Folate and vitamin B12 imbalance induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and cholesterol biosynthesis gene expression in human adipocytes
ABSTRACT: Rationale: Low B12 has been shown to play an important role in the prediction of metabolic risk, but its significance and mechanism in the development of adiposity and adipose tissue dysfunction is largely unknown. Objective: To investigate the role of B12 and folic acid in the development of adipocyte dysfunction. Methods and Results: Microarray analysis of human adipocytes (CHUB-S7 cell line) cultured and differentiated in customised media with varying concentrations of B12 and folic acid led to the identification of two important pathways: cholesterol synthesis and unfolded protein response (UPR). Adipocytes cultured in media with low B12 (150 pmol/L) or no B12 had increased intracellular total cholesterol, higher secreted homocysteine levels, induced UPR and reduced glucose uptake capacity compared to adipocytes cultured in normal media with higher B12. The folate concentrations had either no or little effect on the measured functions. Further analysis of these adipocytes for overall DNA methylation showed that the promoter regions of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) were hypomethylated in the low and no B12 conditions. The SREB proteins (SREBP1 and 2) and mRNA expressions (SREBF1 and LDLR) were also increased in the same conditions. Conclusion: The data suggest that low B12 can lead to adipocyte dysfunction by inducing excess cholesterol biosynthesis, homocysteine production and induction of UPR and overall adipocyte dysfunction. Both of these pathways and adipocyte dysfunction play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Independent replicate samples of the human adipocyte cell line CHUB-S7 were treated with four different concentrations of B12 and folate.
Project description:Rationale: Low B12 has been shown to play an important role in the prediction of metabolic risk, but its significance and mechanism in the development of adiposity and adipose tissue dysfunction is largely unknown. Objective: To investigate the role of B12 and folic acid in the development of adipocyte dysfunction. Methods and Results: Microarray analysis of human adipocytes (CHUB-S7 cell line) cultured and differentiated in customised media with varying concentrations of B12 and folic acid led to the identification of two important pathways: cholesterol synthesis and unfolded protein response (UPR). Adipocytes cultured in media with low B12 (150 pmol/L) or no B12 had increased intracellular total cholesterol, higher secreted homocysteine levels, induced UPR and reduced glucose uptake capacity compared to adipocytes cultured in normal media with higher B12. The folate concentrations had either no or little effect on the measured functions. Further analysis of these adipocytes for overall DNA methylation showed that the promoter regions of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) were hypomethylated in the low and no B12 conditions. The SREB proteins (SREBP1 and 2) and mRNA expressions (SREBF1 and LDLR) were also increased in the same conditions. Conclusion: The data suggest that low B12 can lead to adipocyte dysfunction by inducing excess cholesterol biosynthesis, homocysteine production and induction of UPR and overall adipocyte dysfunction. Both of these pathways and adipocyte dysfunction play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Independent replicate samples of the human adipocyte cell line CHUB-S7 were treated with four different concentrations of B12 and folate.
Project description:Endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoid (GC) excess (Cushing's syndrome) is characterized by increased adiposity and insulin resistance. Although GCs cause global insulin resistance in vivo, we have previously shown that GCs are able to augment insulin action in human adipose tissue, contrasting with their action in skeletal muscle. Cushing's syndrome develops following chronic GC exposure and, in addition, is a state of hyperinsulinemia.We have therefore compared the impact of short- (24 h) and long-term (7 days) GC administration on insulin signalling in differentiated human adipocytes in the presence of low or high concentrations of insulin.Both short- (24 h) and long-term (7 days) treatment of chub-s7 cells with dexamethasone (Dex) (0.5 μM) increased insulin-stimulated pTyr612IRS1 and pSer473akt/PKB, consistent with insulin sensitization. Chronic high-dose insulin treatment induced insulin resistance in chub-s7 cells. However, treatment with both high-dose insulin and Dex in combination still caused insulin sensitization.In this human subcutaneous adipocyte cell line, prolonged GC exposure, even in the presence of high insulin concentrations, is able to cause insulin sensitization. We suggest that this is an important mechanism driving adipogenesis and contributes to the obese phenotype of patients with Cushing's syndrome.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a circulatory macrophage-derived factor that increases with obesity and leads to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite this, its role in adipose tissue and the adipocyte is unknown. Therefore, the aims of this study were to clarify the expression of Lp-PLA2 in relation to different adipose tissue depots and type 2 diabetes, and ascertain whether markers of obesity and type 2 diabetes correlate with circulating Lp-PLA2. A final aim was to evaluate the effect of cholesterol on cellular Lp-PLA2 in an in vitro adipocyte model. METHODS:Analysis of anthropometric and biochemical variables from a cohort of lean (age 44.4 ± 6.2 years; BMI 22.15 ± 1.8 kg/m2, n = 23), overweight (age 45.4 ± 12.3 years; BMI 26.99 ± 1.5 kg/m2, n = 24), obese (age 49.0 ± 9.1 years; BMI 33.74 ± 3.3 kg/m2, n = 32) and type 2 diabetic women (age 53.0 ± 6.13 years; BMI 35.08 ± 8.6 kg/m2, n = 35), as part of an ethically approved study. Gene and protein expression of PLA2 and its isoforms were assessed in adipose tissue samples, with serum analysis undertaken to assess circulating Lp-PLA2 and its association with cardiometabolic risk markers. A human adipocyte cell model, Chub-S7, was used to address the intracellular change in Lp-PLA2 in adipocytes. RESULTS:Lp-PLA2 and calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) isoforms were altered by adiposity, as shown by microarray analysis (p < 0.05). Type 2 diabetes status was also observed to significantly alter gene and protein levels of Lp-PLA2 in abdominal subcutaneous (AbdSc) (p < 0.01), but not omental, adipose tissue. Furthermore, multivariate stepwise regression analysis of circulating Lp-PLA2 and metabolic markers revealed that the greatest predictor of Lp-PLA2 in non-diabetic individuals was LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.004). Additionally, in people with type 2 diabetes, oxidised LDL (oxLDL), triacylglycerols and HDL-cholesterol appeared important predictors, accounting for 59.7% of the variance (p < 0.001). Subsequent in vitro studies determined human adipocytes to be a source of Lp-PLA2, as confirmed by mRNA expression, protein levels and immunochemistry. Further in vitro experiments revealed that treatment with LDL-cholesterol or oxLDL resulted in significant upregulation of Lp-PLA2, while inhibition of Lp-PLA2 reduced oxLDL production by 19.8% (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Our study suggests adipose tissue and adipocytes are active sources of Lp-PLA2, with differential regulation by fat depot and metabolic state. Moreover, levels of circulating Lp-PLA2 appear to be influenced by unfavourable lipid profiles in type 2 diabetes, which may occur in part through regulation of LDL-cholesterol and oxLDL metabolism in adipocytes.
Project description:The adipocyte is unique in its capacity to store lipids. In addition to triglycerides, the adipocyte stores a significant amount of cholesterol. Moreover, obese adipocytes are characterized by a redistribution of cholesterol with depleted cholesterol in the plasma membrane, suggesting that cholesterol perturbation may play a role in adipocyte dysfunction. We used methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD), a molecule with high affinity for cholesterol, to rapidly deplete cholesterol level in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We tested whether this perturbation altered adipocyte secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a chemokine that is elevated in obesity and is linked to obesity-associated chronic diseases. Depletion of cholesterol by M?CD increased MCP-1 secretion as well as the mRNA and protein levels, suggesting perturbation at biosynthesis and secretion. Pharmacological inhibition revealed that NF-?B, but not MEK, p38 and JNK, was involved in M?CD-stimulated MCP-1 biosynthesis and secretion in adipocytes. Finally, another cholesterol-binding drug, filipin, also induced MCP-1 secretion without altering membrane cholesterol level. Interestingly, both M?CD and filipin disturbed the integrity of lipid rafts, the membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol. Thus, the depletion of membrane cholesterol in obese adipocytes may result in dysfunction of lipid rafts, leading to the elevation of proinflammatory signaling and MCP-1 secretion in adipocytes.
Project description:Adipose tissue contains one of the largest reservoirs of cholesterol in the body. Adipocyte dysfunction in obesity is associated with intracellular cholesterol accumulation, and alterations in cholesterol homeostasis have been shown to alter glucose metabolism in cultured adipocytes. ABCA1 plays a major role in cholesterol efflux, suggesting a role for ABCA1 in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the adipocyte. However, the impact of adipocyte ABCA1 on adipose tissue function and glucose metabolism is unknown. Our aim was to determine the impact of adipocyte ABCA1 on adipocyte lipid metabolism, body weight, and glucose metabolism in vivo. To address this, we used mice lacking ABCA1 specifically in adipocytes (ABCA1(-ad/-ad)). When fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet, ABCA1(-ad/-ad) mice showed increased cholesterol and triglyceride stores in adipose tissue, developed enlarged fat pads, and had increased body weight. Associated with these phenotypic changes, we observed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol and glucose homeostasis, including ldlr, abcg1, glut-4, adiponectin, and leptin. ABCA1(-ad/-ad) mice also demonstrated impaired glucose tolerance, lower insulin sensitivity, and decreased insulin secretion. We conclude that ABCA1 in adipocytes influences adipocyte lipid metabolism, body weight, and whole-body glucose homeostasis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling is a well-studied endogenous regulator of mesenchymal cell fate determination, promoting osteoblastogenesis and inhibiting adipogenesis. However, emerging genetic evidence in humans links a number of Wnt pathway members to body fat distribution, obesity, and metabolic dysfunction, suggesting that this pathway also functions in adipocytes. Recent studies in mice have uncovered compelling evidence that the Wnt signaling pathway plays important roles in adipocyte metabolism, particularly under obesogenic conditions. However, complexities in Wnt signaling and differences in experimental models and approaches have thus far limited our understanding of its specific roles in this context. METHODS:To investigate roles of the canonical Wnt pathway in the regulation of adipocyte metabolism, we generated adipocyte-specific ?-catenin (?-cat) knockout mouse and cultured cell models. We used RNA sequencing, ChIP sequencing, and molecular approaches to assess expression of Wnt targets and lipogenic genes. We then used functional assays to evaluate effects of ?-catenin deficiency on adipocyte metabolism, including lipid and carbohydrate handling. In mice maintained on normal chow and high-fat diets, we assessed the cellular and functional consequences of adipocyte-specific ?-catenin deletion on adipose tissues and systemic metabolism. RESULTS:We report that in adipocytes, the canonical Wnt/?-catenin pathway regulates de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and fatty acid monounsaturation. Further, ?-catenin mediates effects of Wnt signaling on lipid metabolism in part by transcriptional regulation of Mlxipl and Srebf1. Intriguingly, adipocyte-specific loss of ?-catenin is sensed and defended by CD45-/CD31- stromal cells to maintain tissue-wide Wnt signaling homeostasis in chow-fed mice. With long-term high-fat diet, this compensatory mechanism is overridden, revealing that ?-catenin deletion promotes resistance to diet-induced obesity and adipocyte hypertrophy and subsequent protection from metabolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our studies demonstrate that Wnt signaling in adipocytes is required for lipogenic gene expression, de novo lipogenesis, and lipid desaturation. In addition, adipose tissues rigorously defend Wnt signaling homeostasis under standard nutritional conditions, such that stromal-vascular cells sense and compensate for adipocyte-specific loss. These findings underscore the critical importance of this pathway in adipocyte lipid metabolism and adipose tissue function.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Obesity is a key risk factor for many secondary chronic illnesses, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling is established as an important endogenous inhibitor of adipogenesis. This pathway is operative in mature adipocytes; however, its roles in this context remain unclear due to complexities of Wnt signaling and differences in experimental models. In this study, we used novel cultured cell and mouse models to investigate functional roles of Wnts secreted from adipocytes. METHODS:We generated adipocyte-specific Wntless (Wls) knockout mice and cultured cell models to investigate molecular and metabolic consequences of disrupting Wnt secretion from mature adipocytes. To characterize Wls-deficient cultured adipocytes, we evaluated the expression of Wnt target and lipogenic genes and the downstream functional effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. We also investigated the impact of adipocyte-specific Wls deletion on adipose tissues and global glucose metabolism in mice fed normal chow or high-fat diets. RESULTS:Many aspects of the Wnt signaling apparatus are expressed and operative in mature adipocytes, including the Wnt chaperone Wntless. Deletion of Wntless in cultured adipocytes results in the inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and lipid monounsaturation, likely through repression of Srebf1 (SREBP1c) and Mlxipl (ChREBP) and impaired cleavage of immature SREBP1c into its active form. Adipocyte-specific Wls knockout mice (Wls-/-) have lipogenic gene expression in adipose tissues and isolated adipocytes similar to that of controls when fed a normal chow diet. However, closer investigation reveals that a subset of Wnts and downstream signaling targets are upregulated within stromal-vascular cells of Wls-/- mice, suggesting that adipose tissues defend loss of Wnt secretion from adipocytes. Interestingly, this compensation is lost with long-term high-fat diet challenges. Thus, after six months of a high-fat diet, Wls-/- mice are characterized by decreased adipocyte lipogenic gene expression, reduced visceral adiposity, and improved glucose homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, these studies demonstrate that adipocyte-derived Wnts regulate de novo lipogenesis and lipid desaturation and coordinate the expression of lipogenic genes in adipose tissues. In addition, we report that Wnt signaling within adipose tissues is defended, such that a loss of Wnt secretion from adipocytes is sensed and compensated for by neighboring stromal-vascular cells. With chronic overnutrition, this compensatory mechanism is lost, revealing that Wls-/- mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy, and metabolic dysfunction.
Project description:Cholesterol plays essential structural and signaling roles in mammalian cells, but too much cholesterol can cause cytotoxicity. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferases 1 and 2 (ACAT1/2) convert cholesterol into its storage form, cholesteryl esters, regulating a key step in cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Adipose tissue can store >50% of whole-body cholesterol. Interestingly, however, almost no ACAT activity is present in adipose tissue, and most adipose cholesterol is stored in its free form. We therefore hypothesized that increased cholesterol esterification may have detrimental effects on adipose tissue function. Here, using several approaches, including protein overexpression, quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and various biochemical assays, we found that ACAT1 expression is significantly increased in the adipose tissue of the ob/ob mice. We further demonstrated that ACAT1/2 overexpression partially inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In mature adipocytes, increased ACAT activity reduced the size of lipid droplets (LDs) and inhibited lipolysis and insulin signaling. Paradoxically, the amount of free cholesterol increased on the surface of LDs in ACAT1/2-overexpressing adipocytes, accompanied by increased LD localization of caveolin-1. Moreover, cholesterol depletion in adipocytes by treating the cells with cholesterol-deficient media or ?-cyclodextrins induced changes in cholesterol distribution that were similar to those caused by ACAT1/2 overexpression. Our results suggest that ACAT1/2 overexpression increases the level of free cholesterol on the LD surface, thereby impeding adipocyte function. These findings provide detailed insights into the role of free cholesterol in LD and adipocyte function and suggest that ACAT inhibitors have potential utility for managing disorders associated with extreme obesity.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are biological vectors that can modulate the metabolism of target cells by conveying signalling proteins and genomic material. The level of EVs in plasma is significantly increased in cardiometabolic diseases associated with obesity, suggesting their possible participation in the development of metabolic dysfunction. With regard to the poor definition of adipocyte-derived EVs, the purpose of this study was to characterise both qualitatively and quantitatively EVs subpopulations secreted by fat cells. Adipocyte-derived EVs were isolated by differential centrifugation of conditioned media collected from 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured for 24 h in serum-free conditions. Based on morphological and biochemical properties, as well as quantification of secreted EVs, we distinguished two subpopulations of adipocyte-derived EVs, namely small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) and large extracellular vesicles (lEVs). Proteomic analyses revealed that lEVs and sEVs exhibit specific protein signatures, allowing us not only to define novel markers of each population, but also to predict their biological functions. Despite similar phospholipid patterns, the comparative lipidomic analysis performed on these EV subclasses revealed a specific cholesterol enrichment of the sEV population, whereas lEVs were characterised by high amounts of externalised phosphatidylserine. Enhanced secretion of lEVs and sEVs is achievable following exposure to different biological stimuli related to the chronic low-grade inflammation state associated with obesity. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of primary murine adipocytes to secrete sEVs and lEVs, which display physical and biological characteristics similar to those described for 3T3-L1. Our study provides additional information and elements to define EV subtypes based on the characterisation of adipocyte-derived EV populations. It also underscores the need to distinguish EV subpopulations, through a combination of multiple approaches and markers, since their specific composition may cause distinct metabolic responses in recipient cells and tissues.
Project description:Adipose harbors a large depot of free cholesterol. However, a role for adipose in cholesterol lipidation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in vivo is not established. We present the first evidence that adipocytes support transfer of cholesterol to HDL in vivo as well as in vitro and implicate ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), but not ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 1 (ABCG1), cholesterol transporters in this process.Cholesterol efflux from wild-type, ABCA1(-/-), SR-BI(-/-), and ABCG1(-/-) adipocytes to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL3 were measured in vitro. 3T3L1 adipocytes, labeled with (3)H-cholesterol, were injected intraperitoneally into wild-type, apoA-I transgenic, and apoA-I(-/-) mice, and tracer movement onto plasma HDL was monitored. Identical studies were performed with labeled wild-type, ABCA1(-/-), or SR-BI(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast adipocytes. The effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on transporter expression and cholesterol efflux was monitored during adipocyte differentiation. Cholesterol efflux to apoA-I and HDL3 was impaired in ABCA1(-/-) and SR-BI(-/-) adipocytes, respectively, with no effect observed in ABCG1(-/-) adipocytes. Intraperitoneal injection of labeled 3T3L1 adipocytes resulted in increased HDL-associated (3)H-cholesterol in apoA-I transgenic mice but reduced levels in apoA-I(-/-) animals. Intraperitoneal injection of labeled ABCA1(-/-) or SR-BI(-/-) adipocytes reduced plasma counts relative to their respective controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha reduced both ABCA1 and SR-BI expression and impaired cholesterol efflux from partially differentiated adipocytes.These data suggest a novel metabolic function of adipocytes in promoting cholesterol transfer to HDL in vivo and implicate adipocyte SR-BI and ABCA1, but not ABCG1, in this process. Furthermore, adipocyte modulation of HDL may be impaired in adipose inflammatory disease states such as type 2 diabetes mellitus.