Identification of gene expression patterns in lymphoma-prone SJL mice of different ages
ABSTRACT: SJL mice spontaneously develop mature B cell lineage lymphomas. These studies were designed to evaluate significant gene expression differences between spleens of control mice that do not develop lymphomas compared to spleens from SJL mice of differeing ages 22 samples were tested from 4 groups of mice - 10 samples from one group and 4 samples each from the other three groups. One sample per array
Project description:SJL mice spontaneously develop mature B cell lineage lymphomas. These studies were designed to evaluate significant gene expression differences between spleens of control mice that do not develop lymphomas compared to spleens from SJL mice of differeing ages 22 samples were tested from 4 groups of mice - 10 samples from one group and 4 samples each from the other three groups. One sample per array
Project description:SJL/J mice exhibit a high incidence of mature B-cell lymphomas that require CD4(+) T cells for their development. We found that their spleens and lymph nodes contained increased numbers of germinal centers and T follicular helper (TFH) cells. Microarray analyses revealed high levels of transcripts encoding IL-21 associated with high levels of serum IL-21. We developed IL-21 receptor (IL21R)-deficient Swiss Jim Lambart (SJL) mice to determine the role of IL-21 in disease. These mice had reduced numbers of TFH cells, lower serum levels of IL-21, and few germinal center B cells, and they did not develop B-cell tumors, suggesting IL-21-dependent B-cell lymphomagenesis. We also noted a series of features common to SJL disease and human angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), a malignancy of TFH cells. Gene expression analyses of AITL showed that essentially all cases expressed elevated levels of transcripts for IL21, IL21R, and a series of genes associated with TFH cell development and function. These results identify a mouse model with features of AITL and suggest that patients with the disease might benefit from therapeutic interventions that interrupt IL-21 signaling.
Project description:Known as the guardian of the genome, transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53) is a well -known tumor suppressor. Here, we describe a novel TRP53 deficient mouse model on a tumor prone background-SJL/J mice. The absence of TRP53 (TRP53 nullizygosity) leads to a shift in the tumor spectrum from a non-Hodgkin's-like disease to thymic lymphomas and testicular teratomas at a very rapid tumor onset averaging ~12 weeks of age. In haplotype studies, comparing tumor prone versus tumor resistant Trp53 null mouse strains, we found that other tumor suppressor, DNA repair and/or immune system genes modulate tumor incidence in TRP53 null strains, suggesting that even a strong tumor suppressor such as TRP53 is modulated by genetic background. Due to their rapid development of tumors, the SJL/J TRP53 null mice generated here can be used as an efficient chemotherapy or immunotherapy screening mouse model.
Project description:The dysferlin deficient SJL/J mouse strain is commonly used to study dysferlin deficient myopathies. Therefore, we systematically evaluated behavior in relatively young (9-25 weeks) SJL/J mice and compared them to C57BL6 mice to determine which functional end points may be the most effective to use for preclinical studies in the SJL/J strain. SJL/J mice had reduced body weight, lower open field scores, higher creatine kinase levels, and less muscle force than did C57BL6 mice. Power calculations for expected effect sizes indicated that grip strength normalized to body weight and open field activity were the most sensitive indicators of functional status in SJL/J mice. Weight and open field scores of SJL/J mice deteriorated over the course of the study, indicating that progressive myopathy was ongoing even in relatively young (<6 months old) SJL/J mice. To further characterize SJL/J mice within the context of treatment, we assessed the effect of fasudil, a rho-kinase inhibitor, on disease phenotype. Fasudil was evaluated based on previous observations that Rho signaling may be overly activated as part of the inflammatory cascade in SJL/J mice. Fasudil treated SJL/J mice showed increased body weight, but decreased grip strength, horizontal activity, and soleus muscle force, compared to untreated SJL/J controls. Fasudil either improved or had no effect on these outcomes in C57BL6 mice. Fasudil also reduced the number of infiltrating macrophages/monocytes in SJL/J muscle tissue, but had no effect on muscle fiber degeneration/regeneration. These studies provide a basis for standardization of preclinical drug testing trials in the dysferlin deficient SJL/J mice, and identify measures of functional status that are potentially translatable to clinical trial outcomes. In addition, the data provide pharmacological evidence suggesting that activation of rho-kinase, at least in part, may represent a beneficial compensatory response in dysferlin deficient myopathies.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis is a sexually dimorphic, demyelinating disease of the CNS, and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is its principal autoimmune model. Young male SJL/J mice are relatively resistant to EAE whereas older males and SJL/J females of any age are susceptible. By comparing a wide age range of proteolipid protein peptide 139-151 immunized mice, we found that female disease severity remains constant with age. In contrast, EAE disease severity increases with age in SJL/J males, with young males having significantly less severe disease and older males having significantly more disease than equivalently aged females. To determine whether the Y chromosome contributes to this sexual dimorphism, EAE was induced in consomic SJL/J mice carrying a B10.S Y chromosome (SJL.Y(B10.S)). EAE was significantly more severe in young male SJL.Y(B10.S) mice compared with young male SJL/J mice. These studies show that a Y chromosome-linked polymorphism controls the age-dependent EAE sexual dimorphism observed in SJL/J mice.
Project description:SJL mice colonized with RcsX lymphoma cells undergo a rapid inflammatory response associated with biological and physiological effects including increased nitric oxide production and mutations in spleen DNA. By 2 weeks postcolonization, these changes were accompanied by both up- and down-regulation of a number of plasma proteins. In the experiments reported here, plasma from individual SJL mice was analyzed at several time-points over the 2-week period to determine if there were sets of proteins whose expression varied in concert and thus might serve as early biomarkers for inflammation-related disorders. Samples were collected just prior to injection of the RcsX cells and then after 4, 8, and 12 days. Albumin and immunoglobulins were depleted, and the samples were resolved by 1D gel electrophoresis. The gels were cut into 20 slices, and the proteins were digested in-gel with trypsin. The digests were treated with iTRAQ reagents and then analyzed using LC/MS/MS. The resulting data were processed with two software packages, that is, ProQuant and Spectrum Mill, and then subjected to K-means cluster analysis (K = 4). The four clusters revealed a set of highly up-regulated proteins, a set of progressively up-regulated proteins, a set with no major changes, and a set that declined. The first cluster included haptoglobin and serum amyloid A; the second included groups with several functions including protease inhibition, cell motility, and transport. The iTRAQ results for a selection of the up-regulated proteins, including haptoglobin, hemopexin, serum amyloid P component, and ceruloplasmin, were confirmed with Western blots. Prominent down-regulated proteins included esterase-1, paraoxonase, and alpha-2-macroglobulin. Approximately 50% of the up-regulated proteins are canonical acute phase proteins, while the remainder are regulated by the Nrf2 transcription factor.
Project description:Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection represents an experimental mouse model to study hippocampal damage induced by neurotropic viruses. IL-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine with profound anti-inflammatory properties, which critically controls immune homeostasis. In order to analyze IL-10R signaling following virus-induced polioencephalitis, SJL mice were intracerebrally infected with TMEV. RNA-based next generation sequencing revealed an up-regulation of Il10, Il10r? and further genes involved in IL-10 downstream signaling, including Jak1, Socs3 and Stat3 in the brain upon infection. Subsequent antibody-mediated blockade of IL-10R signaling led to enhanced hippocampal damage with neuronal loss and increased recruitment of CD3+ T cells, CD45R+ B cells and an up-regulation of Il1? mRNA. Increased expression of Tgf? and Foxp3 as well as accumulation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and arginase-1+ macrophages/microglia was detected in the hippocampus, representing a potential compensatory mechanism following disturbed IL-10R signaling. Additionally, an increased peripheral Chi3l3 expression was found in spleens of infected mice, which may embody reactive regulatory mechanisms for prevention of excessive immunopathology. The present study highlights the importance of IL-10R signaling for immune regulation and its neuroprotective properties in the context of an acute neurotropic virus infection.
Project description:The SJL mouse strain is resistant to infection by some strains of the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), such as JHM and A59. The block to virus infection has been variously attributed to defects in virus receptors or virus spread. Since the cellular receptors for MHV, mmCGM1 and mmCGM2, have recently been identified as members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family, we reexamined the possible defectiveness of the MHV receptors in SJL mouse strain. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNAs of both mmCGMs RNAs from SJL mice revealed that they were identical in size to those of the susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) mouse. There was some sequence divergence in the N terminus of the mmCGM molecules between the two mouse strains, resulting in a different number of potential glycosylation sites. This was confirmed by in vitro translation of the mmCGM RNAs, which showed that the glycosylated mmCGM2 of SJL was smaller than that of B6 mice. However, transfection of either mmCGM1 or mmCGM2 from SJL mice into MHV-resistant Cos 7 cells rendered the cells susceptible to MHV infection. The ability of the SJL mmCGM molecules to serve as MHV receptors was comparable to that of those from B6. These molecules are expressed in SJL mouse brain and liver in a similar ratio and in amounts equivalent to those in the B6 mouse. Furthermore, we demonstrated that an SJL-derived cell line was susceptible to A59 but resistant to JHM infection. We concluded that the MHV receptor molecules in the SJL mouse are functional and that the resistance of SJL mice to infection by some MHV strains most likely results from some other factor(s) required for virus entry or some other step(s) in virus replication.
Project description:Gastric disturbances such as dyspepsia are routinely encountered by multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and these conditions are often treated with gastric acid suppressors such as proton pump inhibitors, histamine H2 receptor antagonists, or antacids. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole can alter the gut flora and immune responses, both of which can influence the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of omeprazole treatment on the development of EAE. Bacterial microbiome analysis of mouse fecal pellets was determined in C57BL/6J EAE mice chronically treated with omeprazole, and spleen immune cell content, clinical scores, weight, rotarod latency, and histopathology were used as outcome measures in C57BL/6J and SJL/J mice with EAE.Omeprazole treatment resulted in decreases in Akkermansia muciniphila and Coprococcus sp. and an increase in unidentified bacteria in the family S24-7 (order Bacteroidales) in C57BL/6J mice with EAE. Omeprazole did not alter spleen immune cell content compared to vehicle in EAE mice, but differences independent of treatment were observed in subsets of T cells between early and advanced disease in C57BL/6J mice as well as between the two strains of mice at an advanced disease stage. Omeprazole caused no difference in clinical scores in either strain, but significantly lowered weight gain compared to vehicle in the C57BL/6J mice with EAE. Omeprazole also did not alter rotarod behavior or hindbrain inflammatory cell infiltration compared to vehicle in both strains of mice with EAE. Rotarod latency did reveal a negative correlation with clinical scores during active disease in both mouse strains, but not during clinical remission in SJL/J mice, suggesting that rotarod can detect disability not reflected in the clinical scores.Despite alterations in the gut microbiota and weight gain in the C57BL/6J EAE model, omeprazole had no effect on multiple measures of disease activity in C57BL/6J and SJL/J mice with EAE, supporting the notion that omeprazole does not substantially influence disease activity in MS patients.
Project description:Polygenic type 2 diabetes in mouse models is associated with obesity and results from a combination of adipogenic and diabetogenic alleles. Here we report the identification of a candidate gene for the diabetogenic effect of a QTL (Nidd/SJL, Nidd1) contributed by the SJL, NON, and NZB strains in outcross populations with New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice. A critical interval of distal chromosome 4 (2.1 Mbp) conferring the diabetic phenotype was identified by interval-specific congenic introgression of SJL into diabetes-resistant C57BL/6J, and subsequent reporter cross with NZO. Analysis of the 10 genes in the critical interval by sequencing, qRT-PCR, and RACE-PCR revealed a striking allelic variance of Zfp69 encoding zinc finger domain transcription factor 69. In NZO and C57BL/6J, a retrotransposon (IAPLTR1a) in intron 3 disrupted the gene by formation of a truncated mRNA that lacked the coding sequence for the KRAB (Krüppel-associated box) and Znf-C2H2 domains of Zfp69, whereas the diabetogenic SJL, NON, and NZB alleles generated a normal mRNA. When combined with the B6.V-Lep(ob) background, the diabetogenic Zfp69(SJL) allele produced hyperglycaemia, reduced gonadal fat, and increased plasma and liver triglycerides. mRNA levels of the human orthologue of Zfp69, ZNF642, were significantly increased in adipose tissue from patients with type 2 diabetes. We conclude that Zfp69 is the most likely candidate for the diabetogenic effect of Nidd/SJL, and that retrotransposon IAPLTR1a contributes substantially to the genetic heterogeneity of mouse strains. Expression of the transcription factor in adipose tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.