Gene expression data from mouse ES cell-derived primitive NSCs and definitive NSCs
ABSTRACT: Primitive neural stem cells (NSCs) could be derived from pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and then differentiate into definitive-type neural stem cells which resemble NSCs obtained from the central nervous system. Hence, primitive NSCs define an early stage of neural induction and provide a model to understand the mechanism that controls initial neural commitment. In this study, we performed microarray assay to analyze the global transcriptional profiles in mouse ES cell-derived primitive and definitive NSCs and to depict the molecular changes during the multi-staged neural differentiation process. Primitive NSCs derived directly from ESCs in Lif (p-NSC_L), primitive NSCs that were sub-cultured in the presence of Lif and FGF (p-NSC_LF), as well as definitive NSCs derived from primitive NSCs in medium containing FGF and EGF, were collected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. Mouse ESCs and NSCs obtained from mouse embryonic brain (E11.5) were included for controls. For each cell type, we collected two biological replicate samples for microarray analysis.
Project description:Primitive neural stem cells (NSCs) could be derived from pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and then differentiate into definitive-type neural stem cells which resemble NSCs obtained from the central nervous system. Hence, primitive NSCs define an early stage of neural induction and provide a model to understand the mechanism that controls initial neural commitment. In this study, we performed microarray assay to analyze the global transcriptional profiles in mouse ES cell-derived primitive and definitive NSCs and to depict the molecular changes during the multi-staged neural differentiation process. Primitive NSCs derived directly from ESCs in Lif (p-NSC_L), primitive NSCs that were sub-cultured in the presence of Lif and FGF (p-NSC_LF), as well as definitive NSCs derived from primitive NSCs in medium containing FGF and EGF, were collected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. Mouse ESCs and NSCs obtained from mouse embryonic brain (E11.5) were included for controls. For each cell type, we collected two biological replicate samples for microarray analysis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mouse definitive neural stem cells (NSCs) are derived from a population of LIF-responsive primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) within the neurectoderm, yet details on the early signaling and transcriptional mechanisms that control this lineage transition are lacking. Here we tested whether FGF and Wnt signaling pathways can regulate Zfhx1b expression to control early neural stem cell development. RESULTS: By microinjecting FGF8b into the pro-amniotic cavity ex vivo at 7.0 days post-coitum (dpc) and culturing whole embryos, we demonstrate that neurectoderm-specific gene expression (for example, Sox2, Nestin, Zfhx1b) is increased, whereas Wnt3a represses neurectoderm gene expression. To determine whether FGF signaling also mediates the lineage transition from a pNSC to a NSC, 7.0-dpc embryos were microinjected with either FGF8b or inhibitors of the FGF receptor-MAP kinase signaling pathway ex vivo, cultured as whole embryos to approximately 8.5 dpc and assayed for clonal NSC colony formation. We show that pre-activation of FGF signaling in the anterior neurectoderm causes an increase in the number of colony forming NSCs derived later from the anterior neural plate, whereas inhibition of FGF signaling significantly reduces the number of NSC colonies. Interestingly, inhibition of FGF signaling causes the persistence of LIF-responsive pNSCs within the anterior neural plate and over-expression of Zfhx1b in these cells is sufficient to rescue the transition from a LIF-responsive pNSC to an FGF-responsive NSC. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that definitive NSC fate specification in the mouse neurectoderm is facilitated by FGF activation of Zfhx1b.
Project description:Adult forebrain definitive neural stem cells (NSCs) comprise a subpopulation of GFAP-expressing subependymal cells that arise from embryonic fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-dependent NSCs that are first isolated from the developing brain at E8.5. Embryonic FGF-dependent NSCs are derived from leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-responsive, Oct4-expressing primitive NSCs (pNSCs) that are first isolated at E5.5. We report the presence of a rare population of pNCSs in the periventricular region of the adult forebrain. Adult-derived pNSCs (AdpNSCs) are GFAP(-), LIF-responsive stem cells that display pNSC properties, including Oct4 expression and the ability to integrate into the inner cell mass of blastocysts. AdpNSCs generate self-renewing, multipotent colonies that give rise to definitive GFAP(+) NSCs in vitro and repopulate the subependyma after the ablation of GFAP(+) NSCs in vivo. These data support the hypothesis that a rare population of pNSCs is present in the adult brain and is upstream of the GFAP(+) NSCs.
Project description:Cell-based therapies using neural stem cells (NSCs) have shown positive outcomes in various models of neurological injury and disease. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) address many problems associated with NSCs from various sources, including the immune response and cell availability. However, due to inherent differences between embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and iPSCs, detailed characterization of the iPS-derived NSCs will be required before translational experiments can be performed. Murine piggyBac transposon iPSCs were clonally expanded in floating sphere colonies to generate primitive NSCs initially with serum-free media (SFM) containing the leukemia inhibitory factor and followed by SFM with the fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) to form colonies of definitive NSCs (dNSCs). Primitive and definitive clonally derived neurospheres were successfully generated using the default conditions from iPSCs and ESCs. However, the iPSC-dNSCs expressed significantly higher levels of pluripotency and nonectoderm lineage genes compared to equivalent ESC-dNSCs. The addition of the bone morphogenetic proteins antagonist, Noggin, to the media significantly increased primary neurosphere generation from the iPSC lines, but did not affect the dNSC sphere colonies generated. The induction of the NOTCH pathway by the Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) improved the generation and quality of dNSCs, as demonstrated by a reduction in pluripotency and nonectodermal markers, while maintaining NSC-specific gene expression. The iPS-dNSCs (+DLL4) showed functional neural differentiation by immuncytochemical staining and electrophysiology. This study suggests the intrinsic differences between ESCs and iPSCs in their ability to acquire a dNSC fate that can be overcome by inducing the NOTCH pathway.
Project description:The pathology of spinal cord injury (SCI) makes it appropriate for cell-based therapies. Treatments using neural stem cells (NSCs) in animal models of SCI have shown positive outcomes, although uncertainty remains regarding the optimal cell source. Pluripotent cell sources such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide a limitless supply of therapeutic cells. NSCs derived using embryoid bodies (EB) from ESCs have shown tumorigenic potential. Clonal neurosphere generation is an alternative method to generate safer and more clinically relevant NSCs without the use of an EB stage for use in cell-based therapies. We generated clonally derived definitive NSCs (dNSCs) from ESC. These cells were transplanted into a mouse thoracic SCI model. Embryonic stem cell-derived definitive neural stem cell (ES-dNSC)-transplanted mice were compared with controls using behavioral measures and histopathological analysis of tissue. In addition, the role of remyelination in injury recovery was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The SCI group that received ES-dNSC transplantation showed significant improvements in locomotor function compared with controls in open field and gait analysis. The cell treatment group had a significant enhancement of spared neural tissue. Immunohistological assessments showed that dNSCs differentiated primarily to oligodendrocytes. These cells were shown to express myelin basic protein, associate with axons, and support nodal architecture as well as display proper compact, multilayer myelination in electron microscopic analysis. This study provides strong evidence that dNSCs clonally derived from pluripotent cells using the default pathway of neuralization improve motor function after SCI and enhance sparing of neural tissue, while remaining safe and clinically relevant.
Project description:Neural stem cells (NSCs) can be derived from single mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the absence of instructive factors. Clonal primitive NSC (pNSC) colonies are formed first, and then give rise to clonal, fibroblast growth factor-dependent definitive neural stem cells (dNSCs). We tested low-oxygen culture as a potential method of alleviating the extensive cell death seen in pNSCs and dNSCs. Culture in low (4%) oxygen promoted survival of pNSCs by inhibiting apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)-dependent cell death, although pNSCs undergo both AIF- and caspase-mediated cell death in 20% oxygen. In contrast, survival of dNSCs in low oxygen was increased by inhibition of caspase-dependent cell death. In normoxia, AIF is implicated in promoting dNSC survival. Neither survival effect was dependent on the main transcriptional effector of hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Low-oxygen concentrations may be involved in expansion of early NSC populations by inhibiting cell death through different pathways in these sequential pNSC and dNSC populations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a common disease that results in motor and sensory disorders and even lifelong paralysis. The transplantation of stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or subsequently generated stem/progenitor cells, is predicted to be a promising treatment for SCI. In this study, we aimed to investigate effect of human iPSC-derived neural stem cells (hiPSC-NSCs) and umbilical cord-derived MSCs (huMSCs) in a mouse model of acute SCI.<h4>Methods</h4>Acute SCI mice model were established and were randomly treated as phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (control group), repaired with 1?×?10<sup>5</sup> hiPSC-NSCs (NSC group), and 1?×?10<sup>5</sup> huMSCs (MSC group), respectively, in a total of 54 mice (n?=?18 each). Hind limb motor function was evaluated in open-field tests using the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) at days post-operation (dpo) 1, 3, 5, and 7 after spinal cord injury, and weekly thereafter. Spinal cord and serum samples were harvested at dpo 7, 14, and 21. Haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and Masson staining were used to evaluate the morphological changes and fibrosis area. The differentiation of the transplanted cells in vivo was evaluated with immunohistochemical staining.<h4>Results</h4>The hiPSC-NSC-treated group presented a significantly smaller glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive area than MSC-treated mice at all time points. Additionally, MSC-transplanted mice had a similar GFAP+ area to mice receiving PBS. At dpo 14, the immunostained hiPSC-NSCs were positive for SRY-related high-mobility-group (HMG)-box protein-2 (SOX2). Furthermore, the transplanted hiPSC-NSCs differentiated into GFAP-positive astrocytes and beta-III tubulin-positive neurons, whereas the transplanted huMSCs differentiated into GFAP-positive astrocytes. In addition, hiPSC-NSC transplantation reduced fibrosis formation and the inflammation level. Compared with the control or huMSC transplanted group, the group with transplantation of hiPSC-NSCs exhibited significantly improved behaviours, particularly limb coordination.<h4>Conclusions</h4>HiPSC-NSCs promote functional recovery in mice with acute SCI by replacing missing neurons and attenuating fibrosis, glial scar formation, and inflammation.
Project description:During embryonic development, cells undergo changes in gene expression, signaling pathway activation/inactivation, metabolism, and intracellular organelle structures, which are mediated by mitochondria. Mitochondria continuously switch their morphology between elongated tubular and fragmented globular via mitochondrial fusion and fission. Mitochondrial fusion is mediated by proteins encoded by Mfn1, Mfn2, and Opa1, whereas mitochondrial fission is mediated by proteins encoded by Fis1 and Dnm1L. Here, we investigated the expression patterns of mitochondria-related genes during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Pluripotent ESCs maintain stemness in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) via the JAK-STAT3 pathway but lose pluripotency and differentiate in response to the withdrawal of LIF. We analyzed the expression levels of mitochondrial fusion- and fission-related genes during the differentiation of ESCs. We hypothesized that mitochondrial fusion genes would be overexpressed while the fission genes would be downregulated during the differentiation of ESCs. Though the mitochondria exhibited an elongated morphology in ESCs differentiating in response to LIF withdrawal, only the expression of Mfn2 was increased and that of Dnm1L was decreased as expected, the other exceptions being Mfn1, Opa1, and Fis1. Next, by comparing gene expression and mitochondrial morphology, we proposed an index that could precisely represent mitochondrial changes during the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells by analyzing the expression ratios of three fusion- and two fission-related genes. Surprisingly, increased Mfn2/Dnm1L ratio was correlated with elongation of mitochondria during the differentiation of ESCs. Moreover, application of this index to other specialized cell types revealed that neural stems cells (NSCs) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed increased Mfn2/Dnm1L ratio compared to ESCs. Thus, we suggest that the Mfn2/Dnm1L ratio could reflect changes in mitochondrial morphology according to the extent of differentiation.
Project description:The transcription factors SCL/Tal-1 and AML1/Runx1 control the generation of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (pHSC) and, thereby, primitive and definitive hematopoiesis, during embryonic development of the mouse from mesoderm. Thus, Runx1-deficient mice generate primitive, but not definitive hematopoiesis, while Tal-1-deficient mice are completely defective. Primitive as well as definitive hematopoiesis can be developed "in vitro" from embryonic stem cells (ESC). We show that wild type, as well as Tal-1(-/-) and Runx1(-/-) ESCs, induced to differentiation, all expand within 5 days to comparable numbers of Flk1(+) mesodermal cells. While wild type ESCs further differentiate to primitive and definitive erythrocytes, to c-fms(+)Gr1(+)Mac1(+) myeloid cells, and to B220(+)CD19(+) B- and CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-lymphoid cells, Runx1(-/-) ESCs, as expected, only develop primitive erythrocytes, and Tal-1(-/-) ESCs do not generate any hematopoietic cells. Retroviral transduction with Runx1 of Runx1(-/-) ESCs, differentiated for 4 days to mesoderm, rescues definitive erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis, though only with 1-10% of the efficiencies of wild type ESC hematopoiesis. Surprisingly, Tal-1(-/-) ESCs can also be rescued at comparably low efficiencies to primitive and definitive erythropoiesis, and to myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis by retroviral transduction with Runx1. These results suggest that Tal-1 expression is needed to express Runx1 in mesoderm, and that ectopic expression of Runx1 in mesoderm is sufficient to induce primitive as well as definitive hematopoiesis in the absence of Tal-1. Retroviral transduction of "in vitro" differentiating Tal-1(-/-) and Runx1(-/-) ESCs should be a useful experimental tool to probe selected genes for activities in the generation of hematopoietic progenitors "in vitro", and to assess the potential transforming activities in hematopoiesis of mutant forms of Tal-1 and Runx1 from acute myeloid leukemia and related tumors.
Project description:In vivo hematopoietic generation occurs in waves of primitive and definitive cell emergence. Differentiation cultures of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) offer an accessible source of hematopoietic cells for blood-related research and therapeutic strategies. However, despite many approaches, it remains a goal to robustly generate hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells (HP/SCs) in vitro from ESCs. This is partly due to the inability to efficiently promote, enrich, and/or molecularly direct hematopoietic emergence. Here, we use Gata2Venus (G2V) and Ly6a(SCA1)GFP (LG) reporter ESCs, derived from well-characterized mouse models of HP/SC emergence, to show that during in vitro differentiation they report emergent waves of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), definitive HPCs, and B-lymphoid cell potential. These results, facilitated by enrichment of single and double reporter cells with HPC properties, demonstrate that in vitro ESC differentiation approximates the waves of hematopoietic cell generation found in vivo, thus raising possibilities for enrichment of rare ESC-derived HP/SCs.