Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) recruit the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to repress the translation of target mRNAs. While the 5' 7-methylguanosine cap of target mRNAs has been well known to be important for miRNA repression, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Here we show that TNRC6A interacts with eIF4E2, a homologue of eIF4E that can bind to the cap but cannot interact with eIF4G to initiate translation, to inhibit the translation of target mRNAs. Downregulation of eIF4E2 relieved miRNA repression of reporter expression. Moreover, eIF4E2 downregulation increased the protein levels of endogenous IMP1, PTEN and PDCD4, whose expression are repressed by endogenous miRNAs. We further provide evidence showing that miRNA enhances eIF4E2 association with the target mRNA. We propose that miRNAs recruit eIF4E2 to compete with eIF4E to repress mRNA translation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E plays a key role in plant-potyvirus interactions. eIF4E belongs to a small multigenic family and three genes, eIF4E1, eIF4E2 and eIF(iso)4E, have been identified in tomato. It has been demonstrated that eIF4E-mediated natural recessive resistances against potyviruses result from non-synonymous mutations in an eIF4E protein, which impair its direct interaction with the potyviral protein VPg. In tomato, the role of eIF4E proteins in potyvirus resistance is still unclear because natural or induced mutations in eIF4E1 confer only a narrow resistance spectrum against potyviruses. This contrasts with the broad spectrum resistance identified in the natural diversity of tomato. These results suggest that more than one eIF4E protein form is involved in the observed broad spectrum resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain insight into the respective contribution of each eIF4E protein in tomato-potyvirus interactions, two tomato lines silenced for both eIF4E1 and eIF4E2 (RNAi-4E) and two lines silenced for eIF(iso)4E (RNAi-iso4E) were obtained and characterized. RNAi-4E lines are slightly impaired in their growth and fertility, whereas no obvious growth defects were observed in RNAi-iso4E lines. The F1 hybrid between RNAi-4E and RNAi-iso4E lines presented a pronounced semi-dwarf phenotype. Interestingly, the RNAi-4E lines silenced for both eIF4E1 and eIF4E2 showed broad spectrum resistance to potyviruses while the RNAi-iso4E lines were fully susceptible to potyviruses. Yeast two-hybrid interaction assays between the three eIF4E proteins and a set of viral VPgs identified two types of VPgs: those that interacted only with eIF4E1 and those that interacted with either eIF4E1 or with eIF4E2. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These experiments provide evidence for the involvement of both eIF4E1 and eIF4E2 in broad spectrum resistance of tomato against potyviruses and suggest a role for eIF4E2 in tomato-potyvirus interactions.
Project description:In addition to the canonical eIF4E cap-binding protein, eukaryotes have evolved sequence-related variants with distinct features, some of which have been shown to negatively regulate translation of particular mRNAs, but which remain poorly characterised. Mammalian eIF4E proteins have been divided into three classes, with class I representing the canonical cap-binding protein eIF4E1. eIF4E1 binds eIF4G to initiate translation, and other eIF4E-binding proteins such as 4E-BPs and 4E-T prevent this interaction by binding eIF4E1 with the same consensus sequence YX 4L?. We investigate here the interaction of human eIF4E2 (4EHP), a class II eIF4E protein, which binds the cap weakly, with eIF4E-transporter protein, 4E-T. We first show that ratios of eIF4E1:4E-T range from 50:1 to 15:1 in HeLa and HEK293 cells respectively, while those of eIF4E2:4E-T vary from 6:1 to 3:1. We next provide evidence that eIF4E2 binds 4E-T in the yeast two hybrid assay, as well as in pull-down assays and by recruitment to P-bodies in mammalian cells. We also show that while both eIF4E1 and eIF4E2 bind 4E-T via the canonical YX 4L? sequence, nearby downstream sequences also influence eIF4E:4E-T interactions. Indirect immunofluorescence was used to demonstrate that eIF4E2, normally homogeneously localised in the cytoplasm, does not redistribute to stress granules in arsenite-treated cells, nor to P-bodies in Actinomycin D-treated cells, in contrast to eIF4E1. Moreover, eIF4E2 shuttles through nuclei in a Crm1-dependent manner, but in an 4E-T-independent manner, also unlike eIF4E1. Altogether we conclude that while both cap-binding proteins interact with 4E-T, and can be recruited by 4E-T to P-bodies, eIF4E2 functions are likely to be distinct from those of eIF4E1, both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, further extending our understanding of mammalian class I and II cap-binding proteins.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) regulate a broad range of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and immune responses. Dysfunction of PTP activity is associated with cancers, metabolic syndromes, and autoimmune disorders. Consequently, small molecule PTP inhibitors should serve not only as powerful tools to delineate the physiological roles of these enzymes in vivo but also as lead compounds for therapeutic development. We describe a novel stepwise fluorophore-tagged combinatorial library synthesis and competitive fluorescence polarization screening approach that transforms a weak and general PTP inhibitor into an extremely potent and selective TC-PTP inhibitor with highly efficacious cellular activity. The result serves as a proof-of-concept in PTP inhibitor development, as it demonstrates the feasibility of acquiring potent, yet highly selective, cell permeable PTP inhibitory agents. Given the general nature of the approach, this strategy should be applicable to other PTP targets.
Project description:Hypoxia is an aspect of the tumor microenvironment that is linked to radiation and chemotherapy resistance, metastasis, and poor prognosis. The ability of hypoxic tumor cells to achieve these cancer hallmarks is, in part, due to changes in their gene expression profiles. Cancer cells have a high demand for protein synthesis, and translational control is subsequently deregulated. Various mechanisms of translation initiation are active to improve the translation efficiency of select transcripts to drive cancer progression. This review will focus on a noncanonical cap-dependent translation initiation mechanism that utilizes the eIF4E homolog eIF4E2, a hypoxia-activated cap-binding protein that is implicated in hypoxic cancer cell migration, invasion, and tumor growth in mouse xenografts. A historical perspective about eIF4E2 and its various aliases will be provided followed by an evaluation of potential therapeutic strategies. The recent successes of disabling canonical translation and eIF4E with drugs should highlight the novel therapeutic potential of targeting the homologous eIF4E2 in the treatment of hypoxic solid tumors.
Project description:The first 4 samples belong to the RNA-IP using in situ TAP tagged ZC3H30 in procyclic (insect) form of the parasite T. brucei Lister 427, 2 samples are Elu or eluate, and 2 are FL or flowthrough (unbound) sample. The other 8 samples are also from procyclic cells. 4 samples belong to DKO(ZC3H30 gene double knockout), 2 are non-stressed and 2 are heat shocked samples; the rest 4 samples are DKO-ectopic (ZC3H30 double knockouts, expressing, ectopic copy of ZC3H30) 2 are non-stressed and 2 are heat shocked samples. Heat Shock experiment was done at 39 degree Celsius.