Generation of low passage high grade serous ovarian cancer cell lines from primary tumors
ABSTRACT: High grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSC) are deadly malignancies that relapse despite carboplatin chemotherapy. Many commercially ovarian cancer cell lines are not good models for HGSC. Here we demonstrate that 3 low passage cell lines derived from HGSC have similar transcriptomes to their parental bulk tumors. These cell lines recapitulated tumor characteristics of the primary cancer and had responded to therapy in the same manner as primary HGSC cells, demonstrating they are accurate models for HGSCs. mRNA profiles of low passage high grade serous tumor cell lines and their parental tumors, generated by next generation sequencing, were compared.
Project description:High grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSC) are deadly malignancies that relapse despite carboplatin chemotherapy. Many commercially ovarian cancer cell lines are not good models for HGSC. Here we demonstrate that 3 low passage cell lines derived from HGSC have similar transcriptomes to their parental bulk tumors. These cell lines recapitulated tumor characteristics of the primary cancer and had responded to therapy in the same manner as primary HGSC cells, demonstrating they are accurate models for HGSCs. Overall design: mRNA profiles of low passage high grade serous tumor cell lines and their parental tumors, generated by next generation sequencing, were compared.
Project description:High grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSC) are deadly malignancies that relapse despite carboplatin chemotherapy. Many commercially ovarian cancer cell lines are not good models for HGSC. Here we demonstrate that 3 low passage cell lines derived from HGSC have similar transcriptomes to their parental bulk tumors. These cell lines recapitulated tumor characteristics of the primary cancer and had responded to therapy in the same manner as primary HGSC cells, demonstrating they are accurate models for HGSCs. mRNA profiles of low passage high grade serous tumor cell lines and their parental tumors, generated by next generation sequencing, were compared.
Project description:Robust preclinical models of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) are needed to advance our understanding of HGSC pathogenesis and to test novel strategies aimed at improving clinical outcomes for women with the disease. Genetically engineered mouse models of HGSC recapitulating the likely cell of origin (fallopian tube), underlying genetic defects, histology, and biologic behavior of human HGSCs have been developed. However, the degree to which the mouse tumors acquire the somatic genomic changes, gene expression profiles, and immune microenvironment that characterize human HGSCs remains unclear. We used integrated molecular characterization of oviductal HGSCs arising in the context of Brca1, Trp53, Rb1, and Nf1 (BPRN) inactivation to determine whether the mouse tumors recapitulate human HGSCs across multiple domains of molecular features. Targeted DNA sequencing showed the mouse BPRN tumors, but not endometrioid carcinoma-like tumors based on different genetic defects (e.g., Apc and Pten), acquire somatic mutations and widespread copy number alterations similar to those observed in human HGSCs. RNA sequencing showed the mouse HGSCs most closely resemble the so-called immunoreactive and mesenchymal subsets of human HGSCs. A combined immuno-genomic analysis demonstrated the immune microenvironment of BPRN tumors models key aspects of tumor-immune dynamics in the immunoreactive and mesenchymal subtypes of human HGSC, with enrichment of immunosuppressive cell subsets such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells. The findings further validate the BPRN model as a robust preclinical experimental platform to address current barriers to improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of this often lethal cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: The acquired gene mutations, broad genomic alterations, and gene expression and immune cell-tumor axis changes in a mouse model of oviductal serous carcinoma closely mirror those of human tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma.
Project description:Ovarian and endometrial high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) have similar clinical and pathological characteristics; however, exhaustive protein expression profiling of these cancers has yet to be reported.We performed protein expression profiling on 14 cases of HGSCs (7 ovarian and 7 endometrial) and 18 endometrioid carcinomas (9 ovarian and 9 endometrial) using iTRAQ-based exhaustive and quantitative protein analysis.We identified 828 tumour-expressed proteins and evaluated the statistical similarity of protein expression profiles between ovarian and endometrial HGSCs using unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (P<0.01). Using 45 statistically highly expressed proteins in HGSCs, protein ontology analysis detected two enriched terms and proteins composing each term: IMP2 and MCM2. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the higher expression of IMP2 and MCM2 in ovarian and endometrial HGSCs as well as in tubal and peritoneal HGSCs than in endometrioid carcinomas (P<0.01). The knockdown of either IMP2 or MCM2 by siRNA interference significantly decreased the proliferation rate of ovarian HGSC cell line (P<0.01).We demonstrated the statistical similarity of the protein expression profiles of ovarian and endometrial HGSC beyond the organs. We suggest that increased IMP2 and MCM2 expression may underlie some of the rapid HGSC growth observed clinically.
Project description:: Most high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSCs) initiate from the fallopian tube epithelium and then metastasize to the ovary and throughout the abdomen. Genomic analyses suggest that most HGSCs seed the ovary prior to abdominal dissemination. Similarly, animal models support a critical role for the ovary in driving abdominal dissemination. Thus, HGSC cell recruitment to the ovary appears to be a critical component of HGSC cell metastasis. We sought to identify factors driving HGSC recruitment to the ovary. We identified CD105 (endoglin, or ENG, a TGF-? receptor family member) as a mediator of HGSC cell ovarian recruitment. We found that CD105 was expressed on both serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) cells (STICs-HGSC precursors in the fallopian tube epithelium) and HGSC cells. Using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), we showed that high CD105 expression by HGSC cells correlated with a metastatic signature. Furthermore, intravenous injection of CD105(+) HGSC tumor cells, but not CD105(-), resulted in ovarian-specific metastasis and abdominal dissemination of disease. CD105 knockdown or blockade with a clinically relevant CD105-neutralizing mAb (TRC105), inhibited HGSC metastasis, reduced ascites, and impeded growth of abdominal tumor nodules, thereby improving overall survival in animal models of ovarian cancer. CD105 knockdown was associated with a reduction in TGF-??signaling. Together, our data support CD105 as a critical mediator of ovarian cancer spread to the ovary and implicate it as a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:AIMS:Low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs) and their precursors serous borderline tumours (SBTs) characteristically harbour mutations in BRAF, KRAS or NRAS but rarely in TP53, whereas high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) are characterised by frequent TP53 mutations but rare BRAF, KRAS or NRAS mutations. In a small subset of cases, LGSCs and/or SBTs develop into high-grade tumours, including HGSCs and poorly differentiated carcinomas (PDCs). Here, we sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations in low-grade serous tumours and synchronous or metachronous high-grade adnexal carcinomas. METHODS AND RESULTS:DNA extracted from five SBTs/LGSCs and synchronous or metachronous HGSCs/PDCs and matched normal tissue was subjected to massively parallel sequencing targeting all exons and selected non-coding regions of 341 cancer-related genes. The low-grade and high-grade tumours from a given case were related, and shared mutations and copy number alterations. Progression from low-grade to high-grade lesions was observed, and involved the acquisition of additional mutations and/or copy number alterations, or shifts from subclonal to clonal mutations. Only two (an HGSC and a PDC) of the five high-grade tumours investigated harboured TP53 mutations, whereas NRAS and KRAS hotspot mutations were seen in two HGSCs and one HGSC, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that progression from SBT to HGSC may take place in a subset of cases, and that at least some of the rare HGSCs lacking TP53 mutations may be derived from a low-grade serous precursor.
Project description:Metastasis is responsible for 90% of human cancer mortality, yet it remains a challenge to model human cancer metastasis in vivo. Here we describe mouse models of high-grade serous ovarian cancer, also known as high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), the most common and deadliest human ovarian cancer type. Mice genetically engineered to harbor Dicer1 and Pten inactivation and mutant p53 robustly replicate the peritoneal metastases of human HGSC with complete penetrance. Arising from the fallopian tube, tumors spread to the ovary and metastasize throughout the pelvic and peritoneal cavities, invariably inducing hemorrhagic ascites. Widespread and abundant peritoneal metastases ultimately cause mouse deaths (100%). Besides the phenotypic and histopathological similarities, mouse HGSCs also display marked chromosomal instability, impaired DNA repair, and chemosensitivity. Faithfully recapitulating the clinical metastases as well as molecular and genomic features of human HGSC, this murine model will be valuable for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of metastatic ovarian cancer and also for evaluating potential therapies.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) has been suggested to act as a tumour suppressor gene in various human cancers, yet its role in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has not yet been investigated. We previously observed that IGFBP7 was one of several genes found significantly upregulated in an EOC cell line model rendered non-tumourigenic as consequence of genetic manipulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of IGFBP7 in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSC), the most common type of EOC.We analysed IGFBP7 gene expression in 11 normal ovarian surface epithelial cells (NOSE), 79 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSC), and seven EOC cell lines using a custom gene expression array platform. IGFBP7 mRNA expression profiles were also extracted from publicly available databases. Protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry of 175 HGSC and 10 normal fallopian tube samples using tissue microarray and related to disease outcome. We used EOC cells to investigate possible mechanisms of gene inactivation and describe various in vitro growth effects of exposing EOC cell lines to human recombinant IGFBP7 protein and conditioned media.All HGSCs exhibited IGFBP7 expression levels that were significantly (p?=?0.001) lower than the mean of the expression value of NOSE samples and that of a whole ovary sample. IGFBP7 gene and protein expression were lower in tumourigenic EOC cell lines relative to a non-tumourigenic EOC cell line. None of the EOC cell lines harboured a somatic mutation in IGFBP7, although loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the IGFBP7 locus and epigenetic methylation silencing of the IGFBP7 promoter was observed in two of the cell lines exhibiting loss of gene/protein expression. In vitro functional assays revealed an alteration of the EOC cell migration capacity. Protein expression analysis of HGSC samples revealed that the large majority of tumour cores (72.6%) showed low or absence of IGFBP7 staining and revealed a significant correlation between IGFBP7 protein expression and a prolonged overall survival (p?=?0.044).The low levels of IGFPB7 in HGSC relative to normal tissues, and association with survival are consistent with a purported role in tumour suppressor pathways.
Project description:Many high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) of the pelvis are thought to originate in the distal portion of the fallopian tube. Serous tubal intra-epithelial carcinoma (STIC) lesions are the putative precursor to HGSC and identifiable in ~?50% of advanced stage cases. To better understand the molecular etiology of HGSCs, we report a multi-center integrated genomic analysis of advanced stage tumors with and without STIC lesions and normal tissues. The most significant focal DNA SCNAs were shared between cases with and without STIC lesions. The RNA sequence and the miRNA data did not identify any clear separation between cases with and without STIC lesions. HGSCs had molecular profiles more similar to normal fallopian tube epithelium than ovarian surface epithelium or peritoneum. The data suggest that the molecular features of HGSCs with and without associated STIC lesions are mostly shared, indicating a common biologic origin, likely to be the distal fallopian tube among all cases.High-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) are associated with precursor lesions (STICs) in the fallopian epithelium in only half of the cases. Here the authors report the molecular analysis of HGSCs with and without associated STICs and show similar profiles supporting a common origin for all HGSCs.
Project description:Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) have been proposed to be the most likely precursor of ovarian, tubal and 'primary peritoneal' (pelvic) high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). As somatic mutation of TP53 is the most common molecular genetic change of ovarian HGSC, occurring in more than 95% of cases, we undertook a mutational analysis of 29 pelvic HGSCs that had concurrent STICs to demonstrate the clonal relationship of STICs and HGSCs. In addition, we correlated the mutational data with p53 immunostaining to determine the role of p53 immunoreactivity as a surrogate for TP53 mutations in histological diagnosis. Somatic TP53 mutations were detected in all 29 HGSCs analysed and the identical mutations were detected in 27 of 29 pairs of STICs and concurrent HGSCs. Missense mutations were observed in 61% of STICs and frameshift/splicing junction/nonsense mutations in 39%. Interestingly, there were two HGSCs with two distinctly different TP53 mutations each, but only one of the mutations was detected in the concurrent STICs. Missense mutations were associated with intense and diffuse (? 60%) p53 nuclear immunoreactivity, while most of the null mutations were associated with complete loss of p53 staining (p < 0.0001). Overall, this p53 staining pattern yielded a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 100% in detecting TP53 missense mutations. In conclusion, the above findings support the clonal relationship of STIC and pelvic HGSC and demonstrate the utility of p53 immunostaining as a surrogate for TP53 mutation in the histological diagnosis of STIC. In this regard, it is important to appreciate the significance of different staining patterns. Specifically, strong diffuse staining correlates with a missense mutation, whereas complete absence of staining correlates with null mutations.