetric inversion across half of the S. aureus chromosome via recombination between type I restriction modification system (T1RMS) genes, and the activation of a conserved prophage harboring the immune evasion cluster (IEC). Phenotypic reversion to the wild-type-like NCV state correlated with reversal of the chromosomal inversion (CI) and with prophage stabilization. Further analysis of 29 complete S. aureus genomes showed strong signatures of recombination between hsdMS genes, suggesting that analogous CI has repeatedly occurred during S. aureus evolution. Using qPCR and long-read amplicon deep sequencing, we detected subpopulations with T1RMS rearrangements causing CIs and prophage activation across major S. aureus lineages. Here, we have discovered a previously unrecognized and widespread mechanism of reversible genomic instability in S. aureus associated with SCV generation and persistent infections.
Project description:Small colony variants (SCV) of Staphylococcus aureus have been reported as implicated in chronic infections. Here, we investigated the genomic and transcriptomic changes involved in the evolution from a wild-type to a SCV from in a patient with prosthetic joint infection relapse. The SCV presented a stable phenotype with no classical auxotrophy and the emergence of rifampicin resistance. Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) analysis showed only the loss of a 42.5 kb phage and 3 deletions, among which one targeting the rpoB gene, known to be the target of rifampicin and to be associated to SCV formation in the context of a constitutively active stringent response. Transcriptomic analysis highlighted a specific signature in the SCV strain including a complex, multi-level strategy of survival and adaptation to chronicity within the host including a protection from the inflammatory response, an evasion of the immune response, a constitutively activated stringent response and a scavenging of iron sources.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus causes chronic and relapsing infections, which may be difficult to treat. So-called small colony variants (SCVs) have been associated with chronic infections and their occurrence has been shown to increase under antibiotic pressure, low pH and intracellular localization. In clinics, S. aureus isolated from invasive infections often show a dysfunction in the accessory gene regulator (agr), a major virulence regulatory system in S. aureus. To assess whether intracellular environment and agr function influence SCV formation, an infection model was established using lung epithelial cells and skin fibroblasts. This allowed analyzing intracellular survival and localization of a panel of S. aureus wild type strains and their isogenic agr knock out mutants as well as a natural dysfunctional agr strain by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Furthermore, bacterial colonies were quantified after 1, 3, and 5 days of intracellular survival by time-lapse analysis to determine kinetics of colony appearance and SCV formation. Here, we show that S. aureus strains with an agr knock out predominantly resided in a neutral environment, whereas wild type strains and an agr complemented strain resided in an acidic environment. S. aureus agr mutants derived from an intracellular environment showed a higher percentage of SCVs as compared to their corresponding wild type strains. Neutralizing acidic phagolysosomes with chloroquine resulted in a significant reduction of SCVs in S. aureus wild type strain 6850, but not in its agr mutant indicating a pH dependent formation of SCVs in the wild type strain. The in-depth understanding of the interplay between intracellular persistence, agr function and pH should help to identify new therapeutic options facilitating the treatment of chronic S. aureus infections in the future.
Project description:We have observed that for a number of S. aureus strains as they switch to a SCV lifestyle there is the formation of an extracellular matrix. We focused our analysis on one strain, WCH-SK2. For bacterial survival in the host, the combination of low nutrients and the prolonged timeframe forms a stress that selects for a specific cell-type from the population. In this context, we used steady-state growth conditions with low nutrients and a controlled low growth rate, for a prolonged time and with methylglyoxal. These conditions induced S. aureus WCH-SK2 into a stable SCV cell-type, they did not revert after sub-culturing. Methods: Transcriptomic profiles of wild-type (WT) and SCV were generated in continuous culture in the presence of stress (high and low level of methylglyoxal). Results: Analysis revealed these cells possessed a metabolic and surface profile that was different from previously described SCVs or biofilm cells. The extracellular matrix was protein and extracellular DNA; but not polysaccharide. The SCV cells induced expression of certain surface proteins (such as Ebh) and lantibiotic synthesis while down-regulating factors that stimulates immune response (leucocidin, capsule, carotenoid). We also studied further their genetic characteristics. They possessed an increased viability in the presence of antibiotics compared to their non-SCV form. Their stability implied there had been genetic changes, we determined the whole genome sequence of WCH-SK2 and its stable SCV forms at a single base resolution, employing Single Molecular Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing that also enables the methylome to be determined. The genetic features of this isolate have been identified; the SCCmec type, the pathogenicity and genetic islands and virulence factors. The comparison has identified a set of genetic changes that occurred in the stable SCV form; most notably to the global regulator MgrA and the phosphoserine phosphatase RsbU (part of the regulatory pathway of the sigma factor SigB). There was a shift in the methylation across the genome. Conclusions: Our data reveal a cell heterogeneity within a S. aureus population and using conditions that resemble long-term survival in the host has identified a previously unnoticed S. aureus cell-type, with a distinctive metabolic and molecular profile. The results from this study represent a unique identification of a suite of epigenetic, genetic and transcriptional factors that are implicated in the switch in S. aureus to its persistent SCV form Overall design: Total RNA of WT (batch culture) and SCV formed in high level of methylglyoxal (0.031%) at day 55 and SCV formed at low level of methylglyoxal (0.0078%) at day 30 of continuous culture. DNA genomic of WT and stable SCV formed in high level of methylglyoxal (0.031%)