Gene expression profile of mutated and wild-type PMF CD34+ cells
ABSTRACT: Primary mielofibrosis (PMF) is a rare chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the accumulation of abnormal megakaryocytes (Mks) in the bone marrow (BM), variable degrees of BM fibrosis, osteosclerosis and angiogenesis, immature myeloid and erythroid cells, and tear-drop erythrocytes in the peripheral blood (PB), and extramedullary hematopoiesis. The identification of the JAK2V617F mutation represented a seminal discovery in the field of Philadelphia-chromosome–negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), providing clues to the pathogenesis, prompting a revision of the diagnostic criteria, and culminating in the development of clinical trials with JAK2 (and JAK1) inhibitors. The JAK2V617F mutation occurs in almost all patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and in 50%-70% of those with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Soon after the identification of the JAK2V617F mutation, mutations in JAK2 exon 12 were described in rare patients with JAK2V617F-negative PV and mutations in MPL were reported in 5%-10% of ET or PMF subjects. The complexity of the molecular pathogenesis of MPNs is reinforced by discovery of additional mutations in TET2, ASXL1, CBL, IDH1/IDH2, EZH2 and IKZF1. These mutations are detected in a minority of patients at different phases of the disorder, including leukemic transformation, and are variably associated each other and with JAK2 or MPL mutations. In order to better characterize biological differences between mutated and wild-type PMF cell populations we performed a gene expression profiling on 9 samples carrying at least one mutation in ASXL1, SRSF2 or EZH2 genes and 11 wild-type samples using the Affymetrix GeneChip technology. After data preprocessing and filtering a supervised analysis approach was used to define a gene expression signature for mutated samples. PMF samples carrying at least one mutation in ASXL1, SRSF2 or EZH2 genes exhibit a specific molecular signature as compared with WT samples. Gene expression profile (GEP) of CD34+ cells from 20 PMF patients (1 replicate for each sample). In particular, GEP was performed on 9 samples carrying at least one mutation in ASXL1, SRSF2 or EZH2 genes and 11 wild-type samples.
Project description:Primary mielofibrosis (PMF) is a rare chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the accumulation of abnormal megakaryocytes (Mks) in the bone marrow (BM), variable degrees of BM fibrosis, osteosclerosis and angiogenesis, immature myeloid and erythroid cells, and tear-drop erythrocytes in the peripheral blood (PB), and extramedullary hematopoiesis. The identification of the JAK2V617F mutation represented a seminal discovery in the field of Philadelphia-chromosome–negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), providing clues to the pathogenesis, prompting a revision of the diagnostic criteria, and culminating in the development of clinical trials with JAK2 (and JAK1) inhibitors. The JAK2V617F mutation occurs in almost all patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and in 50%-70% of those with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Soon after the identification of the JAK2V617F mutation, mutations in JAK2 exon 12 were described in rare patients with JAK2V617F-negative PV and mutations in MPL were reported in 5%-10% of ET or PMF subjects. The complexity of the molecular pathogenesis of MPNs is reinforced by discovery of additional mutations in TET2, ASXL1, CBL, IDH1/IDH2, EZH2 and IKZF1. These mutations are detected in a minority of patients at different phases of the disorder, including leukemic transformation, and are variably associated each other and with JAK2 or MPL mutations. In order to better characterize biological differences between mutated and wild-type PMF cell populations we performed a gene expression profiling on 9 samples carrying at least one mutation in ASXL1, SRSF2 or EZH2 genes and 11 wild-type samples using the Affymetrix GeneChip technology. After data preprocessing and filtering a supervised analysis approach was used to define a gene expression signature for mutated samples. PMF samples carrying at least one mutation in ASXL1, SRSF2 or EZH2 genes exhibit a specific molecular signature as compared with WT samples. Gene expression profile (GEP) of CD34+ cells from 20 PMF patients (1 replicate for each sample). In particular, GEP was performed on 9 samples carrying at least one mutation in ASXL1, SRSF2 or EZH2 genes and 11 wild-type samples.
Project description:EZH2 is a component of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and functions as an H3K27 methyltransferase. Loss-of-function mutations in EZH2 are associated with poorer outcomes in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), particularly those with primary myelofibrosis (MF [PMF]). To determine how EZH2 insufficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of PMF, we generated mice compound for an Ezh2 conditional deletion and activating mutation in JAK2 (JAK2V617F) present in patients with PMF. The deletion of Ezh2 in JAK2(V617F) mice markedly promoted the development of MF, indicating a tumor suppressor function for EZH2 in PMF. The loss of Ezh2 in JAK2(V617F) hematopoietic cells caused significant reductions in H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) levels, resulting in an epigenetic switch to H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac). These epigenetic switches were closely associated with the activation of PRC2 target genes including Hmga2, an oncogene implicated in the pathogenesis of PMF. The treatment of JAK2(V617F)/Ezh2-null mice with a bromodomain inhibitor significantly attenuated H3K27ac levels at the promoter regions of PRC2 targets and down-regulated their expression, leading to the abrogation of MF-initiating cells. Therefore, an EZH2 insufficiency not only cooperated with active JAK2 to induce MF, but also conferred an oncogenic addiction to the H3K27ac modification in MF-initiating cells that was capable of being restored by bromodomain inhibition.
Project description:In myelofibrosis (MF), driver mutations in JAK2, MPL, or CALR impact survival and progression to blast phase, with the greatest risk conferred by triple-negative status. Subclonal mutations, including mutations in high-molecular risk (HMR) genes, such as ASXL1, EZH2, IDH1/2, and SRSF2 have also been associated with inferior prognosis. However, data evaluating the impact of next-generation sequencing in MF patients treated with JAK1/2 inhibitors are lacking. Using a 54-gene myeloid panel, we performed targeted sequencing on 100 MF patients treated with ruxolitinib (n = 77) or momelotinib (n = 23) and correlated mutational profiles with treatment outcomes. Ninety-nine patients had at least 1 mutation identified, 46 (46%) had 2 mutations, and 34 (34%) patients had ?3 mutations. Seventy-nine patients carried a mutation in JAK2V617F, 14 patients had mutations in CALR, 6 patients had an MPL mutation, and 2 patients were triple negative. No mutation was significantly associated with spleen or anemia response. A high Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System score and pretreatment transfusion dependence were associated with a shorter time to treatment failure (TTF), and this association retained significance on multivariable analysis. Patients with ASXL1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.86; P = .03) and EZH2 mutations (HR, 2.94; P = .009) and an HMR profile (HR, 2.06; P = .01) had shorter TTF. On multivariate analysis, ASXL1 or EZH2 mutations were independently associated with shorter TTF and overall survival. These findings help identify patients unlikely to have a durable response with current JAK1/2 inhibitors and provide a framework for future studies.
Project description:Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clinically characterized by the chronic overproduction of differentiated peripheral blood cells and the gradual expansion of malignant intramedullary/extramedullary hematopoiesis. In MPNs mutations in JAK2 MPL or CALR are detected mutually exclusive in more than 90% of cases [1,2]. Mutations in them lead to the abnormal activation of JAK/STAT signaling and the autonomous growth of differentiated cells therefore they are considered as "driver" gene mutations. In addition to the above driver gene mutations mutations in epigenetic regulators such as TET2 DNMT3A ASXL1 EZH2 or IDH1/2 are detected in about 5%-30% of cases respectively . Mutations in TET2 DNMT3A EZH2 or IDH1/2 commonly confer the increased self-renewal capacity on normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) but they do not lead to the autonomous growth of differentiated cells and only exhibit subtle clinical phenotypes [4,6-8,5]. It was unclear how mutations in such epigenetic regulators influenced abnormal HSCs with driver gene mutations how they influenced the disease phenotype or whether a single driver gene mutation was sufficient for the initiation of human MPNs. Therefore we focused on JAK2V617F and loss of TET2-the former as a representative of driver gene mutations and the latter as a representative of mutations in epigenetic regulators-and examined the influence of single or double mutations on HSCs (Lineage(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+) cells (LSKs)) by functional analyses and microarray whole-genome expression analyses . Gene expression profiling showed that the HSC fingerprint genes  was statistically equally enriched in TET2-knockdown-LSKs but negatively enriched in JAK2V617F-LSKs compared to that in wild-type-LSKs. Double-mutant-LSKs showed the same tendency as JAK2V617F-LSKs in terms of their HSC fingerprint genes but the expression of individual genes differed between the two groups. Among 245 HSC fingerprint genes 100 were more highly expressed in double-mutant-LSKs than in JAK2V617F-LSKs. These altered gene expressions might partly explain the mechanisms of initiation and progression of MPNs which was observed in the functional analyses . Here we describe gene expression profiles deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under the accession number GSE62302 including experimental methods and quality control analyses.
Project description:Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm that occurs de novo (primary myelofibrosis) or results from the progression of polycythemia vera or essential thrombocytemia (hereafter designated as secondary myelofibrosis or post-polycythemia vera/ essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis). To progress in the understanding of myelofibrosis and to find molecular prognostic markers we studied 104 samples of primary and secondary myelofibrosis at chronic (n=68) and acute phases (n=12) from 80 patients, by using array-comparative genomic hybridization and sequencing of 23 genes (ASXL1, BMI1, CBL, DNMT3A, EZH2, IDH1/2, JAK2, K/NRAS, LNK, MPL, NF1, PPP1R16B, PTPN11, RCOR1, SF3B1, SOCS2, SRSF2, SUZ12, TET2, TP53, TRPS1). We found copy number aberrations in 54% of samples, often involving genes with a known or potential role in leukemogenesis. We show that cases carrying a del(20q), del(17) or del(12p) evolve in acute myeloid leukemia (P=0.03). We found that 88% of the cases were mutated, mainly in signaling pathway (JAK2 69%, NF1 6%) and epigenetic genes (ASXL1 26%, TET2 14%, EZH2 8%). Overall survival was poor in patients with more than one mutation (P=0.001) and in patients with JAK2/ASXL1 mutations (P=0.02). Our study highlights the heterogeneity of myelofibrosis, and points to several interesting copy number aberrations and genes with diagnostic and prognostic impact.
Project description:Mutations in JAK2, MPL and CALR are highly relevant to the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We performed high resolution melting analysis and Sanger sequencing together with T-A cloning to elucidate the unique mutation profile of these genes, in Chinese patients with MPNs. Peripheral blood DNA samples were obtained from 80 patients with polycythemia vera (PV), 80 patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET) and 50 patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Ten PV patients were identified with diverse JAK2 exon 12 mutations. Five novel JAK2 Exon 12 mutation patterns (M532V/E543G, N533D, M535I/H538Y/K549I, E543G and D544N) were described. JAK2 V617F was detected in 140 samples (66 PV, 45 ET and 29 PMF). JAK2 Exon 12 mutations were prevalent (13%) and variable in the Chinese patients. Compared with PV patients with JAK2 V617F mutations, PV patients with JAK2 exon 12 mutations had an earlier median onset of disease (P?=?0.0013). MPL W515L/K mutations were discerned in 4 ET and 3 PMF patients. Two kinds of CALR mutation, c. 1179_1230del and c. 1234_1235insTTGTC were detected in 20 ET and 16 PMF patients. A novel CALR mutation pattern (c. 1173_1223del/c. 1179_1230del) was identified in 2 PMF samples. In addition, 17 scattered point mutations in CALR c.1153 to c.1255 were also detected in 13 cases with CALR frame-shifting variations and 2 cases without CALR frame-shifting variations. Female patients showed a predisposition to CALR mutations (P?=?0.0035). Chinese Ph-negative MPN patients have a unique mutation landscape in the common molecular markers of MPN diagnosis. Validation of the molecular diagnostic pipeline should be emphasized since there is a considerable ethnical diversity in the molecular profiles of Ph-negative MPNs.
Project description:Clonal architecture in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is poorly understood. Here we report genomic analyses of a patient with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) transformed to secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on PMF and sAML diagnosis samples, with skin included as a germline surrogate. Deep sequencing validation was performed on the WGS samples and an additional sample obtained during sAML remission/relapsed PMF. Clustering analysis of 649 validated somatic single-nucleotide variants revealed four distinct clonal groups, each including putative driver mutations. The first group (including JAK2 and U2AF1), representing the founding clone, included mutations with high frequency at all three disease stages. The second clonal group (including MYB) was present only in PMF, suggesting the presence of a clone that was dispensable for transformation. The third group (including ASXL1) contained mutations with low frequency in PMF and high frequency in subsequent samples, indicating evolution of the dominant clone with disease progression. The fourth clonal group (including IDH1 and RUNX1) was acquired at sAML transformation and was predominantly absent at sAML remission/relapsed PMF. Taken together, these findings illustrate the complex clonal dynamics associated with disease evolution in MPNs and sAML.
Project description:Even though mutations in epigenetic regulators frequently occur in myeloproliferative neoplasms, their effects on the epigenome have not been well studied. Furthermore, even though primary myelofibrosis (PMF) has a markedly worse prognosis than essential thrombocytosis or polycythemia vera, the molecular distinctions between these subgroups are not well elucidated. We conducted the HELP (HpaII tiny fragment enriched by LM-PCR) assay to study genome-wide methylation in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, and PMF samples compared with healthy controls. We determined that polycythemia vera and essential thrombocytosis are characterized by aberrant promoter hypermethylation, whereas PMF is an epigenetically distinct subgroup characterized by both aberrant hyper- and hypomethylation. Aberrant hypomethylation in PMF was seen to occur in non-CpG island loci, showing further qualitative differences between the disease subgroups. The differentially methylated genes in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocytosis were involved predominantly in cell signaling pathways and were enriched for binding sites of GATA1 and other transcription factors. In contrast, aberrantly methylated genes in PMF were involved in inflammatory pathways and were enriched for NF1, LEF1, and other transcription factors. Within the PMF subgroup, cases with ASXL1 disruptions formed an epigenetically distinct subgroup with relatively increased methylation. Cases of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) with TET2 mutations showed decreased levels of hydroxymethylation and distinct set of hypermethylated genes. In contrast, the JAK2V617F mutation did not drive epigenetic clustering within MPNs. Finally, the significance of aberrant methylation was shown by sensitivity of MPN-derived cell lines to decitabine. These results show epigenetic differences between PMF and polycythemia vera/essential thrombocytosis and reveal methylomic signatures of ASXL1 and TET2 mutations.
Project description:A myeloid neoplasm-relevant 27-gene panel was used for next-generation sequencing of bone marrow or whole blood DNA in 182 patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). DNA sequence variants/mutations other than JAK2/CALR/MPL were detected in 147 patients (81%), with the most frequent being ASXL1 (36%), TET2 (18%), SRSF2 (18%), and U2AF1 (16%); furthermore, 35%, 26%, 10%, and 9% of the patients harbored 1, 2, 3, or 4 or more such variants/mutations, respectively. Adverse variants/mutations were identified by age-adjusted multivariable analysis of impact on overall survival or leukemia-free survival and included ASXL1, SRSF2, CBL, KIT, RUNX1, SH2B3, and CEBPA; their combined prevalence was 56%. Adverse variants/mutations were associated with inferior overall survival (median, 3.6 vs 8.5 years; P < .001) and leukemia-free survival (7-year risk, 25% vs 4%; P < .001), and the effect on survival was independent of both the Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System Plus and JAK2/CALR/MPL mutational status, with respective hazard ratios of 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-3.1) and 2.9 (95% CI, 1.9-4.4). Additional prognostic information was obtained by considering the number of adverse variants/mutations; median survivals in patients with zero (n = 80), 1 or 2 (n = 93), or 3 or more (n = 9) adverse variants/mutations were 8.5, 4, and 0.7 years, respectively (P < .001). Additional data were obtained on pattern of mutation co-segregation and phenotypic correlation, including significant associations between U2AF1 and JAK2 mutations (P = .04) and U2AF1 mutations and anemia (P = .003) and thrombocytopenia (P = .006). We conclude that DNA variants/mutations other than JAK2/CALR/MPL are prevalent in PMF and are qualitatively and quantitatively relevant in predicting overall and leukemia-free survival.
Project description:The recent JAK1/2 inhibitor trial in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) showed that reducing inflammation can be more beneficial than targeting gene mutants. We evaluated the proinflammatory IL-6 cytokine and JAK-STAT signaling pathway related genes in circulating CD34(+) cells of MPNs. Regarding laboratory data, leukocytosis has been observed in polycythemia vera (PV) and JAK2V617F mutation positive versus negative primary myelofibrosis (PMF) patients. Moreover, thrombocytosis was reduced by JAK2V617F allele burden in essential thrombocythemia (ET) and PMF. 261 significantly changed genes have been detected in PV, 82 in ET, and 94 genes in PMF. The following JAK-STAT signaling pathway related genes had augmented expression in CD34(+) cells of MPNs: CCND3 and IL23A regardless of JAK2V617F allele burden; CSF3R, IL6ST, and STAT1/2 in ET and PV with JAK2V617F mutation; and AKT2, IFNGR2, PIM1, PTPN11, and STAT3 only in PV. STAT5A gene expression was generally reduced in MPNs. IL-6 cytokine levels were increased in plasma, as well as IL-6 protein levels in bone marrow stroma of MPNs, dependent on JAK2V617F mutation presence in ET and PMF patients. Therefore, the JAK2V617F mutant allele burden participated in inflammation biomarkers induction and related signaling pathways activation in MPNs.