Identification of the molecular targets of Orm1 in regenerating mouse liver
ABSTRACT: To identify the molecular targets of orosomucoid (Orm1) during liver regeneration, GeneChip analysis was performed at 48 h after partial hepatectomy (PH) in regenerating mouse liver treated with siControl or siOrm. A total of 180 differentially expressed genes in Orm1 konckdown mouse liver by comparing with siControl were identified with a fold change more than 2. Then, pathway analysis performed on the altered gene expression profiles using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) program revealed that cell cycle, Toll-like receptor and TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways were under control of Orm1 in regenerating mouse livers. Three days post In vivo knockdown of Orm1 with its siRNA administered to mice using Invivofectamine 3.0 by a single injection, 40% PH was perfomred and gene expression prolifes of regenerating mouse livers at 48 h after PH was measued using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 Array.
Project description:To identify the molecular targets of orosomucoid (Orm1) during liver regeneration, GeneChip analysis was performed at 48 h after partial hepatectomy (PH) in regenerating mouse liver treated with siControl or siOrm. A total of 180 differentially expressed genes in Orm1 konckdown mouse liver by comparing with siControl were identified with a fold change more than 2. Then, pathway analysis performed on the altered gene expression profiles using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) program revealed that cell cycle, Toll-like receptor and TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways were under control of Orm1 in regenerating mouse livers. Three days post In vivo knockdown of Orm1 with its siRNA administered to mice using Invivofectamine 3.0 by a single injection, 40% PH was perfomred and gene expression prolifes of regenerating mouse livers at 48 h after PH was measued using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 Array.
Project description:The acute phase protein orosomucoid-1 (Orm1) is mainly expressed by hepatocytes (HPCs) under stress conditions. However, its specific function is not fully understood. Here, we report a role of Orm1 as an executer of HPC proliferation. Increases in serum levels of Orm1 were observed in patients after surgical resection for liver cancer and in mice undergone partial hepatectomy (PH). Transcriptome study showed that Orm1 became the most abundant in HPCs isolated from regenerating mouse liver tissues after PH. Both in vitro and in vivo siRNA-induced knockdown of Orm1 suppressed proliferation of mouse regenerating HPCs and human hepatic cells. Microarray analysis in regenerating mouse livers revealed that the signaling pathways controlling chromatin replication, especially the minichromosome maintenance protein complex genes were uniformly down-regulated following Orm1 knockdown. These data suggest that Orm1 is induced in response to hepatic injury and executes liver regeneration by activating cell cycle progression in HPCs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although 70% (or 2/3) partial hepatectomy (PH) is the most studied model for liver regeneration, the hepatic protein expression profile associated with lower volume liver resection (such as 50% PH) has not yet been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the global protein expression profile of the regenerating mouse liver following 50% PH by differential proteomics, and thereby gaining some insights into the hepatic regeneration mechanism(s) under this milder but clinically more relevant condition. RESULTS: Proteins from sham-operated mouse livers and livers regenerating for 24 h after 50% PH were separated by SDS-PAGE and analyzed by nanoUPLC-Q-Tof mass spectrometry. Compared to sham-operated group, there were totally 87 differentially expressed proteins (with 50 up-regulated and 37 down-regulated ones) identified in the regenerating mouse livers, most of which have not been previously related to liver regeneration. Remarkably, over 25 differentially expressed proteins were located at mitochondria. Several of the mitochondria-resident proteins which play important roles in citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production were found to be down-regulated, consistent with the recently-proposed model in which the reduction of ATP content in the remnant liver gives rise to early stress signals that contribute to the onset of liver regeneration. Pathway analysis revealed a central role of c-Myc in the regulation of liver regeneration. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides novel evidence for mitochondria as a pivotal organelle that is connected to liver regeneration, and lays the foundation for further studies on key factors and pathways involved in liver regeneration following 50% PH, a condition frequently used for partial liver transplantation and conservative liver resection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of telmisartan varies among the individuals, and the main causes remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ORM1, as well as ABCC2, ABCB1, ABCG2 and SLCO1B3 polymorphisms, on the disposition of the drug and BP change after taking 40 mg telmisartan in 48 healthy Chinese males. METHOD:A total of 48 healthy males were included in this trial. Every volunteer ingested a single dose of 40 mg telmisartan, and the plasma drug concentration and blood pressure (BP) were measured up to 48 h. RESULT:In this study, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) in the heterozygotes of ORM1 113AG was higher than that in the wild-type homozygotes, AUC(0-48) (113AA vs. 113AG, 1,549.18±859.84 ng·h/ml vs. 2,313.54±1,257.71 ng·h/ml, P?=?0.033), AUC(0-?) (113AA vs. 113AG, 1,753.13±1,060.60 ng·h/ml vs. 2,686.90±1,401.87 ng·h/ml, P?=?0.016), and the change(%) of the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from the baseline BP value also showed a significant difference between the ORM1 113AG and 113AA genotypes at 5 h after taking telmisartan (P?=?0.026). This study also showed that the allele of ABCC2 C3972T would affected the disposition of telmsiartan and the DBP change significantly after taking the drug. However, the common SNPs of ABCG2 C421, ABCB1 C3435T, and SLCO1B3 T334G showed no impacts on the PKs of telmisartan or BP change(%) in our trial. CONCLUSION:The ORM1 A113G polymorphism was associated with the PKs variability after taking telmsiartan, as well as ABCC2 C3972T. The heterozygotes of ORM1 113AG showed a larger AUC and a notable BP change(%) from the baseline compared with the wild-type. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TNC-10000898.
Project description:The involvement of IL-4 in liver regeneration has not yet been recognized. In this article, we show that IL-4, produced by NKT cells that accumulate in regenerating livers after partial hepatectomy, contributes to this process by regulating the activation of complement after liver resection in mice. The mechanism of this regulation was associated with the maintenance of an appropriate level of IgM in mouse blood, because IgM deposited in liver parenchyma most likely initiated complement activation during liver regeneration. By controlling complement activation, IL-4 regulated the induction of IL-6, thereby influencing a key pathway involved in regenerating liver cell proliferation and survival. Furthermore, the secretion of IL-4 was controlled by complement through the recruitment of NKT cells to regenerating livers. Our study thus reveals the existence of a regulatory feedback mechanism involving complement and IL-4 that controls liver regeneration.
Project description:Keap1 negatively controls the activity of transcription factor Nrf2. This Keap1/Nrf2 pathway plays a critical role in combating oxidative stress. We aimed at determining whether and how Keap1 modulates the cell cycle of replicating hepatocytes during liver regeneration. Two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PH) was performed on wild-type mice and Keap1+/- (Keap1 knockdown) mice. We found that, following PH, Keap1 knockdown resulted in a delay in S-phase entry, disruption of S-phase progression, and loss of mitotic rhythm of replicating hepatocytes. These events are associated with dysregulation of c-Met, EGFR, Akt1, p70S6K, Cyclin A2, and Cyclin B1 in regenerating livers. Astonishingly, normal regenerating livers exhibited the redox fluctuation coupled with hepatocyte cell cycle progression, while keeping Nrf2 quiescent. Keap1 knockdown caused severe disruption in both the redox cycle and the cell cycle of replicating hepatocytes. Thus, we demonstrate that Keap1 is a potent regulator of hepatic redox cycle and hepatocyte cell cycle during liver regeneration.
Project description:As one of the most important post-transcriptional regulators, microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in diverse biological processes, including the regulation of cell proliferation. MiR-17~92 has been found to act as an oncogene, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation. However, its role in liver regeneration is still unclear. We generated a hepatocyte-specific miR-17~92-deficient mouse and used a mouse model with 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) or intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride to demonstrate the role of MiR-17~92 in liver regeneration. In quiescent livers, the expression of the miR-17~92 cluster showed a gender disparity, with much higher expression in female mice. The expression of four members of this cluster was found to be markedly reduced after 70% PH. The ablation of miR-17~92 led to obvious regeneration impairment during the early-stage regeneration in the female mice. Ovariectomy greatly reduced miR-17~92 expression but significantly promoted liver regeneration in wild-type mice. In addition, early regeneration impairment in miR-17~92-deficient livers could be largely restored following ovariectomy. The proliferation suppressors p21 and Pten were found to be the target effectors of miR-17~92. MiR-17~92 disruption resulted in elevated protein levels of p21 and Pten in regenerating livers. MiR-17~92 functions as a proliferation stimulator and acts in an oestrogen-dependent manner. The loss of this miRNA results in increases in p21 and Pten expression and therefore impairs liver regeneration in female mice.
Project description:Adult hepatocytes undergo cell cycle progression and proliferation in response to partial hepatectomy (PH). Transient lipid accumulation within hepatocytes preceding the peak proliferative phase is a characteristic feature of regenerating livers. However, the molecular mediators and mechanisms responsible for lipid accumulation in regenerating livers are not well understood. Adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP; Plin2) regulates hepatic triglyceride storage and Plin2-deficient (Plin2(-/-)) mice have significantly reduced triglyceride (TG) content in the liver. We sought to determine the functional significance of PLIN2 in liver regeneration in response to PH and toxic liver injury and examined whether absence of Plin2 expression modulates hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration.We subjected wild-type (WT) and Plin2(-/-) mice to 70% PH or acute carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) treatment and examined the hepatic lipid content, the expression profile of lipid metabolism-related genes, the rate of cellular proliferation and the dynamics of liver regeneration in the treated animals.In response to PH, Plin2(-/-) mice showed decreased hepatic triglyceride accumulation and delayed cell cycle progression, which was associated with impaired liver regeneration. Fatty acid (FA) synthesis and lipid transfer gene expression profile were comparable between Plin2(-/-) and wild-type mice, while VLDL secretion rate was higher in the Plin2(-/-) mice. Downregulated ?-oxidation and reduced cytosolic FA level in Plin2(-/-) mice may have contributed to the attenuation of the liver regeneration capacity in these animals. In parallel experiments, we also observed attenuated hepatic lipid accumulation and proliferation in response to CCl4-mediated acute toxic liver injury in Plin2(-/-) mice.We conclude that PLIN2-mediated lipid accumulation and utilization by the liver is important for efficient liver regeneration in response to PH and toxic liver injury.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Liver regeneration (LR) after 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) is one of the most studied models of cell, organ, and tissue regeneration. Although the transcriptional profile analysis of regenerating liver has been carried out by many reserachers, the dynamic protein expression profile during LR has been rarely reported up to date. Therefore, this study aims to detect the global proteomic profile of the regenerating rat liver following 2/3 hepatectomy, thereby gaining some insights into hepatic regeneration mechanism.<h4>Results</h4>Protein samples extracted from the sham-operated and the regenerating rat livers at 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 168 h after PH were separated by IEF/SDS-PAGE and then analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Compared to sham-operated groups, there were totally 220 differentially expressed proteins (including 156 up-regulated, 62 down-regulated, and 2 up/down-regulated ones) identified in the regenerating rat livers, and most of them have not been previously related to liver regeneration. According to the expression pattern analysis combined with gene functional analysis, it showed that lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were enhanced at the early phase of LR and continue throughout the regeneration process. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that YWHAE protein (one of members of the 14-3-3 protein family) was located at the center of pathway networks at all the timepoints after 2/3 hepatectomy under our experimental conditions, maybe suggesting a central role of this protein in regulating liver regeneration. Additionally, we also revealed the role of Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42) in the termination of LR.<h4>Conclusions</h4>For the first time, our proteomic analysis suggested an important role of YWHAE and pathway mediated by this protein in liver regeneration, which might be helpful in expanding our understanding of LR amd unraveling the mechanisms of LR.
Project description:The release of (14)CO(2) from [7-(14)C]orotic acid was measured in isolated perfused normal and regenerating rat livers. With some limitations, the release of (14)CO(2) from [7-(14)C]orotic acid can be used to estimate UMP synthesis in perfused livers. Isolated perfused livers rapidly pick up labelled orotic acid added to perfusate and convert most of it into UMP. Perfused regenerating livers produce approx. 2.5 times as much UMP/g of liver as do perfused normal livers. However, the absolute amount of orotic acid converted into UMP is higher in perfused normal livers than in perfused regenerating livers. Perfused regenerating livers do not differ in their orotic acid uptake and UMP synthesis from livers of comparable size in which regeneration is not taking place. The total amount of orotic acid taken up by the liver (rather than the rate of uptake) and the size of the liver appear to be the determining factors in UMP production. The results suggest that the decrease in liver size caused by partial hepatectomy may be in itself sufficient to account for an increase in the flow of metabolites in the pyrimidine pathway at the early stages of liver regeneration.