Gene expression profiles of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) after genetic depletion of Id1 and knock-down of Zrf1
ABSTRACT: Id proteins are dominant negative regulators within the HLH family of proteins. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Id1 and Id3 maintain the pluripotent state by preventing neural differentiation. The Id1-interacting protein Zrf1 plays a crucial role as a chromatin-bound factor in specification of the neural fate from ESCs. Here, we show that Id1 blocks Zrf1 recruitment to chromatin, thus preventing the activation of neural genes during ESC differentiation. Moreover, genetic deletion of Id1 in ESCs caused misexpression of more than 6000 genes. Interestingly, the expression of almost half of those genes was restored upon further depletion of Zrf1. We therefore identified Zrf1 as a transcriptional regulator downstream of Id1 in ESCs. In Id1KO mESCs, Zrf1 expression was depleted by using shRNAs. Four replicates corresponding to four independent biological samples per group were collected.
Project description:Id proteins are dominant-negative regulators within the HLH family of proteins. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Id1 and Id3 maintain the pluripotent state by preventing neural differentiation. The Id1-interacting protein Zrf1 plays a crucial role as a chromatin-bound factor in specification of the neural fate from ESCs. Here, we show that Id1 blocks Zrf1 recruitment to chromatin, thus preventing the activation of neural genes in ESCs. Upon differentiation, Id1 expression decreases thus inducing Zrf1 binding to neural genes. Importantly, depletion of Zrf1 rescues the expression of Polycomb targets involved in neural specification which are up-regulated in Id1 knock-out ESCs. We therefore identified Zrf1 as transcriptional regulator of neural fate downstream of Id1 in ESCs.
Project description:Id proteins are dominant negative regulators within the HLH family of proteins. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Id1 and Id3 maintain the pluripotent state by preventing neural differentiation. The Id1-interacting protein Zrf1 plays a crucial role as a chromatin-bound factor in specification of the neural fate from ESCs. Here, we show that Id1 blocks Zrf1 recruitment to chromatin, thus preventing the activation of neural genes during ESC differentiation. Moreover, genetic deletion of Id1 in ESCs caused misexpression of more than 6000 genes. Interestingly, the expression of almost half of those genes was restored upon further depletion of Zrf1. We therefore identified Zrf1 as a transcriptional regulator downstream of Id1 in ESCs. In Id1KO mESCs, Zrf1 expression was depleted by using shRNAs. Four replicates corresponding to four independent biological samples per group were collected.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms underlying specification from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and maintenance of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are largely unknown. Recently, we reported that the Zuotin-related factor 1 (Zrf1) is necessary for chromatin displacement of the Polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1). We found that Zrf1 is required for NPC specification from ESCs and that it promotes the expression of NPC markers, including the key regulator Pax6. Moreover, Zrf1 is essential to establish and maintain Wnt ligand expression levels, which are necessary for NPC self-renewal. Reactivation of proper Wnt signaling in Zrf1-depleted NPCs restores Pax6 expression and the self-renewal capacity. ESC-derived NPCs in vitro resemble most of the characteristics of the self-renewing NPCs located in the developing embryonic cortex, which are termed radial glial cells (RGCs). Depletion of Zrf1 in vivo impairs the expression of key self-renewal regulators and Wnt ligand genes in RGCs. Thus, we demonstrate that Zrf1 plays an essential role in NPC generation and maintenance.
Project description:The Zuotin-related factor 1, ZRF1, has recently been identified as an epigenetic regulator of gene transcription in stem cells and cancer. During differentiation of human teratocarcinoma cells, ZRF1 promotes transcriptional induction of developmental genes that are repressed by Polycomb complexes. Importantly, ZRF1 has recently been shown to be required for both neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and for maintenance of neural progenitor cell (NPC) identity. Moreover, a dual role has now emerged for ZRF1 in cancer: on the one hand, ZRF1 plays a crucial role in oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) by activating the INK4/ARF locus, thus working as a tumor suppressor; on the other hand, ZRF1 promotes leukemogenesis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a Polycomb-independent fashion. Therefore, increasing evidence points to ZRF1 as a novel target for therapy of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.
Project description:E12/E47 proteins (encoded by E2A gene) are members of the class I basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (also known as E proteins). E47 has been described as repressor of E-cadherin and inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We reported previously that EMT mediated by E47 in MDCK cells occurs with a concomitant overexpression of Id1 and Id3 proteins. Id proteins belong to class V of HLH factors that lack the basic domain; they dimerise with E proteins and prevent their DNA interaction, thus, acting as dominant negative of E proteins. Here, we show that E47 interacts with Id1 in E47 overexpressing MDCK cells that underwent a full EMT as well as in mesenchymal breast carcinoma and melanoma cell lines. By conducting chromatin immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate that E47 binds directly to the endogenous E-cadherin promoter of mesenchymal MDCK-E47 cells in a complex devoid of Id1. Importantly, our data suggest that both E47 and Id1 are required to maintain the mesenchymal phenotype of MDCK-E47 cells. These data support the collaboration between E47 and Id1 in the maintenance of EMT by mechanisms independent of the dominant negative action of Id1 on E47 binding to E-cadherin promoter. Finally, the analysis of several N0 breast tumour series indicates that the expression of E47 and ID1 is significantly associated with the basal-like phenotype supporting the biological significance of the present findings.
Project description:Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in MECP2, encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. MeCP2 is a transcriptional repressor elevated in mature neurons and is predicted to be required for neuronal maturation by regulating multiple target genes. Identifying primary gene targets in either Mecp2-deficient mice or human RTT brain has proven to be difficult, perhaps because of the transient requirement for MeCP2 during neuronal maturation. In order to experimentally control the timing of MeCP2 expression and deficiency during neuronal maturation, human SH-SY5Y cells undergoing mature neuronal differentiation were transfected with methylated MeCP2 oligonucleotide decoy to disrupt the binding of MeCP2 to endogenous targets. Genome-wide expression microarray analysis identified all four known members of the inhibitors of differentiation or inhibitors of DNA-binding (ID1, ID2, ID3 and ID4) subfamily of helix-loop-helix genes as novel neuronal targets of MeCP2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed binding of MeCP2 near or within the promoters of ID1, ID2 and ID3, and quantitative RT-PCR confirmed increased expression of all four Id genes in Mecp2-deficient mouse brain. All four ID proteins were significantly increased in Mecp2-deficient mouse and human RTT brain using immunofluorescence and laser scanning cytometric analyses. Because of their involvement in cell differentiation and neural development, ID genes are ideal primary targets for MeCP2 regulation of neuronal maturation that may explain the molecular pathogenesis of RTT.
Project description:Repair of damaged DNA relies on the recruitment of DNA repair factors in a well orchestrated manner. As a prerequisite, the chromatin needs to be decondensed by chromatin remodelers to allow for binding of repair factors and for DNA repair to occur. Recent studies have implicated members of the SWI/SNF and INO80 families as well as PARP1 in nucleotide excision repair (NER). In this study, we report that the endonuclease DICER is implicated in chromatin decondensation during NER. In response to UV irradiation, DICER is recruited to chromatin in a ZRF1-mediated manner. The H2A-ubiquitin binding protein ZRF1 and DICER together impact on the chromatin conformation via PARP1. Moreover, DICER-mediated chromatin decondensation is independent of its catalytic activity. Taken together, we describe a novel function of DICER at chromatin and its interaction with the ubiquitin signalling cascade during GG-NER.
Project description:The inhibitor of differentiation or DNA binding (Id) family of transcription regulators plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and senescence. However, regulation of Id expression during these processes is poorly understood. Id proteins are known to undergo rapid turnover mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Anaphase-promoting complex has been shown to ubiquitinate Id2, but E3 ubiquitin ligase(s) that ubiquitinate other Id family members are not known. Here, we report for the first time the identification of Smurf2 as the E3 ligase that ubiquitinates Id1 and Id3. Smurf2-mediated ubiquitination and consequent degradation of Id1 or Id3 plays an important role in the regulation of Id expression in senescent cells. Furthermore, we found that Id1 is the mediator through which Smurf2 regulates p16 expression, providing a mechanistic link between Smurf2 and p16 expression during senescence.
Project description:BMP4/7-dependent expression of inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding (Id) proteins 1 and 3 has been implicated in tumor progression and poor prognosis of malignant melanoma patients. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a pericellular matrix component, supports BMP7 signalling in murine chondrocytes through its receptor CD44. However, its role in regulating BMP signalling in melanoma is not clear. In this study we found that depletion of endogenously-produced HA by hyaluronidase treatment or by inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) resulted in reduced BMP4/7-dependent Id1/3 protein expression in mouse melanoma B16-F10 and Ret cells. Conversely, exogenous HA treatment increased BMP4/7-dependent Id1/3 protein expression. Knockdown of CD44 reduced BMP4/7-dependent Id1/3 protein expression, and attenuated the ability of exogenous HA to stimulate Id1 and Id3 expression in response to BMP. Co-IP experiments demonstrated that CD44 can physically associate with the BMP type II receptor (BMPR) ACVR2B. Importantly, we found that coordinate expression of Id1 or Id3 with HA synthases HAS2, HAS3, and CD44 is associated with reduced overall survival of cutaneous melanoma patients. Our results suggest that HA-CD44 interactions with BMPR promote BMP4/7-dependent Id1/3 protein expression in melanoma, contributing to reduced survival in melanoma patients.
Project description:In the present study we addressed the function of the transcriptional activator Zrf1 in the generation of the 3 germ layers during in vitro development. Currently, Zrf1 is rather regarded as a factor that drives the expression of neuronal genes. Here, we have employed mouse embryonic stem cells and P19 cells to understand the role of Zrf1 in the generation of mesoderm-derived tissues like adipocytes, cartilage and heart. Our data shows that Zrf1 is essential for the transcriptional activation of genes that give rise to mesoderm and in particular heart development. In both, the mESC and P19 systems, we provide evidence that Zrf1 contributes to the generation of functional cardiomyocytes. We further demonstrate that Zrf1 binds to the transcription start sites (TSSs) of heart tissue-specific genes from the first and second heart field where it drives their temporal expression during differentiation. Taken together, we have identified Zrf1 as a novel regulator of the mesodermal lineage that might facilitate spatiotemporal expression of genes.