Cancer-associated fibroblasts-secreted CXCL14-regulated LINC00092 mediates ovarian cancer progression by altering glycolysis
ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) constitutes a major gynecological malignancy, with a reported incidence rate of 3-12/100 000 woman annually. As early symptoms of ovarian cancer are often clinically atypical or absent, the majority of ovarian cancer patients are diagnosed at a late stage, when the five-year survival rate is extremely low. This condition underscores the urgency of early detection of these patients and establishment of new therapeutic targets for successful intervention. Considering that the predominant biological characteristic that differentiates malignant from benign tumors is the ability to metastasize, it is necessary to identify novel metastasis-related molecules for ovarian cancer. In this study, we found that CAFs could significantly increase the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells compared with non-cancer associated fibroblasts(NAFs), which is associated with over-expression of CXCL14 in CAFs. We examined the impact of CAF-secreted CXCL14 on the lncRNA expression profiles in ovarian cancer during metastasis. We treated A2780s ovarian cancer cell line with recombinant CXCL14 protein and control respectively and subjected them to Arraystar Human LncRNA microarray v3.0 to profile differential lncRNAs in ovarian cancer upon treatment of CXCL14
Project description:Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) constitutes a major gynecological malignancy, with a reported incidence rate of 3-12/100 000 woman annually. As early symptoms of ovarian cancer are often clinically atypical or absent, the majority of ovarian cancer patients are diagnosed at a late stage, when the five-year survival rate is extremely low. This condition underscores the urgency of early detection of these patients and establishment of new therapeutic targets for successful intervention. Considering that the predominant biological characteristic that differentiates malignant from benign tumors is the ability to metastasize, it is necessary to identify novel metastasis-related molecules for ovarian cancer. In this study, we found that CAFs could significantly increase the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells compared with non-cancer associated fibroblasts(NAFs), which is associated with over-expression of CXCL14 in CAFs. We examined the impact of CAF-secreted CXCL14 on the lncRNA expression profiles in ovarian cancer during metastasis. We treated A2780s ovarian cancer cell line with recombinant CXCL14 protein and control respectively and subjected them to Arraystar Human LncRNA microarray v3.0 to profile differential lncRNAs in ovarian cancer upon treatment of CXCL14
Project description:Recent investigations point at the stromal microenvironment to assess additional diagnostic information and provide new therapeutic targets in cancer. The aim of the study was to contribute to the characterization of the phenotype of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in prostate cancer (PCa) compared with normal prostate-associated fibroblasts (NAFs) and fibroblasts from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Three patient populations were prospectively recruited: 23 patients with new localized PCa, 14 patients with advanced PCa treated with androgenic deprivation therapy (ADT), and 7 patients with BPH. Gene expression of 20 stroma-derived factors, including the androgen receptor (AR), chaperones (HSPA1A and HSF1), growth factors (FGF2, FGF7, FGF10, HGF, PDGFB, and TGFβ), proteins implicated in invasion (MMP2, MMP9, and MMP11), inflammation (IL6, IL17RB, NFκB, and STAT3), and in-stroma/epithelium interaction (CDH11, CXCL12, CXCL14, and FAP), was evaluated. Localized PCa CAFs showed a significant higher expression of FGF7, IL6, MMP2, and MMP11 compared with NAFs or IL17RB compared with BPH fibroblasts, but significantly lower expression of FGF10 and IL17RB compared with NAFs or CXCL14 compared with BPH fibroblasts. In addition, CAFs from ADT-resistant PCa showed significantly higher MMP11 and NFκB but significant lower TGFβ expression compared with CAFs from ADT-sensitive tumors. Our results contribute to defining the CAFs phenotypes associated to PCa progression, which may contribute to the diagnosis and design of alternative therapies in PCa.
Project description:Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) contribute to the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer. Unlike in tumour cells, DNA mutations are rare in CAFs, raising the likelihood of other mechanisms that regulate gene expression such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). We aimed to identify lncRNAs that contribute to the tumour-promoting phenotype of CAFs. RNA expression from 67 ovarian CAF samples and 10 normal ovarian fibroblast (NOF) samples were analysed to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs and a functional network was constructed to predict those CAF-specific lncRNAs involved in metastasis. Of the 1,970 lncRNAs available for analysis on the gene expression array used, 39 unique lncRNAs were identified as differentially expressed in CAFs versus NOFs. The predictive power of differentially expressed lncRNAs in distinguishing CAFs from NOFs were assessed using multiple multivariate models. Interrogation of known transcription factor-lncRNA interactions, transcription factor-gene interactions and construction of a context-specific interaction network identified multiple lncRNAs predicted to play a role in metastasis. We have identified novel lncRNAs in ovarian cancer that are differentially expressed in CAFs compared to NOFs and are predicted to contribute to the metastasis-promoting phenotype of CAFs.
Project description:Cancer progression involves carcinogenesis, an increase in tumour size, and metastasis. Here, we investigated the effect of overexpressed CXC chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) on these processes by using CXCL14/BRAK (CXCL14) transgenic (Tg) mice. The rate of AOM/DSS-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in these mice was significantly lower compared with that for isogenic wild type C57BL/6 (Wt) mice. When tumour cells were injected into these mice, the size of the tumours that developed and the number of metastatic nodules in the lungs of the animals were always significantly lower in the Tg mice than in the Wt ones. Injection of anti-asialo-GM1 antibodies to the mice before and after injection of tumour cells attenuated the suppressing effects of CXCL14 on the tumor growth and metastasis, suggesting that NK cell activity played an important role during CXCL14-mediated suppression of tumour growth and metastasis. The importance of NK cells on the metastasis was also supported when CXCL14 was expressed in B16 melanoma cells. Further, the survival rates after tumour cell injection were significantly increased for the Tg mice. As these Tg mice showed no obvious abnormality, we propose that CXCL14 to be a promising molecular target for cancer suppression/prevention.
Project description:Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play important roles in breast cancer development and progression. Recent studies show that microRNAs (miRNAs) are the main regulators in CAFs. MiR-29b is one of the significant down-regulated miRNAs in CAFs from the miRNA screening. The role of miR-29b in the interaction between CAFs and breast cancer is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CAFs on breast cancer cell proliferation and metastasis regulated by miR-29b. We found that fibroblasts activated by co-cultured breast cancer cells produced higher levels of some chemokines like CCL11, CXCL14, which accelerated breast cancer cell growth and induced drug resistance and metastasis. Increased miR-29b expression in activated fibroblasts could suppress the activating p38-STAT1 signal pathway in breast cancer cells. We also found that the expression of CCL11 and CXCL14 could be regulated by miR-29b in CAFs. Our results illustrate that down-regulation of miR-29b in CAFs plays an important role in tumor stroma by activating p38-STAT1 in breast cancer cells. The study indicates that cancer cells and fibroblasts interaction promotes breast cancer cell growth, drug resistance, migration and invasion due to the lack of miR-29b expression in CAFs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of lung cancer are needed. Previous studies have indicated positive associations between abnormal circulating cytokines and the etiology of lung cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>Blood samples were obtained from 286 patients with pretreatment lung cancer and 80 healthy volunteers. Circulating cytokine levels were detected with a Luminex assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Urine samples were obtained from 284 patients and 122 healthy volunteers. CXC chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) expression in tumors and nontumor regions of lung tissues from 133 lung cancer cases was detected by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and immunofluorescence (IF) staining of formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with healthy volunteers, a 65.7-fold increase was observed in the level of CXCL14 in the plasma of lung cancer patients, and a 1.7-fold increase was observed in the level of CXCL14 in the urine of lung cancer patients, achieving a 0.9464 AUC (area under the curve) value and a 0.6476 AUC value for differentiating between lung cancer patients and healthy volunteers, respectively. Stromal CXCL14 expression was significantly associated with advanced pathologic stage (<i>P</i><0.001), pathologic N stage (<i>P</i><0.001), and recurrence and metastasis (<i>P</i>=0.014). Moreover, multivariate analysis suggested stromal CXCL14 expression as an independent predictor of DFS and OS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study demonstrates that CXCL14 might serve as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in patients with lung cancer.<h4>Impact</h4>CXCL14 might serve as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in patients with lung cancer.
Project description:Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a critical role for growth, invasion, and metastasis of cancer. Therefore, targeting CAFs with small molecule inhibitors may be an attractive anti-tumor strategy. The current study aims to identify small molecule kinase inhibitors affecting CAF's growth and to characterize the biological effects of active compounds on primary CAFs from lung cancer. We screened two individual CAF strains for their sensitivity to a panel of 160 kinase inhibitors. Five kinase inhibitors were identified inhibiting more than 50% of the growth of both cell lines. Three of them were inhibitors of PDGFR at nanomolar concentrations. Therefore, we further tested the FDA approved PDGFR inhibitors Dasatinib, Nilotinib, Sorafenib, and Imatinib. All 37 CAF strains investigated were highly sensitive to Dasatinib at clinically relevant concentrations. Imatinib was slightly less effective, whereas the inhibitory effects of Nilotinib and Sorafenib were significantly less pronounced.We investigated the effect of Dasatinib on the CAF transcriptome by microarray analysis of 9 individual CAF strains. 492 genes were identified whose expression was changed at least twofold. 104 of these encoded cell cycle related proteins with 97 of them being downregulated by Dasatinib. The majority of regulated genes, however, were of diverse biological functions not directly related to proliferation. We compared this Dasatinib expression signature to previously described differential signatures of normal tissue associated fibroblasts (NAFs) and CAFs and to a signature of fibroblast serum response. There was a significant overlap between genes regulated by Dasatinib and serum repression genes. More importantly, of the 313 genes downregulated by Dasatinib 64 were also reduced in NAFs compared to CAFs. Furthermore, 26 of 179 genes identified as upregulated by Dasatinib were also found to be elevated in NAFs compared to CAFs. These data demonstrate that Dasatinib partially reverses the phenotype of CAFs to a normal fibroblast like phenotype. This is further supported by the finding that incubation of tumor cells with conditioned medium from CAFs pre-incubated with Dasatinib significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation, suggesting that Dasatinib partially reverses the CAF mediated tumor promoting effect. Therefore, targeting CAFs with Dasatinib represents a promising therapeutic principle.
Project description:Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been shown to enhance squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) growth, but it is unclear whether they promote SCC lung metastasis. We generated CAFs from <i>K15.KrasG12D.Smad4<sup>-/-</sup></i> mouse SCCs. RNA expression analyses demonstrated that CAFs had enriched transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling compared to normal tissue-associated fibroblasts (NAFs), therefore we assessed how TGFβ-enriched CAFs impact SCC metastasis. We co-injected SCC cells with CAFs to the skin, tail vein, or the lung to mimic sequential steps of lung metastasis. CAFs increased SCC volume only in lung co-transplantations, characterized with increased proliferation and angiogenesis and decreased apoptosis compared to NAF co-transplanted SCCs. These CAF effects were attenuated by a clinically relevant TGFβ receptor inhibitor, suggesting that CAFs facilitated TGFβ-dependent SCC cell seeding and survival in the lung. CAFs also increased tumor volume when co-transplanted to the lung with limiting numbers of SCC cancer stem cells (CSCs). <i>In vitro</i>, CSC sphere formation and invasion were increased either with co-cultured CAFs or with CAF conditioned media (which contains the highest TGFβ1 concentration) and these CAF effects were blocked by TGFβ inhibition. Further, TGFβ activation was higher in primary human oral SCCs with lung metastasis than SCCs without lung metastasis. Similarly, TGFβ activation was detected in the lungs of mice with micrometastasis. Our data suggest that TGFβ-enriched CAFs play a causal role in CSC seeding and expansion in the lung during SCC metastasis, providing a prognostic marker and therapeutic target for SCC lung metastasis.
Project description:Most investigations of cancer-stroma interactions have focused on biochemical signaling effects, with much less attention being paid to biophysical factors. In this study, we investigated the role of mechanical stimuli on human prostatic fibroblasts using a microfluidic platform that was adapted for our experiments and further developed for both repeatable performance among multiple assays and for compatibility with high-resolution confocal microscopy. Results show that mechanical stretching of normal tissue-associated fibroblasts (NAFs) alters the structure of secreted fibronectin. Specifically, unstretched NAFs deposit and assemble fibronectin in a random, mesh-like arrangement, while stretched NAFs produce matrix with a more organized, linearly aligned structure. Moreover, the stretched NAFs exhibited an enhanced capability for directing co-cultured cancer cell migration in a persistent manner. Furthermore, we show that stretching NAFs triggers complex biochemical signaling events through the observation of increased expression of platelet derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFR?). A comparison of these behaviors with those of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) indicates that the observed phenotypes of stretched NAFs are similar to those associated with CAFs, suggesting that mechanical stress is a critical factor in NAF activation and CAF genesis.
Project description:To explore epigenetic regulation and the impact of chemokine CXCL14 on colorectal cancer, 7 colorectal cancer cell lines, 107 cases of primary colorectal cancer, and 10 cases of normal colorectal mucosa were evaluated in this study. Methylation specific PCR (MSP), semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), cell proliferation assay, colony formation, and transwell assay were performed for the evaluation. Complete methylation and loss of CXCL14 expression were found in 5 colorectal cancer cell lines. Partial methylation and weak expression were found in two cell lines. CXCL14 was methylated in 79.4% (85/107) of primary human colorectal cancer. No methylation was found in 10 cases of normal colorectal mucosa. Restoration of CXCL14 expression was induced by the 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) treatment. The cell viability was reduced and colony formation was inhibited by restoration of CXCL14 expression in HCT116 cells, a colorectal cancer cell line. The number of invasive and migration cells was reduced by CXCL14. The expression of MMP-2, Vimentin, and NF-?B was suppressed, and the expression of E-cadherin and I?B-? was induced by CXCL14. In conclusion, CXCL14 is frequently methylated in human colorectal cancer and promoter region hypermethylation silenced CXCL14 expression in colorectal cancer cells. Restoration of CXCL14 expression suppressed colorectal cancer proliferation. CXCL14 inhibits colorectal cancer migration, invasion, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by suppressing NF-?B signaling.