Project description:Development of resistance to therapy continues to be a serious clinical problem in breast cancer management. Cancer stem/progenitor cells have been shown to play roles in resistance to chemo? and radiotherapy. Here, we examined their role in the development of resistance to the oestrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen. Tamoxifen?resistant cells were enriched for stem/progenitors and expressed high levels of the stem cell marker Sox2. Silencing of the SOX2 gene reduced the size of the stem/progenitor cell population and restored sensitivity to tamoxifen. Conversely, ectopic expression of Sox2 reduced tamoxifen sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Gene expression profiling revealed activation of the Wnt signalling pathway in Sox2?expressing cells, and inhibition of Wnt signalling sensitized resistant cells to tamoxifen. Examination of patient tumours indicated that Sox2 levels are higher in patients after endocrine therapy failure, and also in the primary tumours of these patients, compared to those of responders. Together, these results suggest that development of tamoxifen resistance is driven by Sox2?dependent activation of Wnt signalling in cancer stem/progenitor cells.
Project description:We explored the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in acquiring resistance to tamoxifen, a drug successfully used to treat women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. miRNA microarray analysis of MCF-7 cell lines that are either sensitive (parental) or resistant (4-hydroxytamoxifen-resistant (OHT(R))) to tamoxifen showed significant (>1.8-fold) up-regulation of eight miRNAs and marked down-regulation (>50%) of seven miRNAs in OHT(R) cells compared with parental MCF-7 cells. Increased expression of three of the most promising up-regulated (miR-221, miR-222, and miR-181) and down-regulated (miR-21, miR-342, and miR-489) miRNAs was validated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. The expression of miR-221 and miR-222 was also significantly (2-fold) elevated in HER2/neu-positive primary human breast cancer tissues that are known to be resistant to endocrine therapy compared with HER2/neu-negative tissue samples. Ectopic expression of miR-221/222 rendered the parental MCF-7 cells resistant to tamoxifen. The protein level of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1), a known target of miR-221/222, was reduced by 50% in OHT(R) cells and by 28-50% in miR-221/222-overexpressing MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of p27(Kip1) in the resistant OHT(R) cells caused enhanced cell death when exposed to tamoxifen. This is the first study demonstrating a relationship between miR-221/222 expression and HER2/neu overexpression in primary breast tumors that are generally resistant to tamoxifen therapy. This finding also provides the rationale for the application of altered expression of specific miRNAs as a predictive tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer marker.
Project description:Nectin-4, upregulated in various cancer cells, cis-interacts with ErbB2 and its trastuzumab-resistant splice variants, p95-ErbB2 and ErbB2∆Ex16, enhancing DNA synthesis through the PI3K-AKT signaling in human breast cancer T47D cells in an adherent culture. We found here that nectin-4 and p95-ErbB2, but not nectin-4 and either ErbB2 or ErbB2∆Ex16, cooperatively enhanced SOX2 gene expression and cell proliferation in a suspension culture. This enhancement of T47D cell proliferation in a suspension culture by nectin-4 and p95-ErbB2 was dependent on the SOX2 gene expression. In T47D cells, nectin-4 and any one of p95-ErbB2, ErbB2, or ErbB2∆Ex16 cooperatively activated the PI3K-AKT signaling, known to induce the SOX2 gene expression, to similar extents. However, only a combination of nectin-4 and p95-ErbB2, but not that of nectin-4 and either ErbB2 or ErbB2∆Ex16, cooperatively enhanced the SOX2 gene expression. Detailed studies revealed that only nectin-4 and p95-ErbB2 cooperatively activated the Hippo signaling. YAP inhibited the SOX2 gene expression in this cell line and thus the MST1/2-LATS1/2 signaling-mediated YAP inactivation increased the SOX2 gene expression. These results indicate that only the combination of nectin-4 and p95-ErbB2, but not that of nectin-4 and either ErbB2 or ErbB2∆Ex16, cooperatively regulates the Hippo signaling-dependent SOX2 gene expression, enhancing anchorage-independent T47D cell proliferation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study is aimed to unravel the genetic factors associated with microRNA (miRNA) expression in regulating sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2)-mediated cisplatin resistance in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). METHODS:The relevance of SOX2 expression in SCLC was analyzed in a panel of SCLC cells by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and western blot (WB). We selected DMS114 cell line, in which SOX2 was amplified via lentiviral vector-mediated transfection of the SOX2 genes and tested for the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) by MTS assay. High-throughput sequencing and screening of differentially expressed miRNAs between SOX2-overexpressing and normal control cells were performed. Finally, miRanda software was used to verify the miRNAs bound with SOX2 and qPCR was used to identify the expression of miRNAs which were binding with SOX2. RESULTS:Cisplatin-resistant SOX2-overexpressing DMS114 cell lines were successfully developed, showing a statistically significant increase in SOX2 expression by qPCR and WB. Our results showed a typically higher IC50 value in SOX2-overexpressing cells compared with the negative controls. The high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that 68 miRNAs were upregulated and 24 miRNAs were downregulated in the SOX2-overexpressing cells. The 24 downregulated miRNAs were further verified. Of them, a cancer-related miRNA, hsa-miR-340-5p, showed a higher binding affinity with SOX2 in network regulation mapping, which was also found to be markedly downregulated under qPCR analysis. CONCLUSION:We demonstrated that downregulated expression of hsa-miR-340-5p may affect cisplatin resistance by mediating SOX2 expression in SCLC cells, which may provide a potential target for the therapy of chemoresistant SCLCs.
Project description:Pluripotent stem cell lines derived from embryos of different stages have distinct pluripotent ground states, but similar levels of the transcription factor Oct4. Epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells (EpiSCs), in contrast to embryonic stem (ES) cells, cannot form chimeras. We show that EpiSCs express lower levels of the transcription factors Sox2 and Klf4 than ES cells and have limited reprogramming potential, as shown by cell fusion. Sox2 overexpression dramatically increases the reprogramming potential, chimera formation, and germline contribution of EpiSCs. Therefore, although Oct4 is essential for reprogramming, the level of Sox2 defines both the reprogramming capability and the pluripotent ground states. RNA samples to be analyzed on microarrays were prepared using Qiagen RNeasy columns with on-column DNA digestion. 300 ng of total RNA per sample was used as input into a linear amplification protocol (Ambion), which involved synthesis of T7-linked double-stranded cDNA and 12 hrs of in-vitro transcription incorporating biotin-labelled nucleotides. Purified and labelled cRNA was then hybridized for 18 hrs onto MouseRef-8 v2 expression BeadChips (Illumina) according to the manufacturer's instructions. After washing, as recommended, chips were stained with streptavidin-Cy3 (GE Healthcare) and scanned using the iScan reader (Illumina) and accompanying software. Samples were hybridized as biological replicates. 12 sample types were analyzed, each of them in duplicate. ESCm: Mouse ESC male; ESCf: Mouse ESC OG2 female; F9 EC: F9 EC (mouse embryonic carcinoma cell); F9-Sox2: F9 EC (mouse embryonic carcinoma cell) overexpressing wild type Sox2; EpiSCf: Mouse EpiSC OG2 female; Epi-Sox2f: Mouse EpiSC Sox2 (OG2 female) overexpressing wild type Sox2; P19 EC: P19 EC (mouse embryonic carcinoma cell); P19-Sox2: P19 EC (mouse embryonic carcinoma cell) overexpressing wild type Sox2; EpiSCm: Mouse EpiSC (GOF18 male) (duplicates); EpiSox2mL2: Mouse EpiSC Sox2 (GOF18 male) overexpressing wild type Sox2 cultured in condition EpiSC medium (CM); EpiSox2mE1: Mouse EpiSC Sox2 (GOF18 male) overexpressing wild type Sox2 cultured in ESC medium (ESC like1); EpiSox2mE2: Mouse EpiSC Sox2 (GOF18 male) overexpressing wild type Sox2 cultured in ESC medium (ESC like2).
Project description:SOX2 is an oncogenic transcription factor overexpressed in nearly half of the basal-like triple-negative breast cancers associated with very poor outcomes. Targeting and inhibiting SOX2 is clinically relevant as high SOX2 mRNA levels are positively correlated with decreased overall survival and progression-free survival in patients affected with breast cancer. Given its key role as a master regulator of cell proliferation, SOX2 represents an important scaffold for the engineering of dominant-negative synthetic DNA-binding domains (DBDs) that act by blocking or interfering with the oncogenic activity of the endogenous transcription factor in cancer cells. We have synthesized an interference peptide (iPep) encompassing a truncated 24 amino acid long C-terminus of SOX2 containing a potential SOX-specific nuclear localization sequence, and the determinants of the binding of SOX2 to the DNA and to its transcription factor binding partners. We found that the resulting peptide (SOX2-iPep) possessed intrinsic cell penetration and promising nuclear localization into breast cancer cells, and decreased cellular proliferation of SOX2 overexpressing cell lines. The novel SOX2-iPep was found to exhibit a random coil conformation predominantly in solution. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to characterize the interactions of both the SOX2 transcription factor and the SOX2-iPep with FGF4-enhancer DNA in the presence of the POU domain of the partner transcription factor OCT4. Predictions of the free energy of binding revealed that the iPep largely retained the binding affinity for DNA of parental SOX2. This work will enable the future engineering of novel dominant interference peptides to transport different therapeutic cargo molecules such as anti-cancer drugs into cells.
Project description:Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting compound used in food and beverage plastic containers and has been shown to increase breast cancer cellular proliferation. However, the concentrations of BPA used in these experiments are far higher than the physiological levels of BPA detected in the human body. We observed in vitro that exposure of MCF-7 cells to physiological concentrations of BPA failed to increase cell proliferation or to induce canonical estrogen-responsive genes (pS2 and progesterone receptor (PR)), in contrast to 17?-estradiol (E2) treatment. However, MCF-7 cells treated with 10 nM BPA induced ALDH1 expression, a marker of human mammary stem cells. When treated with 10 nM BPA, mammospheres derived either from MCF-7 cells, a patient-derived xenograft, or the normal mouse mammary gland exhibited increased size; however, these effects were not observed in MDA-MB-231 mammospheres. Mechanistically, BPA induced SOX2 mRNA and protein in MCF-7 mammospheres, resulting from enhanced CREB phosphorylation, and subsequent binding of pCREB to a SOX2 downstream enhancer. These findings suggest that physiological levels of BPA increase estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer tumor maintenance through enhanced cancer stem-like cell activity via direct regulation of SOX2 transcription.
Project description:Diffuse gliomas progress by invading neighboring brain tissue to promote postoperative relapse. Transcription factor SOX2 is highly expressed in invasive gliomas and maps to chromosome region 3q26 together with the genes for PI3K/AKT signaling activator PIK3CA and effector molecules of mitochondria fusion and cell invasion, MFN1 and OPA1. Gene copy number analysis at 3q26 from 129 glioma patient biopsies revealed mutually exclusive SOX2 amplifications (26%) and OPA1 losses (19%). Both forced SOX2 expression and OPA1 inactivation increased LN319 glioma cell invasion in vitro and promoted cell dispersion in vivo in xenotransplanted D. rerio embryos. While PI3 kinase activity sustained SOX2 expression, pharmacological PI3K/AKT pathway inhibition decreased invasion and resulted in SOX2 nucleus-to-cytoplasm translocation in an mTORC1-independent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter gene assays together demonstrated that SOX2 trans-activates PIK3CA and OPA1. Thus, SOX2 activates PI3K/AKT signaling in a positive feedback loop, while OPA1 deletion is interpreted to counteract OPA1 trans-activation. Remarkably, neuroimaging of human gliomas with high SOX2 or low OPA1 genomic imbalances revealed significantly larger necrotic tumor zone volumes, corresponding to higher invasive capacities of tumors, while autologous necrotic cells are capable of inducing higher invasion in SOX2 overexpressing or OPA1 knocked-down relative to parental LN319. We thus propose necrosis volume as a surrogate marker for the assessment of glioma invasive potential. Whereas glioma invasion is activated by a PI3K/AKT-SOX2 loop, it is reduced by a cryptic invasion suppressor SOX2-OPA1 pathway. Thus, PI3K/AKT-SOX2 and mitochondria fission represent connected signaling networks regulating glioma invasion.