Analysis of therapeutic miRNA against KRAS mutant colorectal cancer
ABSTRACT: We compared the profile of miRNAs expressed in HEK293 and MRC5 cells that overexpressed KRASG12V to those expressed in parental cells that harbored wild-type KRAS. The results indicated that a subset of miRNAs was significantly down-regulated in KRASG12V transfected two cells. To address the functional relevance of miRNAs in KRAS mutant cancers, we transfected exogenous KRASG12V into HEK293 and MRC5 cells with wild type KRAS genes, and we comprehensively profiled the dysregulated miRNAs.
Project description:We compared the profile of miRNAs expressed in HEK293 and MRC5 cells that overexpressed KRASG12V to those expressed in parental cells that harbored wild-type KRAS. The results indicated that a subset of miRNAs was significantly down-regulated in KRASG12V transfected two cells. To address the functional relevance of miRNAs in KRAS mutant cancers, we transfected exogenous KRASG12V into HEK293 and MRC5 cells with wild type KRAS genes, and we comprehensively profiled the dysregulated miRNAs.
Project description:KRAS mutations are a major cause of drug resistance to molecular-targeted therapies. Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling may cause dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) and gene regulatory networks, which leads to cancer initiation and progression. To address the functional relevance of miRNAs in mutant KRAS cancers, we transfected exogenous KRAS(G12V) into human embryonic kidney 293 and MRC5 cells with wild-type KRAS and BRAF genes, and we comprehensively profiled the dysregulated miRNAs. The result showed that mature miRNA oligonucleotide (miR)-4689, one of the significantly down-regulated miRNAs in KRAS(G12V) overexpressed cells, was found to exhibit a potent growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effect both in vitro and in vivo. miR-4689 expression was significantly down-regulated in cancer tissues compared to normal mucosa, and it was particularly decreased in mutant KRAS CRC tissues. miR-4689 directly targets v-ki-ras2 kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1(AKT1), key components of two major branches in EGFR pathway, suggesting KRAS overdrives this signaling pathway through inhibition of miR-4689. Overall, this study provided additional evidence that mutant KRAS functions as a broad regulator of the EGFR signaling cascade by inhibiting miR-4689, which negatively regulates both RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways. These activities indicated that miR-4689 may be a promising therapeutic agent in mutant KRAS CRC.
Project description:KRAS mutation is one of the major genetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC). Treating patients with KRAS mutant CRC remains one of the biggest challenges in oncology. In this study, we aimed to discover an effective therapeutic microRNA (miRNA) that could target KRAS mutant CRC. For this purpose, we investigated the functional relevance of dysregulated miRNAs in KRAS mutant cancers. We transfected exogenous KRASG12V into human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and human lung fibroblasts (MRC5) cells, and performed comprehensive microRNA expression profiling by microarray analysis. The results showed that 6 miRNAs are significantly upregulated in KRAS-transfected HEK293 and MRC5 cells. Among 6 miRNAs, we identified mature miRNA-29b-1-5p as potent growth inhibitor in CRC cell proliferation. However, miRNA-29b-1-5p was found to be a passenger strand with a star form (miRNA-29b-1-5p*), and did not function in CRC cells. Proliferation assay revealed that completely opposite complementary strand to miRNA-29b-1-5p possessed a potent anti-tumor effect. We named this novel anti-tumor siRNA sequence “MIRTX”. MIRTX induced apoptosis and significantly inhibited cell proliferation in KRAS mutant CRC in vitro. In addition, MIRTX suppressed NF-κB signaling pathway, which is downstream effector of KRAS in CRC. Furthermore, MIRTX directly targeted 3'-UTR of PIK3R1 and CXCR2 mRNA, and indirectly suppressed KRAS itself. In vivo xenograft mouse models, systemic administration of MIRTX significantly inhibited the tumor growth with no particular toxicity, using carbonate apatite as a vehicle. These findings indicate that inhibition of NF-κB signaling by siRNA-based therapeutic could be a promising strategy against KRAS mutant CRC. Overall design: Gene expression analysis using Whole Human Genome Microarray Kit, 4x44K v2 (G4845A) (Agilent) was performed as one color experiments.
Project description:Mutant KRAS colorectal cancer (CRC) cells release protein-laden exosomes that can alter the tumor microenvironment. To test whether exosomal RNAs also contribute to changes in gene expression in recipient cells, and whether mutant KRAS might regulate the composition of secreted microRNAs (miRNAs), we compared small RNAs of cells and matched exosomes from isogenic CRC cell lines differing only in KRAS status. We show that exosomal profiles are distinct from cellular profiles, and mutant exosomes cluster separately from wild-type KRAS exosomes. miR-10b was selectively increased in wild-type exosomes, while miR-100 was increased in mutant exosomes. Neutral sphingomyelinase inhibition caused accumulation of miR-100 only in mutant cells, suggesting KRAS-dependent miRNA export. In Transwell co-culture experiments, mutant donor cells conferred miR-100-mediated target repression in wild-type-recipient cells. These findings suggest that extracellular miRNAs can function in target cells and uncover a potential new mode of action for mutant KRAS in CRC.
Project description:RAS mutations lead to a constitutively active oncogenic protein that signals through multiple effector pathways. In this chemical biology study, we describe a novel coupled biochemical assay that measures activation of the effector BRAF by prenylated KRASG12V in a lipid-dependent manner. Using this assay, we discovered compounds that block biochemical and cellular functions of KRASG12V with low single-digit micromolar potency. We characterized the structural basis for inhibition using NMR methods and showed that the compounds stabilized the inactive conformation of KRASG12V. Determination of the biophysical affinity of binding using biolayer interferometry demonstrated that the potency of inhibition matches the affinity of binding only when KRAS is in its native state, namely post-translationally modified and in a lipid environment. The assays we describe here provide a first-time alignment across biochemical, biophysical, and cellular KRAS assays through incorporation of key physiological factors regulating RAS biology, namely a negatively charged lipid environment and prenylation, into the in vitro assays. These assays and the ligands we discovered are valuable tools for further study of KRAS inhibition and drug discovery.
Project description:KRAS mutations are associated with rare cases of neurodevelopmental disorders that can cause intellectual disabilities. Previous studies showed that mice expressing a mutant KRAS have impaired the development and function of GABAergic inhibitory neurons, which may contribute to behavioural deficits in the mutant mice. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms and the role of excitatory neurons in these behavioural deficits in adults are not fully understood. Herein, we report that neuron type-specific expression of a constitutively active mutant KRASG12V in either excitatory or inhibitory neurons resulted in spatial memory deficits in adult mice. In inhibitory neurons, KRASG12V induced ERK activation and enhanced GABAergic synaptic transmission. Expressing KRASG12V in inhibitory neurons also impaired long-term potentiation in the hippocampal Shaffer-collateral pathway, which could be rescued by picrotoxin treatment. In contrast, KRASG12V induced ERK activation and neuronal cell death in excitatory neurons, which might have contributed to the severe behavioural deficits. Our results showed that both excitatory and inhibitory neurons are involved in mutant KRAS-associated learning deficits in adults via distinct cellular mechanisms.
Project description:Metabolic reprogramming is as a hallmark of cancer, and several studies have reported that BRAF and KRAS tumors may be accompanied by a deregulation of cellular metabolism. We investigated how BRAFV600E and KRASG12V affect cell metabolism, stress resistance and signaling in colorectal carcinoma cells driven by these mutations. KRASG12V expressing cells are characterized by the induction of glycolysis, accumulation of lactic acid and sensitivity to glycolytic inhibition. Notably mathematical modelling confirmed the critical role of MCT1 designating the survival of KRASG12V cells. Carcinoma cells harboring BRAFV600E remain resistant towards alterations of glucose supply or application of signaling or metabolic inhibitors. Altogether these data demonstrate that an oncogene-specific decoupling of mTOR from AMPK or AKT signaling accounts for alterations of resistance mechanisms and metabolic phenotypes. Indeed the inhibition of mTOR in BRAFV600E cells counteracts the metabolic predisposition and demonstrates mTOR as a potential target in BRAFV600E-driven colorectal carcinomas.
Project description:Mutations in the Ras family of small GTPases, particularly KRAS, occur at high frequencies in cancer and represent a major unmet therapeutic need due to the lack of effective targeted therapies. Past efforts directed at inhibiting the activity of the Ras oncoprotein have proved difficult. We propose an alternative approach to target Ras by eliminating Ras protein from cells with pharmacological means. In this study, we developed a cell-based, high-content screening platform to identify small molecules that could promote the degradation of the KRAS oncoprotein. We generated an EGFP-KRASG12V fluorescence reporter system and implemented it for automated screening in 1536-well plates using high-throughput cellular imaging. We screened a library of clinically relevant compounds at wide dose range and identified Ponatinib and AMG-47a as two candidate compounds that selectively reduced the levels of EGFP-KRASG12V protein but did not affect EGFP protein in cells. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that it is feasible to use a high-throughput screen to identify compounds that promote the degradation of the Ras oncoprotein as a new approach to target Ras.
Project description:Our previous work showed that in a mouse model of gastric adenocarcinoma with loss of p53 and Cdh1 that adding oncogenic Kras (a.k.a. Tcon mice) accelerates tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here, we sought to examine KRAS activation in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and generation of cancer stem-like cells (CSC). Transduction of nontransformed HFE-145 gastric epithelial cells with oncogenic KRASG12V significantly decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, increased expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin and the EMT transcription factor Slug, and increased migration and invasion by 15- to 17-fold. KRASG12V also increased expression of self-renewal proteins such as Sox2 and increased spheroid formation by 2.6-fold. In tumor-derived organoids from Tcon mice, Kras knockdown decreased spheroid formation, expression of EMT-related proteins, migration, and invasion; similar effects, as well as reversal of chemoresistance, were observed following KRAS knockdown or MEK inhibition in patient tumor-derived gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines (AGS and KATOIII). KRAS inhibition in gastric adenocarcinoma spheroid cells led to reduced AGS flank xenograft growth, loss of the infiltrative tumor border, fewer lung metastases, and increased survival. In a tissue microarray of human gastric adenocarcinomas from 115 patients, high tumor levels of CD44 (a marker of CSCs) and KRAS activation were independent predictors of worse overall survival. In conclusion, KRAS activation in gastric adenocarcinoma cells stimulates EMT and transition to CSCs, thus promoting metastasis. IMPLICATIONS: This study provides rationale for examining inhibitors of KRAS to block metastasis and reverse chemotherapy resistance in gastric adenocarcinoma patients.
Project description:Oncogenic Ras mutants play a major role in the etiology of most aggressive and deadly carcinomas in humans. In spite of continuous efforts, effective pharmacological treatments targeting oncogenic Ras isoforms have not been developed. Cell-surface proteins represent top therapeutic targets primarily due to their accessibility and susceptibility to different modes of cancer therapy. To expand the treatment options of cancers driven by oncogenic Ras, new targets need to be identified and characterized at the surface of cancer cells expressing oncogenic Ras mutants. Here, we describe a mass spectrometry-based method for molecular profiling of the cell surface using KRasG12V transfected MCF10A (MCF10A-KRasG12V) as a model cell line of constitutively activated KRas and native MCF10A cells transduced with an empty vector (EV) as control. An extensive molecular map of the KRas surface was achieved by applying, in parallel, targeted hydrazide-based cell-surface capturing technology and global shotgun membrane proteomics to identify the proteins on the KRasG12V surface. This method allowed for integrated proteomic analysis that identified more than 500 cell-surface proteins found unique or upregulated on the surface of MCF10A-KRasG12V cells. Multistep bioinformatic processing was employed to elucidate and prioritize targets for cross-validation. Scanning electron microscopy and phenotypic cancer cell assays revealed changes at the cell surface consistent with malignant epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation secondary to KRasG12V activation. Taken together, this dataset significantly expands the map of the KRasG12V surface and uncovers potential targets involved primarily in cell motility, cellular protrusion formation, and metastasis.