Replication-Timing Boundaries Facilitate Cell-type and Species-specific Regulation of a Rearranged Human Chromosome in Mouse
ABSTRACT: In multicellular organisms, developmental changes to replication timing occur in 400- 800 kb domains across half the genome. While clear examples of epigenetic control of replication timing have been described, a role for DNA sequence in mammalian replication timing has not been substantiated. To assess the role of DNA sequences in directing these changes, we profiled replication timing in mice carrying a genetically rearranged Human Chromosome 21 [Hsa21]. In two distinct mouse cell types, Hsa21 sequences maintained human-specific replication timing, except at points of Hsa21 rearrangement. Changes in replication timing at rearrangements extended up to 900 kb and consistently reconciled with the wild-type replication pattern at developmental boundaries of replication-timing domains. Our results demonstrate DNA sequencedriven regulation of Hsa21 replication timing during development and provide evidence that mammalian chromosomes consist of multiple independent units of replication timing regulation. Profile comparison of fibroblast and T-cell cultures from trans-chromosomic mice and human and mouse controls.
Project description:In multicellular organisms, developmental changes to replication timing occur in 400- 800 kb domains across half the genome. While clear examples of epigenetic control of replication timing have been described, a role for DNA sequence in mammalian replication timing has not been substantiated. To assess the role of DNA sequences in directing these changes, we profiled replication timing in mice carrying a genetically rearranged Human Chromosome 21 [Hsa21]. In two distinct mouse cell types, Hsa21 sequences maintained human-specific replication timing, except at points of Hsa21 rearrangement. Changes in replication timing at rearrangements extended up to 900 kb and consistently reconciled with the wild-type replication pattern at developmental boundaries of replication-timing domains. Our results demonstrate DNA sequencedriven regulation of Hsa21 replication timing during development and provide evidence that mammalian chromosomes consist of multiple independent units of replication timing regulation. Profile comparison of fibroblast and T-cell cultures from trans-chromosomic mice and human and mouse controls.
Project description:In multicellular organisms, developmental changes to replication timing occur in 400-800 kb domains across half the genome. While examples of epigenetic control of replication timing have been described, a role for DNA sequence in mammalian replication-timing regulation has not been substantiated. To assess the role of DNA sequences in directing developmental changes to replication timing, we profiled replication timing in mice carrying a genetically rearranged Human Chromosome 21 (Hsa21). In two distinct mouse cell types, Hsa21 sequences maintained human-specific replication timing, except at points of Hsa21 rearrangement. Changes in replication timing at rearrangements extended up to 900 kb and consistently reconciled with the wild-type replication pattern at developmental boundaries of replication-timing domains. Our results are consistent with DNA sequence-driven regulation of Hsa21 replication timing during development and provide evidence that mammalian chromosomes consist of multiple independent units of replication-timing regulation.
Project description:Genome-wide replication timing studies have suggested that mammalian chromosomes consist of megabase-scale domains of coordinated origin firing separated by large originless transition regions. Here, we report a quantitative genome-wide analysis of DNA replication kinetics in several human cell types that contradicts this view. DNA combing in HeLa cells sorted into four temporal compartments of S phase shows that replication origins are spaced at 40 kb intervals and fire as small clusters whose synchrony increases during S phase and that replication fork velocity (mean 0.7 kb/min, maximum 2.0 kb/min) remains constant and narrowly distributed through S phase. However, multi-scale analysis of a genome-wide replication timing profile shows a broad distribution of replication timing gradients with practically no regions larger than 100 kb replicating at less than 2 kb/min. Therefore, HeLa cells lack large regions of unidirectional fork progression. Temporal transition regions are replicated by sequential activation of origins at a rate that increases during S phase and replication timing gradients are set by the delay and the spacing between successive origin firings rather than by the velocity of single forks. Activation of internal origins in a specific temporal transition region is directly demonstrated by DNA combing of the IGH locus in HeLa cells. Analysis of published origin maps in HeLa cells and published replication timing and DNA combing data in several other cell types corroborate these findings, with the interesting exception of embryonic stem cells where regions of unidirectional fork progression seem more abundant. These results can be explained if origins fire independently of each other but under the control of long-range chromatin structure, or if replication forks progressing from early origins stimulate initiation in nearby unreplicated DNA. These findings shed a new light on the replication timing program of mammalian genomes and provide a general model for their replication kinetics.
Project description:In dividing cells, DNA replication occurs in a precise order, but many questions remain regarding the mechanisms of replication timing establishment and regulation. We now have generated genome-wide, high-resolution replication timing maps throughout zebrafish development. Unexpectedly, in the rapid cell cycles preceding the midblastula transition, a defined timing program was present that predicted the initial wave of zygotic transcription. Replication timing was thereafter progressively and continuously remodeled across the majority of the genome, and epigenetic changes involved in enhancer activation frequently paralleled developmental changes in replication timing. The long arm of Chromosome 4 underwent a dramatic developmentally regulated switch to late replication during gastrulation, reminiscent of mammalian X Chromosome inactivation. This study reveals that replication timing is dynamic and tightly linked to epigenetic and transcriptional changes throughout early zebrafish development. These data provide insight into the regulation and functions of replication timing and will enable further mechanistic studies.
Project description:The temporal order of DNA replication is modified during differentiation, but when a replication timing program is established and what alterations occur in vivo during embryogenesis are not known. Here we used zebrafish embryos to generate genome-wide, high-resolution replication timing maps throughout development. Unexpectedly, a non-random and defined replication timing program was evident in the rapid cell cycles before the midblastula transition. The majority of the genome undergoes dynamic shifts in replication timing throughout development as the timing program is decompressed, with many abrupt timing changes occurring during lineage specification. Strikingly, the long arm of chromosome 4 undergoes a developmentally regulated switch to late replication, reminiscent of mammalian X chromosome inactivation. This analysis also revealed a strong relationship between early replication and epigenetic marks at enhancers. Collectively, these data reveal the major changes in replication timing that occur during zebrafish embryogenesis, and demonstrate its dynamic regulation during vertebrate development. Overall design: Examination of DNA replication timing at six developmental timepoints
Project description:Telomeres are specific structures that protect chromosome ends and act as a biological clock, preventing normal cells from replicating indefinitely. Mammalian telomeres are replicated throughout S-phase in a predetermined order. However, the mechanism of this regulation is still unknown. We wished to investigate this phenomenon under physiological conditions in a changing environment, such as the immortalization process to better understand the mechanism for its control. We thus examined the timing of human telomere replication in normal and SV40 immortalized cells, which are cytogenetically very similar to cancer cells. We found that the timing of telomere replication was globally conserved under different conditions during the immortalization process. The timing of telomere replication was conserved despite changes in telomere length due to endogenous telomerase reactivation, in duplicated homologous chromosomes, and in rearranged chromosomes. Importantly, translocated telomeres, possessing their initial subtelomere, retained the replication timing of their homolog, independently of the proportion of the translocated arm, even when the remaining flanking DNA is restricted to its subtelomere, the closest chromosome-specific sequences (inferior to 500?kb). Our observations support the notion that subtelomere regions strongly influence the replication timing of the associated telomere.
Project description:DNA replication in mammalian cells is a precisely controlled physical and temporal process, likely involving cis-acting elements that control the region(s) from which replication initiates. In B cells, previous studies showed replication timing to be early throughout the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus. The implication from replication timing studies in the B-cell line MPC11 was that early replication of the Igh locus was regulated by sequences downstream of the C alpha gene. A potential candidate for these replication control sequences was the 3' regulatory region of the Igh locus. Our results demonstrate, however, that the Igh locus maintains early replication in a B-cell line in which the 3' regulatory region has been deleted from one allele, thus indicating that replication timing of the locus is independent of this region. In non-B cells (murine erythroleukemia cells [MEL]), previous studies of segments within the mouse Igh locus demonstrated that DNA replication likely initiated downstream of the Igh gene cluster. Here we use recently cloned DNA to demonstrate that segments located sequentially downstream of the Igh 3' regulatory region continue to replicate progressively earlier in S phase in MEL. Furthermore, analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicates that replication forks proceed exclusively in the 3'-to-5' direction through the region 3' of the Igh locus. Extrapolation from these data predicts that initiation of DNA replication occurs in MEL at one or more sites within a 90-kb interval located between 40 and 130 kb downstream of the 3' regulatory region.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Replication timing of metazoan DNA during S-phase may be determined by many factors including chromosome structures, nuclear positioning, patterns of histone modifications, and transcriptional activity. It may be determined by Mb-domain structures, termed as "replication domains", and recent findings indicate that replication timing is under developmental and cell type-specific regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined replication timing on the human 5q23/31 3.5-Mb segment in T cells and non-T cells. We used two independent methods to determine replication timing. One is quantification of nascent replicating DNA in cell cycle-fractionated stage-specific S phase populations. The other is FISH analyses of replication foci. Although the locations of early- and late-replicating domains were common between the two cell lines, the timing transition region (TTR) between early and late domains were offset by 200-kb. We show that Special AT-rich sequence Binding protein 1 (SATB1), specifically expressed in T-cells, binds to the early domain immediately adjacent to TTR and delays the replication timing of the TTR. Measurement of the chromosome copy number along the TTR during synchronized S phase suggests that the fork movement may be slowed down by SATB1. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal a novel role of SATB1 in cell type-specific regulation of replication timing along the chromosome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:DNA replication in mammalian cells occurs in a defined temporal order during S phase, known as the replication timing (RT) programme. Replication timing is developmentally regulated and correlated with chromatin conformation and local transcriptional potential. Here, we present RT profiles of unprecedented temporal resolution in two human embryonic stem cell lines, human colon carcinoma line HCT116, and mouse embryonic stem cells and their neural progenitor derivatives. RESULTS:Fine temporal windows revealed a remarkable degree of cell-to-cell conservation in RT, particularly at the very beginning and ends of S phase, and identified 5 temporal patterns of replication in all cell types, consistent with varying degrees of initiation efficiency. Zones of replication initiation (IZs) were detected throughout S phase and interacted in 3D space preferentially with other IZs of similar firing time. Temporal transition regions were resolved into segments of uni-directional replication punctuated at specific sites by small, inefficient IZs. Sites of convergent replication were divided into sites of termination or large constant timing regions consisting of many synchronous IZs in tandem. Developmental transitions in RT occured mainly by activating or inactivating individual IZs or occasionally by altering IZ firing time, demonstrating that IZs, rather than individual origins, are the units of developmental regulation. Finally, haplotype phasing revealed numerous regions of allele-specific and allele-independent asynchronous replication. Allele-independent asynchronous replication was correlated with the presence of previously mapped common fragile sites. CONCLUSIONS:Altogether, these data provide a detailed temporal choreography of DNA replication in mammalian cells.
Project description:Duplication of the genome during the S phase of the cell cycle does not occur simultaneously; rather, different sequences are replicated at different times. The replication timing of specific sequences can change during development; however, the determinants of this dynamic process are poorly understood. To gain insights into the contribution of developmental state, genomic sequence, and transcriptional activity to replication timing, we investigated the timing of DNA replication at high resolution along an entire human chromosome (chromosome 22) in two different cell types. The pattern of replication timing was correlated with respect to annotated genes, gene expression, novel transcribed regions of unknown function, sequence composition, and cytological features. We observed that chromosome 22 contains regions of early- and late-replicating domains of 100 kb to 2 Mb, many (but not all) of which are associated with previously described chromosomal bands. In both cell types, expressed sequences are replicated earlier than nontranscribed regions. However, several highly transcribed regions replicate late. Overall, the DNA replication-timing profiles of the two different cell types are remarkably similar, with only nine regions of difference observed. In one case, this difference reflects the differential expression of an annotated gene that resides in this region. Novel transcribed regions with low coding potential exhibit a strong propensity for early DNA replication. Although the cellular function of such transcripts is poorly understood, our results suggest that their activity is linked to the replication-timing program.