Early postmortem gene expression and its relationship to composition and quality traits in pig Longissimus dorsi muscle
ABSTRACT: A mRNA expression study has been performed 20-25 minutes postmortem obtained samples from Longissimus dorsi muscle of 59 Duroc x LD/LW pigs to search for gene sequences related to meat quality (pH24, pH45, “Lab” colour coordinates, curing yield and exudation at three different times) or to meat composition (intramuscular fat, content of several fatty acid (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2), ratio of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and protein and humidity contents) traits in order to find targets for selection. Gene ontology analysis, biological pathways and gene networks studies all show, that many more differentially expressed genes (506 vs 279) are related to meat quality (Group P, or perimortem characters) than to meat composition traits (Group L, or whole life traits). The difference between the number of GO terms annotated, biological pathways and gene networks in groups P and L is notable due to the differences in the complexity of the “generation process” of P-traits and the involvement of other tissues or organs in the generation of variability of L-traits. Also, interactions between a list of differentially expressed genes were found in ECM-receptor interaction, TGF-beta signaling pathway, fatty acid elongation in mitochondria and adipocytokine signalling pathway indicating that a substantial fraction of the gene networks could be associated with interactions between differential expressed genes related to traits under study. A high number of the most overexpressed genes are related to muscle development and functionality and repair mechanisms; they could be good candidates for breeding programs whose main goal is to enhance meat quality. 59 Longissimus Dorsi samples from 59 LD/LW x Duroc cross. A total of 33 traits on composition, conformation and meat quality and compositional traits were recorded in the left Longissimus dorsi muscle.
Project description:A mRNA expression study has been performed 20-25 minutes postmortem obtained samples from Longissimus dorsi muscle of 59 Duroc x LD/LW pigs to search for gene sequences related to meat quality (pH24, pH45, “Lab” colour coordinates, curing yield and exudation at three different times) or to meat composition (intramuscular fat, content of several fatty acid (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2), ratio of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and protein and humidity contents) traits in order to find targets for selection. Gene ontology analysis, biological pathways and gene networks studies all show, that many more differentially expressed genes (506 vs 279) are related to meat quality (Group P, or perimortem characters) than to meat composition traits (Group L, or whole life traits). The difference between the number of GO terms annotated, biological pathways and gene networks in groups P and L is notable due to the differences in the complexity of the “generation process” of P-traits and the involvement of other tissues or organs in the generation of variability of L-traits. Also, interactions between a list of differentially expressed genes were found in ECM-receptor interaction, TGF-beta signaling pathway, fatty acid elongation in mitochondria and adipocytokine signalling pathway indicating that a substantial fraction of the gene networks could be associated with interactions between differential expressed genes related to traits under study. A high number of the most overexpressed genes are related to muscle development and functionality and repair mechanisms; they could be good candidates for breeding programs whose main goal is to enhance meat quality. 59 Longissimus Dorsi samples from 59 LD/LW x Duroc cross. A total of 33 traits on composition, conformation and meat quality and compositional traits were recorded in the left Longissimus dorsi muscle.
Project description:Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by many factors, including genetics, nutrition, feeding environment, animal handling, and their interactions. To elucidate relevant factors affecting pork quality associated with oxidative stress and muscle development, we analyzed protein expression in high quality longissimus dorsi muscles (HQLD) and low quality longissimus dorsi muscles (LQLD) from Duroc pigs by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomic analysis. Between HQLD (n = 20) and LQLD (n = 20) Duroc pigs, 24 differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 10 and 14 proteins were highly expressed in HQLD and LQLD, respectively. The 24 proteins have putative functions in the following seven categories: catalytic activity (31%), ATPase activity (19%), oxidoreductase activity (13%), cytoskeletal protein binding (13%), actin binding (12%), calcium ion binding (6%), and structural constituent of muscle (6%). Silver-stained image analysis revealed significant differential expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) between HQLD and LQLD Duroc pigs. LDHA was subjected to in vitro study of myogenesis under oxidative stress conditions and LDH activity assay to verification its role in oxidative stress. No significant difference of mRNA expression level of LDHA was found between normal and oxidative stress condition. However, LDH activity was significantly higher under oxidative stress condition than at normal condition using in vitro model of myogenesis. The highly expressed LDHA was positively correlated with LQLD. Moreover, LDHA activity increased by oxidative stress was reduced by antioxidant resveratrol. This paper emphasizes the importance of differential expression patterns of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. Our proteome data provides valuable information on important factors which might aid in the regulation of muscle development and the improvement of meat quality in longissimus dorsi muscles of Duroc pigs under oxidative stress conditions.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study was conducted to investigate the potential effects of prolonged photoperiod on the serum lipids, carcass traits, and meat quality of Jinjiang cattle during winter.<h4>Methods</h4>Thirty-four Jinjiang bulls aged between 14 and 16 months were randomly assigned to two groups that were alternatively subjected to either natural daylight +4 h supplemental light (long photoperiod, LP) or natural daylight (natural photoperiod, NP) for 96 days. The potential effects on the levels of serum lipids, carcass traits, meat quality, and genes regulating lipid metabolism in the intramuscular fat (IMF) of the cattle were evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>Jinjiang cattle kept under LP showed significant increase in both dry matter intake and backfat thickness. the serum glucose and the plasma leptin levels were significantly reduced, while that of melatonin and insulin were observed to be increased. The crude fat contents of biceps femoris muscle and longissimus dorsi muscle were higher in LP than in NP group. In longissimus dorsi muscle, the proportions of C17:0 and C18:0 were significantly higher but that of the C16:1 was found to be significantly lower in LP group. The relative mRNA expressions in IMF of longissimus dorsi muscle, the lipid synthesis genes (proliferatoractivated receptor gamma, fatty acid-binding protein) and the fatty acid synthesis genes (acetyl-coa carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase) were significantly up-regulated in LP group (p<0.05); whereas the hormone-sensitive lipase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 were significantly down-regulated in LP than in NP group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Prolonged photoperiod significantly altered the growth performance, hormonal levels, gene expression and fat deposition in Jinjiang cattle. It suggested that the LP improved the fat deposition by regulating the levels of different hormones and genes related to lipid metabolism, thereby improving the fattening of Jinjiang cattle during winter.
Project description:The objective of this study was to assess the effects of constant high ambient temperatures on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and carnosine expression in longissimus dorsi muscle of finishing pigs. Castrated 24 male DLY (crossbreeds between Landrace×Yorkshire sows and Duroc boars) pigs were allocated to one of three treatments: constant ambient temperature at 22°C and ad libitum feeding (CON, n = 8); constant high ambient temperature at 30°C and ad libitum feeding (H30, n = 8); and constant ambient temperature at 22°C and pair-fed with H30 (PF, n = 8). Meat quality, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, antioxidant capacity, carnosine content, and carnosine synthetase (CARNS1) mRNA expression in longissimus dorsi muscle were measured after three weeks. The results revealed that H30 had lower pH24 h, redness at 45 min, and yellowness at 24 h post-mortem (p<0.05), and higher drip loss at 48 h and lightness at 24 h post-mortem (p<0.01). Constant heat stress disrupted the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance in longissimus dorsi muscle with higher MDA content (p<0.01) and lower antioxidant capacity (p<0.01). Carnosine content and CARNS1 mRNA expression in longissimus dorsi muscle of H30 pigs were significantly decreased (p<0.01) after three weeks at 30°C. In conclusion, constant high ambient temperatures affect meat quality and antioxidant capacity negatively, and the reduction of muscle carnosine content is one of the probable reasons.
Project description:Meat quality traits have an increasing importance in the pig industry because of their strong impact on consumer acceptance. Herewith, we have combined phenotypic and microarray expression data to map loci with potential effects on five meat quality traits recorded in the longissimus dorsi (LD) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles of 350 Duroc pigs, i.e. pH at 24?hours post-mortem (pH24), electric conductivity (CE) and muscle redness (a*), lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*). We have found significant genome-wide associations for CE of LD on SSC4 (~104?Mb), SSC5 (~15?Mb) and SSC13 (~137?Mb), while several additional regions were significantly associated with meat quality traits at the chromosome-wide level. There was a low positional concordance between the associations found for LD and GM traits, a feature that reflects the existence of differences in the genetic determinism of meat quality phenotypes in these two muscles. The performance of an eQTL search for SNPs mapping to the regions associated with meat quality traits demonstrated that the GM a* SSC3 and pH24 SSC17 QTL display positional concordance with cis-eQTL regulating the expression of several genes with a potential role on muscle metabolism.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Fatty acid composition contributes importantly to meat quality and is essential to the nutritional value of the meat. Identification of genetic factors underlying levels of fatty acids can be used to breed for pigs with healthier meat. The aim of this study was to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify QTL regions affecting fatty acid composition in backfat from the pig breeds Duroc and Landrace.<h4>Results</h4>Using data from the Axiom porcine 660 K array, we performed GWAS on 454 Duroc and 659 Landrace boars for fatty acid phenotypes measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology (C16:0, C16:1n-7, C18:0, C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3, total saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids). Two QTL regions on SSC4 and SSC14 were identified in Duroc for the de novo synthesized fatty acids traits, whereas one QTL on SSC8 was detected in Landrace for C16:1n-7. The QTL region on SSC14 has been reported in previous studies and a putative causative mutation has been suggested in the promoter region of the SCD gene. Whole genome re-sequencing data was used for genotype imputation and to fine map the SSC14 QTL region in Norwegian Duroc. This effort confirms the location of the QTL on this chromosome as well as suggesting other putative candidate genes in the region. The most significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on SSC14 explain between 55 and 76% of the genetic variance and between 27 and 54% of the phenotypic variance for the de novo synthesized fatty acid traits in Norwegian Duroc. For the QTL region on SSC8 in Landrace, the most significant SNP explained 19% of the genetic variance and 5% of the phenotypic variance for C16:1n-7.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study confirms a major QTL affecting fatty acid composition on SSC14 in Duroc, which can be used in genetic selection to increase the level of fatty acid desaturation. The SSC14 QTL was not segregating in the Landrace population, but another QTL on SSC8 affecting C16:1n-7 was identified and might be used to increase the level of desaturation in meat products from this breed.
Project description:Carcass weight, meat quality and muscle components are important traits economically and they underpin most of the commercial return to goat producers. In this study, the <i>Longissimus dorsi</i> muscle tissues were collected from five Liaoning cashmere (LC) goats and five Ziwuling black (ZB) goats with phenotypic difference in carcass weight, some meat quality traits and muscle components. The histological quantitative of collagen fibers and the transcriptome profiles in the <i>Longissimus dorsi</i> muscle tissues were investigated using Masson-trichrome staining and RNA-Seq, respectively. The percentage of total collagen fibers in the <i>Longissimus dorsi</i> muscle tissues from ZB goats was less than those from LC goats, suggesting that these ZB goats had more tender meat. An average of 15,919 and 15,582 genes were found to be expressed in <i>Longissimus dorsi</i> muscle tissues from LC and ZB goats, respectively. Compared to LC goats, the expression levels of 78 genes were up-regulated in ZB goats, while 133 genes were down-regulated. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in GO terms related to the muscle growth and development and the deposition of intramuscular fat and lipid metabolism, hippo signaling pathway and Jak-STAT signaling pathway. The results provide an improved understanding of the genetic mechanisms regulating meat production performance in goats, and will help us improve the accuracy of selection for meat traits in goats using marker-assisted selection based on these differentially expressed genes obtained.
Project description:Intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition affect the organoleptic quality and nutritional value of pork. A genome-wide association study was performed on 138 Duroc pigs genotyped with a 60k SNP chip to detect biologically relevant genomic variants influencing fat content and composition. Despite the limited sample size, the genome-wide association study was powerful enough to detect the association between fatty acid composition and a known haplotypic variant in SCD (SSC14) and to reveal an association of IMF and fatty acid composition in the LEPR region (SSC6). The association of LEPR was later validated with an independent set of 853 pigs using a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide. The SCD gene is responsible for the biosynthesis of oleic acid (C18:1) from stearic acid. This locus affected the stearic to oleic desaturation index (C18:1/C18:0), C18:1, and saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids content. These effects were consistently detected in gluteus medius, longissimus dorsi, and subcutaneous fat. The association of LEPR with fatty acid composition was detected only in muscle and was, at least in part, a consequence of its effect on IMF content, with increased IMF resulting in more SFA, less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and greater SFA/PUFA ratio. Marker substitution effects estimated with a subset of 65 animals were used to predict the genomic estimated breeding values of 70 animals born 7 years later. Although predictions with the whole SNP chip information were in relatively high correlation with observed SFA, MUFA, and C18:1/C18:0 (0.48-0.60), IMF content and composition were in general better predicted by using only SNPs at the SCD and LEPR loci, in which case the correlation between predicted and observed values was in the range of 0.36 to 0.54 for all traits. Results indicate that markers in the SCD and LEPR genes can be useful to select for optimum fatty acid profiles of pork.
Project description:Western commercial pig breeds have been intensively selected, resulting in a sizeable, rapid, and efficient accretion of muscle but a reduction in meat quality. When compared with Western commercial pig breeds, Chinese indigenous pig breeds exhibited slower growth rates and reduced lean meat content but superior perceived meat quality. To study the factors that determine meat quality, we examined piglets of one Western commercial breed (Yorkshire) and one Chinese indigenous breed (Wannanhua) and sequenced the longissimus dorsi muscle using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). We analyzed their transcriptomes, focusing on identifying candidate genes that may influence porcine muscle growth, meat quality and adipose deposition. Gene ontology functional enrichment and pathway enrichment analyses identified differentially expressed genes primarily associated with glycolytic metabolism, biological processes of muscle development and signaling pathways related to fatty acid metabolism, growth and carcass traits. This finding suggests that the differentially expressed genes may play important roles in determining meat quality traits. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the differential expression of twelve selected differentially expressed genes. This study identified a number of novel candidate genes for porcine meat quality and carcass traits that merit further investigation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for muscle growth and fat deposition. Overall design: Examined piglets of Yorkshire pig and Wannanhua pig and sequenced the longissimus dorsi muscle using RNA-sequencing .
Project description:The supplementation effects of sea tangle powders were determined for the meat quality in Korean native black goats. A total 90 castrated male black goats at 3-month age were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups: control (basal diet + mineral block), T1 (0.3% sea tangle feeding with the basal diet), T2 (0.9% sea tangle feeding with the basal diet). At 9-months feeding, 10 goats per treatment group were slaughtered, and the longissimus dorsi muscle samples were vacuum-packed, and subsequently analyzed for physicochemical evaluations. Analysis revealed decrease in the shear force and TBARS values of meat in the sea tangle dietary groups (p < 0.05). The T2 group exhibited increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids such as C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, and C20:4 (p < 0.05). The content of free amino acids with desirable taste such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, and serine were higher in T2, whereas alanine content was higher in both sea tangle dietary groups, as compared to control (p < 0.05). These data indicate that feeding dietary sea tangle as an alternative mineral source results in an improvement in the physicochemical profiles of goat meat.