Effect of CCAR1 depletion on androgen-dependent gene expression in LNCaP cells
ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer onset and progression, and cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1) functions as an AR co-activator. We performed genome-wide gene expression analysis in control (shNS) and CCAR1-depleted (shCCAR1) LNCaP cells to assess the global effect of CCAR1 on the expression of androgen responsive genes. LNCaP cells expressing shNS or shCCAR1 were treated with ethanol or 10 nM DHT for 24 hr, and total RNA was isolated using the RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen). The integrity of RNA was analyzed using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. Two independent biological replicates were assayed for each sample. The microarrays were performed following the Affymetrix standard protocol.
Project description:Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer onset and progression, and cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1) functions as an AR co-activator. We performed genome-wide gene expression analysis in control (shNS) and CCAR1-depleted (shCCAR1) LNCaP cells to assess the global effect of CCAR1 on the expression of androgen responsive genes. LNCaP cells expressing shNS or shCCAR1 were treated with ethanol or 10 nM DHT for 24 hr, and total RNA was isolated using the RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen). The integrity of RNA was analyzed using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. Two independent biological replicates were assayed for each sample. The microarrays were performed following the Affymetrix standard protocol.
Project description:Post-translational degradation of protein plays an important role in cell life. We employed chimeric molecules (dihydrotestosterone-based proteolysis-targeting chimeric molecule [DHT-PROTAC]) to facilitate androgen receptor (AR) degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) and to investigate the role of AR in cell proliferation and viability in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were applied to analyse AR levels in LNCaP cells after DHT-PROTAC treatment. Cell counting and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay were used to evaluate cell proliferation and viability after AR elimination in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells. AR was tagged for elimination via the UPP by DHT-PROTAC, and this could be blocked by proteasome inhibitors. Degradation of AR depended on DHT-PROTAC concentration, and either DHT or an ALAPYIP-(arg)(8) peptide could compete with DHT-PROTAC. Inhibition of cell proliferation and decreased viability were observed in LNCaP cells, but not in PC-3 or 786-O cells after DHT-PROTAC treatment. These data indicate that AR elimination is facilitated via the UPP by DHT-PROTAC, and that the growth of LNCaP cells is repressed after AR degradation.
Project description:We previously encountered regulatory processes where dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exerted its inhibitory effect on parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) gene repression through the estrogen receptor (ER)α, but not the androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Here, we investigated whether such an aberrant ligand-nuclear receptor (NR) interaction is present in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. First, we confirmed that LNCaP cells expressed a functional AR and at negligible levels of ERα, and progesterone receptors. Both suppression of PTHrP and activation of the PSA genes were observed after treatment of E2, DHT and R5020. Consistent with the previous notion that the AR in LNCaP cells lost the ligand specificity due to a mutation AR (Thr-Ala877), our study using siRNA targeting each NR revealed that the AR, but not the other NRs, monopolized the role as the mediator of shared hormone-dependent regulation. These results were invariably associated with nuclear translocation of this mutant AR. Microarray of the genes regulated by either DHT, E2 or R5020 downstream of the AR (Thr-Ala877) revealed that more than half genes overlapped in LNCaP cells. Noticeably, AR (wild-type, wt) and AR (Thr-Ala877) were equally responsible for the E2-AR interactions. Fluorescent microscopic experiments demonstrated that both EGFP-AR (wt) and EGFP-AR (Thr-Ala877) were exclusively localized within the nucleus after E2 or DHT treatment. Further, a promoter assay revealed that breast cancer MCF-7 and Rv22 cells also exhibited such an aberrant E2-AR (wt) signaling. We postulate entangled interactions between the AR (wt) and E2 in a certain hormone-sensitive cancer cells. Total RNAs from the LNCaP cells transfected with control siRNA (siCT) or siRNA for AR (siAR) transfected LNCaP cells before 24 hr followed by exposed to 10-7M of DHT, E2 or R5020 exposure for another 24 h, respectively, were used.
Project description:Androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, plays a critical role in prostate cancer onset and progression, and its transcriptional function is mediated largely by distinct nuclear receptor co-regulators. Here, we show that cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1) functions as an AR co-activator. CCAR1 interacted with and enhanced the transcriptional activity of AR. Depletion of CCAR1 caused reduction in androgen-dependent expression of a subset of AR target genes. We further showed that CCAR1 is required for recruitment of AR, MED1 and RNA polymerase II to the enhancers of AR target genes and for androgen-induced long-range prostate specific antigen enhancer-promoter interaction. The molecular mechanism underlying CCAR1 function in AR-mediated transcription involves CCAR1-mediated enhanced recruitment of GATA2, a pioneer factor for AR, to AR-binding sites. CCAR1 stabilized the interaction between AR and GATA2 by interacting directly with both proteins, thereby facilitating AR and GATA2 occupancy on the enhancers. Furthermore, CCAR1 depletion inhibited the growth, migration, invasion of prostate cancer cells and reduced the tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells in vivo. Our results firmly established CCAR1 as an AR co-activator that plays a key role in AR transcription complex assembly and has an important physiological role in androgen signaling and prostate tumorigenesis.
Project description:It has been suggested in many studies that combined treatment with chemotherapeutic agents and apoptosis-inducing ligands belonging to TNFR family is a more effective strategy for cancer treatment. However, the role of androgen regulation of TNFR family-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the dose-dependent effects of androgen on TNF-alpha and TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in LNCaP. To investigate the interaction between the androgen receptor (AR) and the caspase-2 gene, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis was used, and we are the first to identify that AR interacts in vivo with an androgen-responsive elements in intron 8 of caspase-2 gene. We have found that DHT inhibited apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. There is a direct, androgen-dependent correlation between the levels of activated Akt and caspase activation after treatment with TNF-alpha and TRAIL. We have also found that there are at least two different regulatory mechanisms of p53 expression by androgen: at the gene and protein levels. At the same time, the level of AR was found to be higher in LNCaP-si-p53 compared to LNCaP-mock cells. These data indicate that there is a mutual regulation of expression between p53 and AR. Our study suggests that androgen-dependent outcome of apoptotic treatment can occur, at least in part, via the caspase-2, Akt and p53-mediated pathways.
Project description:Despite androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), persistent androgen receptor (AR) signaling enables outgrowth of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In prostate cancer (PCa) cells, ADT may enhance AR activity through induction of oxidative stress. Herein, we investigated the roles of Nrf1 and Nrf2, transcription factors that regulate antioxidant gene expression, on hormone-mediated AR transactivation using a syngeneic in vitro model of androgen dependent (LNCaP) and castration resistant (C4-2B) PCa cells. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulated transactivation of the androgen response element (ARE) was significantly greater in C4-2B cells than in LNCaP cells. DHT-induced AR transactivation was coupled with higher nuclear translocation of p65-Nrf1 in C4-2B cells, as compared to LNCaP cells. Conversely, DHT stimulation suppressed total Nrf2 levels in C4-2B cells but elevated total Nrf2 levels in LNCaP cells. Interestingly, siRNA mediated silencing of Nrf1 attenuated AR transactivation while p65-Nrf1 overexpression enhanced AR transactivation. Subsequent studies showed that Nrf1 physically interacts with AR and enhances AR's DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the p65-Nrf1 isoform is a potential AR coactivator. In contrast, Nrf2 suppressed AR-mediated transactivation by stimulating the nuclear accumulation of the p120-Nrf1 which suppressed AR transactivation. Quantitative RT-PCR studies further validated the inductive effects of p65-Nrf1 isoform on the androgen regulated genes, PSA and TMPRSS2. Therefore, our findings implicate differential roles of Nrf1 and Nrf2 in regulating AR transactivation in PCa cells. Our findings also indicate that the DHT-stimulated increase in p65-Nrf1 and the simultaneous suppression of both Nrf2 and p120-Nrf1 ultimately facilitates AR transactivation in CRPC cells.
Project description:Progression of prostate cancer (PC) to castration-recurrent growth (CRPC) remains dependent on sustained expression and transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR). A major mechanism contributing to CRPC progression is through the direct phosphorylation and activation of AR by Src-family (SFK) and ACK1 tyrosine kinases. However, the AR-dependent transcriptional networks activated by Src during CRPC progression have not been elucidated. Here, we show that activated Src (Src527F) induces androgen-independent growth in human LNCaP cells, concomitant with its ability to induce proliferation/survival genes normally induced by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in androgen-dependent LNCaP and VCaP cells. Src induces additional gene signatures unique to CRPC cell lines, LNCaP-C4-2 and CWR22Rv1, and to CRPC LuCaP35.1 xenografts. By comparing the Src-induced AR-cistrome and/or transcriptome in LNCaP to those in CRPC and LuCaP35.1 tumors, we identified an 11-gene Src-regulated CRPC signature consisting of AR-dependent, AR binding site (ARBS)-associated genes whose expression is altered by DHT in LNCaP[Src527F] but not in LNCaP cells. The differential expression of a subset (DPP4, BCAT1, CNTNAP4, CDH3) correlates with earlier PC metastasis onset and poorer survival, with the expression of BCAT1 required for Src-induced androgen-independent proliferation. Lastly, Src enhances AR binding to non-canonical ARBS enriched for FOXO1, TOP2B and ZNF217 binding motifs; cooperative AR/TOP2B binding to a non-canonical ARBS was both Src- and DHT-sensitive and correlated with increased levels of Src-induced phosphotyrosyl-TOP2B. These data suggest that CRPC progression is facilitated via Src-induced sensitization of AR to intracrine androgen levels, resulting in the engagement of canonical and non-canonical ARBS-dependent gene signatures.
Project description:Androgens play a crucial role in prostate cancer progression, and trans-1-amino-3-[(18)F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-[(18)?F]FACBC) are used for visualization of prostate cancer. We examined the effect of androgen on the expression of amino acid transporters related to anti-[(18)F]FACBC transport and uptake of trans-1-amino-3-fluoro-[1-(14)C]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid (anti-[(14)C]FACBC).Expression of amino acid transporters and uptake of anti-[(14)C]FACBC in androgen receptor (AR)-positive LNCaP and AR-negative DU145 human prostate cancer cells cultured with/without 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the effect of bicalutamide, an AR antagonist, on DHT-associated changes were investigated.DHT stimulated the expression of amino acid transporters ASCT2, SNAT5, 4F2 heavy chain, and LAT3 in LNCaP but not in DU145 cells. Anti-[(14)C]FACBC uptake was enhanced, in a DHT-dependent manner, in LNCaP cells only.DHT enhanced the expression of ASCT2, the transporter responsible for anti-[(18)F]FACBC uptake, thereby increasing anti-[(14)C]FACBC uptake in AR-positive LNCaP cells. Androgen-mediated induction may contribute to the distinct anti-[(18)F]FACBC accumulation pattern in prostate cancer.
Project description:Transriptome analysis of LNCaP/AR cell line after concomittant treatment with androgen with bicalutamide and enzalutamide Overall design: LNCaP/AR cells growing in log phase were treated for 24 hours with vehicle, the androgen DHT, and DHT plus either bicalutamide or enzalutamide for 24 hours.
Project description:The LNCaP cell line was originally isolated from the lymph node of a patient with metastatic prostate cancer. Many cell lines have been derived from LNCaP by selective pressures to study different aspects of prostate cancer progression. When injected subcutaneously into male athymic nude mice, LNCaP and its derivatives rarely metastasize.Here, we describe the characteristics of a new LNCaP derivative, JHU-LNCaP-SM, which was generated by long term passage in normal cell culture conditions.Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis and genomic sequencing verified JHU-LNCaP-SM derivation from parental LNCaP cells. JHU-LNCaP-SM cells express the same mutated androgen receptor (AR) but unlike LNCaP, are no longer androgen dependent for growth. The cells demonstrate an attenuated androgen responsiveness in transcriptional assays and retain androgen sensitive expression of PSA, AR, and PSMA. Unlike parental LNCaP, JHU-LNCaP-SM cells quickly form subcutaneous tumors in male athymic nude mice, reliably metastasize to the lymph nodes and display a striking intra-tumoral and spreading hemorrhagic phenotype as tumor xenografts.The JHU-LNCaP-SM cell line is a new isolate of LNCaP, which facilitates practical, preclinical studies of spontaneous metastasis of prostate cancer through lymphatic tissues.