Gene Expression of ESC and iPSC lines after specific differentiation
ABSTRACT: We cultured hESC and hiPSC lines and compared the transcriptome of untreated cells with cells treated with Activin or BMP4 during 5 days Pluripotent cell lines cultured in feeder-free conditions were treated with 100 ng/ml of activin or 50 ng/ml BMP4 daily during 5 days and collected for analysis
Project description:We cultured hESC and hiPSC lines and compared the transcriptome of untreated cells with cells treated with Activin or BMP4 during 5 days Pluripotent cell lines cultured in feeder-free conditions were treated with 100 ng/ml of activin or 50 ng/ml BMP4 daily during 5 days and collected for analysis
Project description:To induce the differentiation, undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (both hESC andh iPSC; T0 time point) were transferred into 20% O2 atmosphere environment and treated with mTESR1 basal media supplemented with 1 μM ATRA (Sigma-Aldrich) and 25 ng/ml BMP4 (R&D) for 7 days (Induction). To select for the cells that acquired early ectodermal fate, cells were harvested and re-plated onto freshly prepared 3D human dermal fibroblast ECM at a density of 5-10x10^3 cells per cm2 and grown in DMEM:Ham F12 (3:1) (Life Technologies) supplemented with 1 μM ATRA and 25 ng/ml BMP4 for a further 7 days (Selection). To enrich for putative epidermal progenitors, rapid-adhesion to type IV collagen-coated dishes was used, and the rapidly-adhering cells were cultured in DK SFM supplemented with 1 μM ATRA for 7 days (Enrichment). After that, the cells were cultured in EpiLife medium (Life Technologies) for a further 7 days (Expansion) before final harvest (T3 time point) and analysis. We analyzed here gene expression profiles of undifferentiated hESC/hiPSC (T0), hESC/hIPC-derived keratinocytes (T3) and primary normal human keratinocytes from skin biopsy (NHK). We found that hESC/hIPC-derived keratinocytes are similar to NHK. Biological triplicates of undifferentiated (T0) hESC (KCL034) and hiPSC lines (iKCL004, iKCL011) were compared with hESC/hiPSC-derived keratinocytes (T3), primary human keratinocyes (NHK) and fibroblasts (BJ).
Project description:Human embryonic stem (hES) cells have the capacities to propagate for extended periods and to differentiate into cell types from all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. These characteristics of self-renewal and pluripotency enable hES cells having the potential to provide an unlimited supply of different cell types for tissue replacement, drug screening, and functional genomics studies. The hES-T3 cells with normal female karyotype cultured on either mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) in hES medium (containing 4 ng/ml bFGF) (T3MF) or feeder-free Matrigel in MEF-conditioned medium (supplemented with additional 4 ng/ml bFGF) (T3CM) were found to express very similar profiles of mRNAs and microRNAs, indicating that the unlimited self-renewal and pluripotency of hES cells can be maintained by continuing culture on these two conditions. However, the expression profiles, especially microRNAs, of the hES-T3 cells cultured on Matrigel in hES medium supplemented with 4 ng/ml bFGF and 5 ng/ml activin A (T3BA) were found to be different from those of T3MF and T3CM cells. In T3BA cells, four hES cell-specific microRNAs miR-372, miR-302d, miR-367 and miR-200c, as well as three other microRNAs miR-199a, miR-19a and miR-217, were found to be up-regulated, whereas five miRNAs miR-19b, miR-221, miR-222, let-7b and let-7c were down-regulated by activin A. Thirteen abundantly differentially expressed mRNAs, including NR4A2, ERBB4, CXCR4, PCDH9, TMEFF2, CD24 and COX6A1 genes, targeted by seven over-expressed miRNAs were identified by inverse expression levels of these seven microRNAs to their target mRNAs in T3BA and T3CM cells. The NR4A2, ERBB4 and CXCR4 target genes were further found to be regulated by EGF and/or TNF. The 50 abundantly differentially expressed genes targeted by five under-expressed miRNAs were also identified. The abundantly expressed mRNAs in T3BA and T3CM cells were also analyzed for the network and signaling pathways, and roles of activin A in cell proliferation and differentiation were found. These findings will help elucidate the complex signaling network which maintains the self-renewal and pluripotency of hES cells. In this investigation, both miRNA and mRNA expression profiles from human embryonic stem cells grown on MEF feeder (T3MF), feeder-free Matrigel in MEF-conditioned medium (T3CM) and in hES medium (containing 4 ng/ml bFGF) supplemented with 5 ng/ml activin A (T3BA) were quantitatively determined. Several target genes of T3BA and T3CM cells-specific miRNAs were identified. ***This submission represents the mRNA expression component of the study only***
Project description:Many different culture systems have been developed for expanding human pluripotent stem cells (hESCs and hiPSCs). In general, 4-10 ng/ml of bFGF is supplemented in culture media in feeder-dependent systems regardless of feeder cell types, whereas in feeder-free systems, up to 100 ng/ml of bFGF is required for maintaining long-term culture on various substrates. The amount of bFGF required in native hESCs growth niche is unclear. Here we report using inactivated adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells as feeder cells to examine long-term parallel cultures of two hESCs lines (H1 and H9) and one hiPSCs line (DF19-9-7T) in media supplemented with 0, 0.4 or 4 ng/ml of bFGF for up to 23 passages, as well as parallel cultures of H9 and DF19 in media supplemented with 4, 20 or 100 ng/ml bFGF for up to 13 passages for comparison. Across all cell lines tested, bFGF supplement demonstrated inhibitory effect over growth expansion, single cell colonization and recovery from freezing in a dosage dependent manner. In addition, bFGF exerted differential effects on different cell lines, inducing H1 and DF19 differentiation at 4 ng/ml or higher, while permitting long-term culture of H9 at the same concentrations with no apparent dosage effect. Pluripotency was confirmed for all cell lines cultured in 0, 0.4 or 4 ng/ml bFGF excluding H1-4 ng, as well as H9 cultured in 4, 20 and 100 ng/ml bFGF. However, DF19 demonstrated similar karyotypic abnormality in both 0 and 4 ng/ml bFGF media while H1 and H9 were karyotypically normal in 0 ng/ml bFGF after long-term culture. Our results indicate that exogenous bFGF exerts dosage and cell line dependent effect on human pluripotent stem cells cultured on mesenchymal stem cells, and implies optimal use of bFGF in hESCs/hiPSCs culture should be based on specific cell line and its culture system.
Project description:This study aimed to examine gene expression in human ES cells (the RUNX1C GFP reporter line) differentiated towrads hameatopoietic mesoderm in a defined serum free medium. At day 7 of differentiation, the cells were sorted into fractions based on CD34 and CD41 expression and the four fractions analysed by microarray. The total number of samples analysed was 13. Undifferentiated hESC (RUNX1C GFP/w, based on the HES3 cell line) plus samples from d1 to d8 of differentiation comprised one experiment (9 samples) and four flow sorted fractions from d7 differentiated cells (CD34-CD41-, CD34lo CD41-, CD34hi CD41- and CD34lo CD41lo) comprised the second experiment. The parent cell line was maintained on mouse feeder cells in KOSR containing medium supplemented with 10 ng/ml FGF2. Differentiation was performed as spin EBs in APEL medium (Ng et al Nature Protocols 2008). For the first 4 days, medium was supplemented with BMP4, VEGF, SCF and Activin. Medium was changed at d4 to fresh APEL medium supplemented with BMP4, VEGF, SCF, FGF2 and IGF2.
Project description:Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) exposed to BMP4 (B) and inhibitors of ACTIVIN signaling (A83-01; A) and FGF2 (PD173074; P) in absence of FGF2 (BAP conditions) differentiate into colonies primarily comprised of trophoblast. In an attempt to isolate trophoblast stem cells, colonies of hESC were exposed to BAP for 24 h at which time they had begun to transition into a CDX2-positive state. Cultures were then dissociated into single cells by trypsin and grown on a gelatin substratum. Under these conditions, organized CDX2+/KRT7- colonies began to emerge within a few days. The self-renewing cell lines were not TBSC, but met standard criteria for pluripotency. They were named H1BP cells. They differed from the progenitor hPSC in morphology, ability to be clonally propagated from single cells onto gelatin, requirements for FGF2, and transcriptome profile. RNA was isolated from control human embryonic stem cells H1 cells, H1 cells exposed to BAP conditions for 24 and 48 h, H1BP colonies picked individually at two different passage numbers (p7 and p18), and H1BP cells that had been allowed to differentiate spontaneously in standard non-conditioned hESC medium in absence of FGF2. In order to collect RNA from cells, medium was removed and RNA STAT60 (I ml; Tel-Test, Friendswood, TX) was immediately added to culture dish and RNA extracted by following the manufacturer’s instructions. The samples of RNA were submitted to University Texas Southwestern Medical Center Microarray Core Facility (https://microarray.swmed.edu/) and microarray analysis performed with Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 expression BeadChips. Raw intensity data were background subtracted by using BeadStudio software and analyzed further by GeneSpring 12.6 software (Agilent Technologies Inc., Santa Clara CA), according to the advanced workflow protocol: percentile shift and filter by flags (detected).
Project description:Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a promising source of autologous cardiomyocytes to repair and regenerate myocardium for treatment of heart disease. In this study, we have identified a novel strategy to enhance cardiac differentiation of human iPS cells by treating embryoid bodies (EBs) with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), together with activin A and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). Over a narrow window of concentrations, TSA (1 ng/ml) directed the differentiation of human iPS cells into a cardiomyocyte lineage. TSA also exerted an additive effect with activin A (100 ng/ml) and BMP4 (20 ng/ml). The resulting cardiomyocytes expressed several cardiac-specific transcription factors and contractile proteins at both gene and protein levels. Functionally, the contractile EBs displayed calcium cycling and were responsive to the chronotropic agents isoprenaline (0.1 ?M) and carbachol (1 ?M). Implanting microdissected beating areas of iPS cells into tissue engineering chambers in immunocompromised rats produced engineered constructs that supported their survival, and they maintained spontaneous contraction. Human cardiomyocytes were identified as compact patches of muscle tissue incorporated within a host fibrocellular stroma and were vascularized by host neovessels. In conclusion, human iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes can be used to engineer functional cardiac muscle tissue for studying the pathophysiology of cardiac disease, for drug discovery test beds, and potentially for generation of cardiac grafts to surgically replace damaged myocardium.
Project description:Our understanding of paracrine and epigenetic control of trophectoderm (TE) differentiation is limited by available models of preimplantation human development. Simple, defined media for selective TE differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were developed, enabling mechanistic studies of early placental development. Paracrine requirements of preimplantation human development were evaluated with hESCs by measuring lineage-specific transcription factor expression levels in single cells and morphological transformation in response to selected paracrine and epigenetic modulators. Bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) addition to feeder-free pluripotent stem cells on matrigel frequently formed CDX2-positive TE. However, BMP4 or activin A inhibition alone also produced a mix of mesoderm and extraembryonic endoderm under these conditions. Further, BMP4 failed to form TE from adherent hESC maintained in standard feeder-dependent monolayers. Given that the efficiency and selectivity of BMP4-induced TE depended on medium components, we developed a basal medium containing insulin and heparin. In this medium, BMP4 induction of TE was dose dependent and with activin A inhibition by SB431542 (SB), approached 100% of cells. This paracrine stimulation of pluripotent cells transformed colony morphology from a cuboidal to squamous epithelium quantitatively on day 3, and produced significant multinucleated syncytiotrophoblasts by day 8. Addition of trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, reduced HDAC3, histone H3K9 methylation, and slowed differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Modulators of BMP4- or HDAC-dependent signaling might adversely influence the timing and viability of early blastocyst developed in vitro. Since blastocyst development is synchronized to uterine receptivity, epigenetic regulators of TE differentiation might adversely affect implantation in vivo.
Project description:The use of human pluripotent cell progeny for cardiac disease modeling, drug testing and therapeutics requires the ability to efficiently induce pluripotent cells into the cardiomyogenic lineage. Although direct activation of the Activin-A and/or Bmp pathways with growth factors yields context-dependent success, recent studies have shown that induction of Wnt signaling using low molecular weight molecules such as CHIR, which in turn induces the Activin-A and Bmp pathways, is widely effective. To further enhance the reproducibility of CHIR-induced cardiomyogenesis, and to ultimately promote myocyte maturation, we are using exogenous growth factors to optimize cardiomyogenic signaling downstream of CHIR induction. As indicated by RNA-seq, induction with CHIR during Day 1 (Days 0-1) was followed by immediate expression of Nodal ligands and receptors, followed later by Bmp ligands and receptors. Co-induction with CHIR and high levels of the Nodal mimetic Activin-A (50-100 ng/ml) during Day 0-1 efficiently induced definitive endoderm, whereas CHIR supplemented with Activin-A at low levels (10 ng/ml) consistently improved cardiomyogenic efficiency, even when CHIR alone was ineffective. Moreover, co-induction using CHIR and low levels of Activin-A apparently increased the rate of cardiomyogenesis, as indicated by the initial appearance of rhythmically beating cells by Day 6 instead of Day 8. By contrast, co-induction with CHIR plus low levels (3-10 ng/ml) of Bmp4 during Day 0-1 consistently and strongly inhibited cardiomyogenesis. These findings, which demonstrate that cardiomyogenic efficacy is improved by optimizing levels of CHIR-induced growth factors when applied in accord with their sequence of endogenous expression, are consistent with the idea that Nodal (Activin-A) levels toggle the entry of cells into the endodermal or mesodermal lineages, while Bmp levels regulate subsequent allocation into mesodermal cell types.
Project description:Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are more similar to "primed" mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs). mEpiSCs, which are derived in Activin A, show an increased propensity to form primordial germ cell (PGC)-like cells in response to bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4). Hence, we hypothesized that hESCs derived in the presence of Activin A may be more competent in differentiating towards PGC-like cells after supplementation with BMP4 compared to standard hESC lines. We were able to successfully derive two hESC lines in the presence of Activin A, which were pluripotent and showed higher base levels of STELLA and cKIT compared to standard hESC lines derived without Activin A addition. Furthermore, upon differentiation as embryoid bodies in the presence of BMP4, we observed upregulation of VASA at day 7, both at the transcript and protein level compared to standard hESC lines, which appeared to take longer time for PGC specification. Unlike other hESC lines, nuclear pSMAD2/3 presence confirmed that Activin signalling was switched on in Activin A-derived hESC lines. They were also responsive to BMP4 based on nuclear detection of pSMAD1/5/8 and showed endodermal differentiation as a result of GATA-6 expression. Hence, our results provide novel insights into the impact of hESC derivation in the presence of Activin A and its subsequent influence on germ cell differentiation potential in vitro.