ABSTRACT: RNA-seq expression data from 6 libraries in Caligus rogercresseyi RNA from pooled samples from farmed Atlantic salmon was extracted by mixer-mill (Retsch) homogenization in Trizol (Invitrogen), followed by column clean-up using the RNeasy kit (QIAGEN)
Project description:RNA-seq expression data from 6 libraries in Caligus rogercresseyi RNA from pooled samples from farmed Atlantic salmon was extracted by mixer-mill (Retsch) homogenization in Trizol (Invitrogen), followed by column clean-up using the RNeasy kit (QIAGEN)
Project description:BACKGROUND:Control of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi in the Chilean salmonid industry is reliant on chemical treatments. Azamethiphos was introduced in 2013, although other organophosphates were previously used. In 2014, reduced sensitivity to azamethiphos was detected in the Los Lagos Region using bioassays. The main target of organophosphates is the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Mutations in the AChE gene are the main cause of organophosphate resistance in arthropods, including other sea lice. In the present study, we aimed to characterize C. rogercresseyi AChE(s) gene(s) and to study the association between AChE variants and azamethiphos resistance in this sea louse species. METHODS:Samples of adult male and female C. rogercresseyi were collected in the Los Lagos Region in 2014. Twenty-four hour exposure bioassays with azamethiphos were performed to select sensitive and resistant lice. The full-length cDNA coding sequences encoding for two AChEs in C. rogercresseyi were molecularly characterized. One of the AChE genes was screened by direct sequencing in the azamethiphos-selected lice to search for variants. An additional louse sampling was performed before and after an azamethiphos treatment in the field in 2017 to validate the findings. RESULTS:The molecular analysis revealed two putative AChEs in C. rogercresseyi. In silico analysis and 3D modelling of the protein sequences identified both of them as invertebrate AChE type 1; they were named C. rogercresseyi AChE1a and 1b. AChE1a had the characteristics of the main synaptic AChE, while AChE1b lacked some of the important amino acids of a typical AChE. A missense change found in the main synaptic AChE (1a), F318F/V (F290 in Torpedo californica), was associated with survival of C. rogercresseyi at high azamethiphos concentrations (bioassays and field treatment). The amino acid change was located in the acyl pocket of the active-site gorge of the protein. CONCLUSIONS:The present study demonstrates the presence of two types of AChE1 genes in C. rogercresseyi. Although enzymatic assays are needed, AChE1a is most probably the main synaptic AChE. The function of AChE1b is unknown, but evidence points to a scavenger role. The AChE1a F/V318 variant is most probably involved in organophosphate resistance, and can be a good marker for resistance monitoring.
Project description:ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family encode for membrane proteins involved in the transport of various biomolecules through the cellular membrane. These proteins have been identified in all taxa and present important physiological functions, including the process of insecticide detoxification in arthropods. For that reason the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi represents a model species for understanding the molecular underpinnings involved in insecticide drug resistance.llumina sequencing was performed using sea lice exposed to 2 and 3 ppb of deltamethrin and azamethiphos. Contigs obtained from de novo assembly were annotated by Blastx. RNA-Seq analysis was performed and validated by qPCR analysis.From the transcriptome database of C. rogercresseyi, 57 putative members of ABC protein sequences were identified and phylogenetically classified into the eight subfamilies described for ABC transporters in arthropods. Transcriptomic profiles for ABC proteins subfamilies were evaluated throughout C. rogercresseyi development. Moreover, RNA-Seq analysis was performed for adult male and female salmon lice exposed to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin. High transcript levels of the ABCB and ABCC subfamilies were evidenced. Furthermore, SNPs mining was carried out for the ABC proteins sequences, revealing pivotal genomic information.The present study gives a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of ABC proteins from C. rogercresseyi, providing relevant information about transporter roles during ontogeny and in relation to delousing drug responses in salmon lice. This genomic information represents a valuable tool for pest management in the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry.
Project description:Fin condition is a simple indicator of fish welfare, which anticipates detrimental effects on fish in aquaculture systems. This study evaluated the fin condition of Salmo salar at different abundances of the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi. Fish were exposed to infestation with copepodids and the cohort was allowed to develop to the adult stage. The relative fin index was measured. Significant differences between infested and control fish for both pectoral and anal fins were observed. Moreover, there were significant negative relationships between fin condition and parasite abundances for pectoral, anal, and pelvic fins, suggesting that infestations with C. rogercresseyi could be a possible cause for fin damage in Atlantic salmon. Moreover, this damage was associated with increased stress levels, suggesting that damage can be related to physiological changes on infested fish. According to these results, pectoral fin assessments have the potential to provide information on the welfare of fish with C. rogercresseyi infestation. Determining the causes of poor fin development may improve fish welfare, even when infested by parasites.