Genome wide analysis of skin cancer cell gene expresison exposed to stromal cancer associated fibroblasts in 3D gel matrix
ABSTRACT: SCC12 cells were seeded ontop of organotypic gels with HN-CAF (head and neck carcinoma associated fibroblasts). Differential gene expression was analysed between cancer cells not exposed to CAFs or non-invading cancer cells exposed to CAFs. Squamous cell cancer organotypics were constructed by embedding CAFs in collagen Matrigel matrix with SCC 12cells added on top. Gene expression was compared between non-invaded cancer cells and cancer cells not expoesd to CAFs.
Project description:SCC12 cells were seeded ontop of organotypic gels with HN-CAF (head and neck carcinoma associated fibroblasts). Differential gene expression was analysed between cancer cells not exposed to CAFs or non-invading cancer cells exposed to CAFs. Squamous cell cancer organotypics were constructed by embedding CAFs in collagen Matrigel matrix with SCC 12cells added on top. Gene expression was compared between non-invaded cancer cells and cancer cells not expoesd to CAFs.
Project description:Ranking among the most lethal tumour entities, pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma cells invade neighbouring tissue resulting in high incidence of metastasis. They are supported by tumour stroma fibroblasts which have undergone differentiation into cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Stiffness of cell substratum, cytokines, such as transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), and stromal matrix proteins, such as laminin-332, are factors which promote CAF differentiation. In a spheroid culture system, differentiation of CAFs was analysed for laminin-332 production, laminin-binding integrin repertoire, adhesion and migration behaviour, and, in heterospheroids, for their interplay with the pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma AsPC-I cells. Our data reveal that CAFs produce laminin-332 thus contributing to its ectopic deposition within the tumour stroma. Moreover, CAF differentiation correlates with an increased expression of ?3?1 integrin, the principal laminin-332-receptor. Beyond its role as novel CAF marker protein, integrin ?3?1 crucially determines differentiation and maintenance of the CAF phenotype, as knock-out of the integrin ?3 subunit reversed the CAF differentiated state. AsPC-I cells co-cultured in heterospheroids with integrin ?3-deficient CAFs invaded less than from heterospheroids with wild-type CAFs. This study highlights the role of integrin ?3?1 integrin-laminin-332 interaction of CAFs which promotes and sustains differentiation of CAFs and promotes carcinoma invasion.
Project description:Interactions between cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an important role in tumour development and progression. In this study we investigated the functional role of CAFs in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We used immunochemistry to analyse a cohort of 183 EAC patients for CAF markers related to disease mortality. We characterized CAFs and normal oesophageal fibroblasts (NOFs) using western blotting, immunofluorescence and gel contraction. Transwell assays, 3D organotypic culture and xenograft models were used to examine the effects on EAC cell function and to dissect molecular mechanisms regulating invasion. Most EACs (93%) contained CAFs with a myofibroblastic (α-SMA-positive) phenotype, which correlated significantly with poor survival [p = 0.016; HR 7. 1 (1.7-29.4)]. Primary CAFs isolated from EACs have a contractile, myofibroblastic phenotype and promote EAC cell invasion in vitro (Transwell assays, p ≤ 0.05; organotypic culture, p < 0.001) and in vivo (p ≤ 0.05). In vitro, this pro-invasive effect is modulated through the matricellular protein periostin. Periostin is secreted by CAFs and acts as a ligand for EAC cell integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5, promoting activation of the PI3kinase-Akt pathway. In patient samples, periostin expression at the tumour cell-stromal interface correlates with poor overall and disease-free survival. Our study highlights the importance of the tumour stroma in EAC progression. Paracrine interaction between CAF-secreted periostin and EAC-expressed integrins results in PI3 kinase-Akt activation and increased tumour cell invasion. Most EACs contain a myofibroblastic CAF-rich stroma; this may explain the aggressive, highly infiltrative nature of the disease, and suggests that stromal targeting may produce therapeutic benefit in EAC patients.
Project description:Among peritumoral cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are major facilitators of tumor progression. This study describes the effects of two urokinase-derived, novel decapeptides, denoted as Pep 1 and its cyclic derivative Pep 2. In a mouse model of tumor dissemination, using HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, Pep 2 reduced the number and size of lung metastases. Specific binding of fluoresceinated Pep 2 to HT1080 and telomerase immortalised fibroblasts (TIF) cell surfaces was enhanced by ?v overexpression or abolished by excess vitronectin, anti-?v antibodies or silencing of ITGAV ?v gene, identifying ?v-integrin as the Pep 2 molecular target. In 3D-organotypic assays, peptide-exposed TIFs and primary CAFs from breast carcinoma patients both exhibited a markedly reduced pro-invasive ability of either HT1080 fibrosarcoma or MDA-MB-231 mammary carcinoma cells, respectively. Furthermore, TIFs, either exposed to Pep 2, or silenced for ?v integrin, were impaired in their ability to chemoattract cancer cells and to contract collagen matrices, exhibiting reduced ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) levels. Finally, peptide exposure of ?v-expressing primary CAFs led to the downregulation of ?-SMA protein and to a dramatic reduction of their pro-invasive capability. In conclusion, the ability of the novel decapeptides to interfere with tumor cell invasion directly and through the down-modulation of CAF phenotype suggests their use as lead compounds for co-targeting anti-cancer strategies.
Project description:Interaction of cancer cells with cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) plays critical roles in tumor progression. Recently we proposed a new tumor invasion mechanism in which invasive cancer cells individually migrate on elongate protrusions of CAFs (CAF fibers) in 3-D collagen matrix. In this mechanism, cancer cells interact with fibronectin fibrils assembled on CAFs mainly through integrin-?5?1. Here we tested whether this mechanism is applicable to the collective invasion of cancer cells, using two E-cadherin-expressing adenocarcinoma cell lines, DLD-1 (colon) and MCF-7 (breast). When hybrid spheroids of DLD-1 cells with CAFs were embedded into collagen gel, DLD-1 cells collectively but very slowly migrated through the collagen matrix in contact with CAFs. Epidermal growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-? promoted the collective invasion, possibly by reducing the E-cadherin junction, as did the transforming growth factor-? inhibitor SB431542 by stimulating the outgrowth of CAFs. Transforming growth factor-? itself inhibited the cancer cell invasion. Efficient collective invasion of DLD-1 cells required large CAF fibers or their assembly as stable adhesion substrates. Experiments with function-blocking Abs and siRNAs confirmed that DLD-1 cells adhered to fibronectin fibrils on CAFs mainly through integrin-?5?1. Anti-E-cadherin Ab promoted the single cell invasion of DLD-1 cells by dissociating the E-cadherin junction. Although the binding affinity of MCF-7 cells to CAFs was lower than DLD-1, they also collectively invaded the collagen matrix in a similar fashion to DLD-1 cells. Our results suggest that the direct interaction with CAFs, as well as environmental cytokines, contributes to the collective invasion of cancers.
Project description:The Cancer Genome Atlas network has revealed that the 'mesenchymal' epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) subtype represents the poorest outcome, indicating a crucial role of stromal cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in disease progression. The cooperative role of CAFs in EOC metastasis has long been recognized, but the mechanisms of stromal CAFs activation are still obscure. Therefore, we carried out an integrative analysis to identify the regulator genes that are responsible for CAFs activation in microdissected tumor stroma profiles. Here, we determined that myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) was highly expressed in ovarian stroma, and was required for the differentiation and tumor promoting function of CAFs. Suppression of MARCKS resulted in the loss of CAF features, and diminished role of CAFs in supporting tumor cell growth in 3D organotypic cultures and in murine xenograft model. Mechanistically, we found that MARCKS maintained CAF activation through suppression of cellular senescence and activation of the AKT/Twist1 signaling. Moreover, high MARCKS expression was associated with poor patient survival in EOC. Collectively, our findings identify the potential of MARCKS inhibition as a novel stroma-oriented therapy in EOC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) can promote the progression of tumours in many ways. They can remodel the extracellular matrix to generate an environment that enables the invasion of cancer cells. We hypothesised that compounds that prevent matrix remodelling by CAFs would block their ability to promote carcinoma cell invasion.<h4>Methods</h4>We designed a screen for compounds that interfere with CAF-promoted matrix remodelling. Hits from this screen were investigated in organotypic invasion models of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).<h4>Results</h4>We find that lovastatin and simvastatin reduce matrix remodelling by fibroblasts and thereby reduce SCC invasion. This class of compounds exert their effects partly through disrupting the function of Rab proteins, and we show a new role for Rab21 in promoting cancer cell invasion promoted by CAFs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Rab21 is required for CAFs to promote the invasion of cancer cells. It enables the accumulation of integrin alpha5 at the plasma membrane and subsequent force-mediated matrix remodelling.
Project description:Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that express ?-smooth-muscle-actin (?SMA+) contribute to cancer progression, but their precise origin and role in tumorigenesis is not established. Using mouse models of inflammation-induced gastric cancer, we show that at least 20% of CAFs originate from bone marrow and derive from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Surprisingly, we find that ?SMA+ myofibroblasts (MF) are niche cells normally present in bone marrow and increase markedly in the bone marrow and blood during progression to dysplasia. MSC-derived CAFs that are recruited to the dysplastic stomach express IL-6, Wnt5? and BMP4 and show DNA hypomethylation. Bone marrow (BM)-derived CAFs strongly promote tumor growth in organotypic and xenograft models. In addition, CAFs are generated from MSCs and are recruited to distant tumor sites in a TGF-?- and SDF-1?-dependent manner. Carcinogenesis therefore involves the expansion and relocation of normal bone marrow niche cells to the tumor site where they create a new niche to sustain cancer progression. Since resident (non-BM-derived) CAFs could not be cultured and directly compared to BM-derived CAFs, we additionally isolated total RFP(+) gastric CAFs from aSMA-RFP mice with Helicobacter felis-induced dysplasia, and compared them to GFP(+) BM-derived gastric CAFs from mice with H. felis-induced dysplasia mice that had been transplanted with UBC-EGFP bone marrow. The RFP+ CAFs (HF CAF) represent total CAFs (of which only 20% were BM-derived), while the latter represented only BM-derived CAFs (BM CAF). We compared their gene expression using the Illumina array (MouseWG-6v2) directly after FACS sorting. Interestingly, the GFP+ BM-derived CAFs expressed higher levels of inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-1?, IL-33) and a number of tumor and stem cell associated factors (CCL5, SPP1, Notch3, MMP9, CD47, CXCR4, PARP10,) compared to the total (RFP+) population of gastric CAFs. Comparison of bone marrow-derived GFP-labeled gastric CAFs versus all gastric CAFs.
Project description:Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the major components of the tumor microenvironment. They may drive tumor progression, although the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Exosomes have emerged as important mediators of intercellular communication in cancer. They mediate horizontal transfer of microRNAs (miRs), mRNAs and proteins, thus affecting breast cancer progression. Differential expression profile analysis identified three miRs (miRs -21, -378e, and -143) increased in exosomes from CAFs as compared from normal fibroblasts. Immunofluorescence indicated that exosomes may be transferred from CAFs to breast cancer cells, releasing their cargo miRs. Breast cancer cells (BT549, MDA-MB-231, and T47D lines) exposed to CAF exosomes or transfected with those miRs exhibited a significant increased capacity to form mammospheres, increased stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, and anchorage-independent cell growth. These effects were reverted by transfection with anti-miRs. Similarly to CAF exosomes, normal fibroblast exosomes transfected with miRs -21, -378e, and -143 promoted the stemness and EMT phenotype of breast cancer cells. Thus, we provided evidence for the first time of the role of CAF exosomes and their miRs in the induction of the stemness and EMT phenotype in different breast cancer cell lines. Indeed, CAFs strongly promote the development of an aggressive breast cancer cell phenotype.