Polysomal and total RNA in controls and after 10 min global brain ischemia and 8 hours of reperfusion
ABSTRACT: Complete global brain ischemia (CGBI) and reperfusion occur following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Different brain neurons are selectively vulnerable to CGBI: pyramidal neurons of hippocampal CA3 survive 10 min CGBI but those of CA1 die at 3 days following 10 min CGBI. CA3 neurons are expected to have more robust stress responses and repair responses than CA1 neurons. We used microarrays to compared total and polysome-bound mRNAs in CA1 and CA3 at 8 hr reperfusion after 10 min CGBI in Long Evans male rats to ascertain differences in total vs polysome-bound gene expression. Male Long Evans rats were subjected to (1) sham operation (non-ischemic control, NIC) or normothermic CGBI of 10 min followed by 8 hr reperfusion (8R). Hippocampal CA1 and CA3 were dissected. n = 5 CA1 or CA3 were pooled to give a single replicate and there were 3 or 4 replicates per group. Post-mitochondrial supernatant (PMS) was prepared. Twenty percent of PMS was TRIzol extracted to give total RNA. The remainder was run on a 20% sucrose pad to isolate polysome pellets, which were also TRIzol extracted to give polysome RNA. Total and polysome RNA were then run on Affymetrix Rat Gene 2.0 microarrays.
Project description:Complete global brain ischemia (CGBI) and reperfusion occur following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Different brain neurons are selectively vulnerable to CGBI: pyramidal neurons of hippocampal CA3 survive 10 min CGBI but those of CA1 die at 3 days following 10 min CGBI. CA3 neurons are expected to have more robust stress responses and repair responses than CA1 neurons. We used microarrays to compared total and polysome-bound mRNAs in CA1 and CA3 at 8 hr reperfusion after 10 min CGBI in Long Evans male rats to ascertain differences in total vs polysome-bound gene expression. Male Long Evans rats were subjected to (1) sham operation (non-ischemic control, NIC) or normothermic CGBI of 10 min followed by 8 hr reperfusion (8R). Hippocampal CA1 and CA3 were dissected. n = 5 CA1 or CA3 were pooled to give a single replicate and there were 3 or 4 replicates per group. Post-mitochondrial supernatant (PMS) was prepared. Twenty percent of PMS was TRIzol extracted to give total RNA. The remainder was run on a 20% sucrose pad to isolate polysome pellets, which were also TRIzol extracted to give polysome RNA. Total and polysome RNA were then run on Affymetrix Rat Gene 2.0 microarrays.
Project description:Prolonged translation arrest in post-ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons precludes translation of induced stress genes and directly correlates with cell death. We evaluated the regulation of mRNAs containing adenine- and uridine-rich elements (ARE) by assessing HuR protein and hsp70 mRNA nuclear translocation, HuR polysome binding, and translation state analysis of CA1 and CA3 at 8 h of reperfusion after 10 min of global cerebral ischemia. There was no difference between CA1 and CA3 at 8 h of reperfusion in nuclear or cytoplasmic HuR protein or hsp70 mRNA, or HuR polysome association, suggesting that neither mechanism contributed to post-ischemic outcome. Translation state analysis revealed that 28 and 58 % of unique mRNAs significantly different between 8hR and NIC, in CA3 and CA1, respectively, were not polysome-bound. There was significantly greater diversity of polysome-bound mRNAs in reperfused CA3 compared to CA1, and in both regions, ARE-containing mRNAs accounted for 4-5 % of the total. These data indicate that posttranscriptional ARE-containing mRNA regulation occurs in reperfused neurons and contributes to post-ischemic outcome. Understanding the differential responses of vulnerable and resistant neurons to ischemia will contribute to the development of effective neuroprotective therapies.
Project description:Prolonged translation arrest correlates with delayed neuronal death of hippocampal CA1 neurons following global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Many previous studies investigated ribosome molecular biology, but mRNA regulatory mechanisms after brain ischemia have been less studied. Here we investigated the embryonic lethal abnormal vision/Hu isoforms HuR, HuB, HuC, and HuD, as well as expression of mRNAs containing adenine and rich uridine elements following global ischemia in rat brain. Proteomics of embryonic lethal abnormal vision immunoprecipitations or polysomes isolated from rat hippocampal CA1 and CA3 from controls or following 10?min ischemia plus 8?h of reperfusion showed distinct sets of mRNA-binding proteins, suggesting differential mRNA regulation in each condition. Notably, HuB, HuC, and HuD were undetectable in NIC CA1. At 8?h reperfusion, polysome-associated mRNAs contained 46.1% of ischemia-upregulated mRNAs containing adenine and rich uridine elements in CA3, but only 18.7% in CA1. Since mRNAs containing adenine and rich uridine elements regulation are important to several cellular stress responses, our results suggest CA1 is disadvantaged compared to CA3 in coping with ischemic stress, and this is expected to be an important contributing factor to CA1 selective vulnerability. (Data are available via ProteomeXchange identifier PXD004078 and GEO Series accession number GSE82146).
Project description:We investigated mRNA regulatory proteins of the ELAV family following 10 min global brain ischemia and 8 hrs reperfusion (8R) or non-ischemic controls (NIC) in rat hippocampal CA1 and CA3. There were three main experiments: (1) Shot-gun proteomics of polysome pellets from NIC and 8R CA1 and CA3, (2) Shot-gun proteomics of ELAV immunoprecipitate eluents from NIC and 8R CA1 and CA3, and (3) Proteomics of ELAV antisera-reactive bands excised from nitrocellulose following ELAV Western blot.
Project description:Excitotoxic mechanisms contribute to the degeneration of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after recurrent seizures and brain ischemia. However, susceptibility differs, with CA1 neurons degenerating preferentially after global ischemia and CA3 neurons after limbic seizures. Whereas most studies address contributions of excitotoxic Ca2+ entry, it is apparent that Zn2+ also contributes, reflecting accumulation in neurons either after synaptic release and entry through postsynaptic channels or upon mobilization from intracellular Zn2+-binding proteins such as metallothionein-III (MT-III). Using mouse hippocampal slices to study acute oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-triggered neurodegeneration, we found evidence for early contributions of excitotoxic Ca2+ and Zn2+ accumulation in both CA1 and CA3, as indicated by the ability of Zn2+ chelators or Ca2+ entry blockers to delay pyramidal neuronal death in both regions. However, using knock-out animals (of MT-III and vesicular Zn2+ transporter, ZnT3) and channel blockers revealed substantial differences in relevant Zn2+ sources, with critical contributions of presynaptic release and its permeation through Ca2+- (and Zn2+)-permeable AMPA channels in CA3 and Zn2+ mobilization from MT-III predominating in CA1. To assess the consequences of the intracellular Zn2+ accumulation, we used OGD exposures slightly shorter than those causing acute neuronal death; under these conditions, cytosolic Zn2+ rises persisted for 10-30 min after OGD, followed by recovery over ?40-60 min. Furthermore, the recovery appeared to be accompanied by mitochondrial Zn2+ accumulation (via the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter MCU) in CA1 but not in CA3 neurons and was markedly diminished in MT-III knock-outs, suggesting that it depended upon Zn2+ mobilization from this protein.The basis for the differential vulnerabilities of CA1 versus CA3 pyramidal neurons is unclear. The present study of events during and after acute oxygen glucose deprivation highlights a possible important difference, with rapid synaptic entry of Ca2+ and Zn2+ contributing more in CA3, but with delayed and long-lasting accumulation of Zn2+ within mitochondria occurring in CA1 but not CA3 pyramidal neurons. These data may be consistent with observations of prominent mitochondrial dysfunction as a critical early event in the delayed degeneration of CA1 neurons after ischemia and support a hypothesis that mitochondrial Zn2+ accumulation in the early reperfusion period may be a critical and targetable upstream event in the injury cascade.
Project description:The susceptibility of CA1 over CA3 to damage from cerebral ischemia may be related to the differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production/removal between the two hippocampal subfields. We aimed to measure CA1/CA3 differences in net ROS production in real time in the first 30?min of reperfusion in pyramidal cells. We aimed to determine the underlying cause of the differential vulnerability of CA1 and CA3.Real-time determinations of mitochondrial H2O2 and, independently, glutathione (GSH) redox status from roGFP-based probes in individual pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal cultures during oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-reperfusion (RP) demonstrate a significantly more oxidizing environment during RP in CA1 than CA3 mitochondria. Protein levels (immunohistochemistry and Western blots), roGFP2-based probe measurements during controlled mitochondrial production of ROS, and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) inhibition by auranofin are consistent with a more effective mitochondrial thioredoxin (Trx) system in CA3. Inhibition of TrxR eliminates the differences in redox status and cell death between the regions. Overexpression of cytosolic Trx1 does not influence mitochondrial H2O2 production.Real-time changes of mitochondrial H2O2 and GSH in tissue cultures during early RP, and also during controlled production of superoxide and peroxide, reveal significant differences between CA1 and CA3. The mitochondrial Trx system is responsible for the observed differences during RP as well as for delayed cell death 18?h afterward.Greater mitochondrial Trx efficacy in CA3 pyramidal cells results in less vulnerability to ischemia/reperfusion because of the less oxidizing environment in CA3 mitochondria during RP. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 534-549.
Project description:Theta-gamma phase coupling and spike timing within theta oscillations are prominent features of the hippocampus and are often related to navigation and memory. However, the mechanisms that give rise to these relationships are not well understood. Using high spatial resolution electrophysiology, we investigated the influence of CA3 and entorhinal inputs on the timing of CA1 neurons. The theta-phase preference and excitatory strength of the afferent CA3 and entorhinal inputs effectively timed the principal neuron activity, as well as regulated distinct CA1 interneuron populations in multiple tasks and behavioral states. Feedback potentiation of distal dendritic inhibition by CA1 place cells attenuated the excitatory entorhinal input at place field entry, coupled with feedback depression of proximal dendritic and perisomatic inhibition, allowing the CA3 input to gain control toward the exit. Thus, upstream inputs interact with local mechanisms to determine theta-phase timing of hippocampal neurons to support memory and spatial navigation.
Project description:Cell therapy is the most advanced treatment of the cerebral ischemia, nowadays. Herein, we discuss the neuroprotective effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on rat hippocampal cells following intravenous injection of these cells in an ischemia-reperfusion model. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control, sham (surgery without blockage of common carotid arteries), ischemia (common carotid arteries were blocked for 30 min prior to reperfusion), vehicle (7 days after ischemia PBS was injected via the tail vein), and treatment (injections of BMSC into the tail veins 7 days after ischemia). We performed neuromuscular and vestibulomotor function tests to assess behavioral function and, finally, brains were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), anti-Brdu immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL staining. The ischemia group had severe apoptosis. The group treated with BMSCs had a lower mortality rate and also had significant improvement in functional recovery (P < 0.001). Ischemia-reperfusion for 30 min causes damage and extensive neuronal death in the hippocampus, especially in CA1 and CA3 regions, leading to several functional and neurological deficits. In conclusion, intravenous injection of BMSCs can significantly decrease the number of apoptotic neurons and significantly improve functional recovery, which may be a beneficial treatment method for ischemic injuries.
Project description:The hippocampal CA1 region is sensitive to hypoxic and ischemic injury but can be protected by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). However, the mechanism through which IPC protects hippocampal CA1 neurons is still under investigation. Additionally, the role of autophagy in determining the fate of hippocampal neurons is unclear. Here, we examined whether IPC induced autophagy to alleviate hippocampal CA1 neuronal death in vitro and in vivo with oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) models. Survival of hippocampal neurons increased from 51.5% ± 6.3% in the non-IPC group (55 min of OGD) to 77.3% ± 7.9% in the IPC group (15 min of OGD, followed by 55 min of OGD 24 h later). The number of hippocampal CA1 layer neurons increased from 182 ± 26 cells/mm2 in the non-IPC group (20 min of BCCAO) to 278 ± 55 cells/mm2 in the IPC group (1 min × 3 BCCAO, followed by 20 min of BCCAO 24 h later). Akt phosphorylation and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I expression were increased in the preconditioning group. Moreover, the protective effects of IPC were abolished only by inhibiting the activity of autophagy, but not by blocking the activation of Akt in vitro. Using in vivo experiments, we found that LC3 expression was upregulated, accompanied by an increase in neuronal survival in hippocampal CA1 neurons in the preconditioning group. The neuroprotective effects of IPC on hippocampal CA1 neurons were completely inhibited by treatment with 3-MA. In contrast, hippocampal CA3 neurons did not show changes in autophagic activity or beneficial effects of IPC. These data suggested that IPC may attenuate ischemic injury in hippocampal CA1 neurons through induction of Akt-independent autophagy.
Project description:Network patterns are believed to provide unique temporal contexts for coordinating neuronal activity within and across different regions of the brain. Some of the characteristics of network patterns modeled in vitro are altered in the CA3 or CA1 subregions of hippocampal slices from aged mice. CA3-CA1 network interactions have not been examined previously. We used slices from aged and adult mice to model spontaneous sharp wave ripples and carbachol-induced gamma oscillations, and compared measures of CA3-CA1 network timing between age groups. Coherent sharp wave ripples and gamma oscillations were evident in the CA3-CA1 circuit in both age groups, but the relative timing of activity in CA1 stratum pyramidale was delayed in the aged. In another sample of aged slices, evoked Schaffer collateral responses were attenuated in CA3 (antidromic spike amplitude) and CA1 (orthodromic field EPSP slope). However, the amplitude and timing of spontaneous sharp waves recorded in CA1 stratum radiatum were similar to adults. In both age groups unit activity recorded juxtacellularly from unidentified neurons in CA1 stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens was temporally modulated by CA3 ripples. However, aged neurons exhibited reduced spike probability during the early cycles of the CA3 ripple oscillation. These findings suggest that aging disrupts the coordination of patterned activity in the CA3-CA1 circuit.