MicroRNA profiling of primary human keratinocytes and primary human dermal fibroblasts
ABSTRACT: In search for factors, overexpression of which in human dermal fibroblasts causes direct conversion to cells similar to keratinocytes, micro RNA expression profiles of human primary keratinocytes and human primary dermal fibroblasts are investigated. Skin samples obtained from 3 different sites of 1 subject were used for establishment of 3 primary keratinocytes and 3 primary dermal fibroblasts. Thus obtained 3 primary keratinocytes and primary dermal fibroblasts underwent micro RNA profiling.
Project description:In search for factors, overexpression of which in human dermal fibroblasts causes direct conversion to cells similar to keratinocytes, micro RNA expression profiles of human primary keratinocytes and human primary dermal fibroblasts are investigated. Skin samples obtained from 3 different sites of 1 subject were used for establishment of 3 primary keratinocytes and 3 primary dermal fibroblasts. Thus obtained 3 primary keratinocytes and primary dermal fibroblasts underwent micro RNA profiling.
Project description:BMP signalling is a potent regulator of skin morphogenesis, homeostasis and remodelling. However, molecular mechanisms underlying its involvement in regulating gene expression programs in keratinocytes and fibroblasts remain largely unknown. We analyzed the effect of BMP4 tratment on gene expression programs in human primary epidermal keratinocyte and dermal fibroblasts cultures. We identified specific changes in gene expression programs for each cell type. Overall design: The primary human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts were treated with recombinant BMP4 or solvent control for 8 hours to reveal early and intermediate response genes. The RNA was isolated and used for micro-array analysis. Changes in gene expression programs were analyzed for each cell type and were compared between cell types.
Project description:BMP signalling is a potent regulator of skin morphogenesis, homeostasis and remodelling. However, molecular mechanisms underlying its involvement in regulating gene expression programs in keratinocytes and fibroblasts remain largely unknown. We analyzed the effect of BMP4 tratment on gene expression programs in human primary epidermal keratinocyte and dermal fibroblasts cultures. We identified specific changes in gene expression programs for each cell type. The primary human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts were treated with recombinant BMP4 or solvent control for 8 hours to reveal early and intermediate response genes. The RNA was isolated and used for micro-array analysis. Changes in gene expression programs were analyzed for each cell type and were compared between cell types.
Project description:Gene expression profile was obtained from primary keratinocytes and primary dermal fibroblasts obtained from the same skin sample Overall design: For the successive promotor analysis, human primary keratinocytes and human primary dermal fibroblasts are obtained from the same skin sample and gene expression were evaluated by DNA microarray
Project description:The long-term expansion of keratinocytes under conditions that avoid xenogeneic components (i.e. animal serum- and feeder cell-free) generally causes diminished proliferation and increased terminal differentiation. Here we present a culture system free of xenogeneic components that retains the self-renewal capacity of primary human keratinocytes. In vivo the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the tissue microenvironment has a major influence on a cell's fate. We used ECM from human dermal fibroblasts, cultured under macromolecular crowding conditions to facilitate matrix deposition and organisation, in a xenogeneic-free keratinocyte expansion protocol. Phospholipase A2 decellularisation produced ECM whose components resembled the core matrix composition of natural dermis by proteome analyses. Keratinocytes proliferated rapidly on these matrices, retained their small size, expressed p63, lacked keratin 10 and rarely expressed keratin 16. The colony forming efficiency of these keratinocytes was enhanced over that of keratinocytes grown on collagen I, indicating that dermal fibroblast-derived matrices maintain the in vitro expansion of keratinocytes in a stem-like state. Keratinocyte sheets formed on such matrices were multi-layered with superior strength and stability compared to the single-layered sheets formed on collagen I. Thus, keratinocytes expanded using our xenogeneic-free protocol retained a stem-like state, but when triggered by confluence and calcium concentration, they stratified to produce epidermal sheets with a potential clinical use.
Project description:Endogenous electric currents generated instantly at skin wounds direct migration of epithelial cells and are likely to be important in wound healing. Migration of fibroblasts is critical in wound healing. It remains unclear how wound electric fields guide migration of dermal fibroblasts. We report here that mouse skin wounds generated endogenous electric currents for many hours. Human dermal fibroblasts of both primary and cell-line cultures migrated directionally but slowly toward the anode in an electric field of 50-100 mV mm(-1). This is different from keratinocytes, which migrate quickly to the cathode. It took more than 1 hour for dermal fibroblasts to manifest detectable directional migration. Larger field strength (400 mV mm(-1)) was required to induce directional migration within 1 hour after onset of the field. Phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3 kinase) mediates cathode-directed migration of keratinocytes. We tested the role of PI3 kinase in anode-directed migration of fibroblasts. An applied electric field activated PI3 kinase/Akt in dermal fibroblasts. Dermal fibroblasts from p110gamma (a PI3 kinase catalytic subunit) null mice showed significantly decreased directional migration. These results suggest that physiological electric fields may regulate motility of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes differently, albeit using similar PI3 kinase-dependent mechanisms.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the microenvironment produced by dermal microvascular endothelial cells, secondary to a pro-inflammatory challenge, on 2D culture models using dermal fibroblasts and in 3D reconstructed skin model using dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes from healthy donors. We hypothesized that specific microvascular endothelial low grade inflammation could change fibroblasts phenotype and be involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) modification and skin alteration. Following IFN?, TNF?, IL-1? pro-inflammatory stress on Human Dermal Endothelial Cells (HDMEC) we observed the increased release of Chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), IL-6 and IL-8 but not VEGF-A in the conditioned medium (CM). The subsequent addition of this endothelial pro-inflammatory CM in dermal fibroblasts revealed an upregulation of <i>IL6</i>, <i>IL8</i> and <i>CCL2</i> but no <i>NF-?B</i> gene expression. The resulting ECM formation was impaired with a reduction of the collagen 1 network and a decrease in <i>COL1A1</i> gene expression in 2D and 3D models. Collagen 1 and pro-LOX protein expression were significantly reduced confirming an impairment of the collagen network related to endothelial inflammation secretion. To conclude, this work showed that, without any immune cells, the endothelial secretion in response to a pro-inflammatory stress is able to activate the fibroblasts that will maintain the pro-inflammatory environment and exacerbate ECM degradation.
Project description:Licorice (Glycyrrhiza) species have been widely used as a traditional medicine and a natural sweetener in foods. The 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (18?-GA) is a bioactive compound in licorice that exhibits potential anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial activities. Many synthesized derivatives of 18?-GA have been reported to be cytotoxic and suggested for the treatment of malignant diseases. In this study, we explored the possible pharmacological roles of an 18?-GA derivative in skin biology using primary human dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes as cell models. We found that this 18?-GA derivative did not cause cell death, but significantly enhanced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes. A scratch wound healing assay revealed that the 18?-GA derivative promoted the migration of fibroblasts. Due to the important role of aquaporin-3 in cell migration and proliferation, we also investigated the expression of aquaporin-3 and found this compound up-regulated the expression of aquaporin-3 in dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes. In dermal fibroblasts, the 18?-GA derivative induced the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and p38. The inhibitor of Akt predominantly suppressed the 18?-GA derivative-induced expression of aquaporin-3. Collectively, this compound had a positive effect on the proliferation, migration, and aquaporin-3 expression of skin cells, implying its potential role in the treatment of skin diseases characterized by impaired wound healing or dermal defects.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus block T cell activation by inhibiting the phosphatase calcineurin and preventing translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of the transcription factor Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT). NFAT compose a family of transcription factors that are turned on during T cell activation.<h4>Aims</h4>To study the expression of NFAT-5 mRNA and protein in normal human keratinocytes and to investigate the cellular and subcellular pattern of expression of NFAT-5 in normal human skin and psoriasis, and analyze effects of different agonists and ultraviolet radiation on NFAT-5 in normal human skin.<h4>Methods</h4>Tissue cultures, Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Western analysis, immunostaining, confocal microscopy.<h4>Results</h4>Sequencing of RT-PCR products confirmed the identity of the product that showed 100 % homology with the predicted NFAT-5 sequence. anti-NFAT-5 mainly detected a single band in cultured keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts using Western analysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in normal human and psoriatic skin express NFAT-5. NFAT-5 showed predominantly nuclear localization in epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts within five normal adult skin biopsies. Our data also suggest that UV irradiation reduces NFAT-5 nuclear localization within the epidermis. Unlike NFAT 1-4, NFAT-5/TonEBP was localized to both nucleus and cytoplasm of cultured keratinocytes. Cyclosporin A induces nuclear membrane translocation of NFAT-5 in cultured keratinocytes and raffinose (a hypertonicity inducing agent) induces more nuclear localization of NFAT-5 compared to untreated cells. In addition, differentiation-promoting agonists that induce sustained rise in intracellular calcium did not result in changes in NFAT-5 localization in cultured keratinocytes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These studies provide the first observation of expression of NFAT-5/TonEBP mRNA protein in cultured keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts and possible functional regulation in cultured keratinocytes. CsA and raffinose effects on NFAT-5/TonEBP in cultured keratinocytes suggest diverse intracellular signaling pathways for NFAT-5/TonEBP in these cells, and that NFAT-5/TonEBP might function to translate different extracellular stimuli into appropriate functional responses.
Project description:Skin health is associated with the day-to-day activity of fibroblasts. The primary function of fibroblasts is to synthesize structural proteins, such as collagen, extracellular matrix proteins, and other proteins that support the structural integrity of the skin and are associated with younger, firmer, and more elastic skin that is better able to resist and recover from injury. At sub-nanomolar concentrations (0.03-0.3?nM), bryostatin-1 and its synthetic analog, picolog (0.1-10?nM) sustained the survival and activation of human dermal fibroblasts cultured under the stressful condition of prolonged serum deprivation. Bryostatin-1 treatment stabilized human skin equivalents (HSEs), a bioengineered combination of primary human skin cells (keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts) on an extracellular matrix composed of mainly collagen. Fibroblasts activated by bryostatin-1 protected the structural integrity of HSEs. Bryostatin-1 and picolog prolonged activation of Erk in fibroblasts to promote cell survival. Chronic stress promotes the progression of apoptosis. Dermal fibroblasts constitutively express all components of Fas associated apoptosis, including caspase-8, an initiator enzyme of apoptosis. Prolong bryostatin-1 treatment reduced apoptosis by decreasing caspase-8 and protected dermal fibroblasts. Our data suggest that bryostatin-1 and picolog could be useful in anti-aging skincare, and could have applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.