Effect of elevated c-di-GMP in Sinorhizobium meliloti
ABSTRACT: Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil-dwelling symbiotic alphaproteobacterium. Cyclic di-GMP is an important second messenger controlling multiple functions in this microorganism. To understand transcriptional regulation by elevated c-di-GMP in S. meliloti, the transcriptome analysis was performed on the wild type strain S. meliloti Rm2011 carrying either an empty vector pWBT or diguanylate cyclase gene pleD overexpression plasmid pWBT-pleD.
Project description:Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil-dwelling symbiotic alphaproteobacterium. Cyclic di-GMP is an important second messenger controlling multiple functions in this microorganism. To understand transcriptional regulation by elevated c-di-GMP in S. meliloti, the transcriptome analysis was performed on the wild type strain S. meliloti Rm2011 carrying either an empty vector pWBT or diguanylate cyclase gene pleD overexpression plasmid pWBT-pleD.
Project description:Sinorhizobium meliloti undergoes major lifestyle changes between planktonic states, biofilm formation, and symbiosis with leguminous plant hosts. In many bacteria, the second messenger 3',5'-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP, or cdG) promotes a sessile lifestyle by regulating a plethora of processes involved in biofilm formation, including motility and biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS). Here, we systematically investigated the role of cdG in S. meliloti Rm2011 encoding 22 proteins putatively associated with cdG synthesis, degradation, or binding. Single mutations in 21 of these genes did not cause evident changes in biofilm formation, motility, or EPS biosynthesis. In contrast, manipulation of cdG levels by overproducing endogenous or heterologous diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) or phosphodiesterases (PDEs) affected these processes and accumulation of N-Acyl-homoserine lactones in the culture supernatant. Specifically, individual overexpression of the S. meliloti genes pleD, SMb20523, SMb20447, SMc01464, and SMc03178 encoding putative DGCs and of SMb21517 encoding a single-domain PDE protein had an impact and resulted in increased levels of cdG. Compared to the wild type, an S. meliloti strain that did not produce detectable levels of cdG (cdG(0)) was more sensitive to acid stress. However, it was symbiotically potent, unaffected in motility, and only slightly reduced in biofilm formation. The SMc01790-SMc01796 locus, homologous to the Agrobacterium tumefaciens uppABCDEF cluster governing biosynthesis of a unipolarly localized polysaccharide, was found to be required for cdG-stimulated biofilm formation, while the single-domain PilZ protein McrA was identified as a cdG receptor protein involved in regulation of motility.We present the first systematic genome-wide investigation of the role of 3',5'-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP, or cdG) in regulation of motility, biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and symbiosis in a symbiotic alpha-rhizobial species. Phenotypes of an S. meliloti strain unable to produce cdG (cdG(0)) demonstrated that this second messenger is not essential for root nodule symbiosis but may contribute to acid tolerance. Our data further suggest that enhanced levels of cdG promote sessility of S. meliloti and uncovered a single-domain PilZ protein as regulator of motility.
Project description:An artificial increase of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) levels in Sinorhizobium meliloti 8530, a bacterium that does not carry known cellulose synthesis genes, leads to overproduction of a substance that binds the dyes Congo red and calcofluor. Sugar composition and methylation analyses and NMR studies identified this compound as a linear mixed-linkage (1 ? 3)(1 ? 4)-?-D-glucan (ML ?-glucan), not previously described in bacteria but resembling ML ?-glucans found in plants and lichens. This unique polymer is hydrolyzed by the specific endoglucanase lichenase, but, unlike lichenan and barley glucan, it generates a disaccharidic ? 4)-?-D-Glcp-(1 ? 3)-?-D-Glcp-(1 ? repeating unit. A two-gene operon bgsBA required for production of this ML ?-glucan is conserved among several genera within the order Rhizobiales, where bgsA encodes a glycosyl transferase with domain resemblance and phylogenetic relationship to curdlan synthases and to bacterial cellulose synthases. ML ?-glucan synthesis is subjected to both transcriptional and posttranslational regulation. bgsBA transcription is dependent on the exopolysaccharide/quorum sensing ExpR/SinI regulatory system, and posttranslational regulation seems to involve allosteric activation of the ML ?-glucan synthase BgsA by c-di-GMP binding to its C-terminal domain. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a linear mixed-linkage (1 ? 3)(1 ? 4)-?-glucan produced by a bacterium. The S. meliloti ML ?-glucan participates in bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation and is required for efficient attachment to the roots of a host plant, resembling the biological role of cellulose in other bacteria.
Project description:Sinorhizobium meliloti produces multiple extracellular glycans, including among others, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and the exopolysaccharides (EPS) succinoglycan (SG) and galactoglucan (GG). These polysaccharides serve cell protective roles. Furthermore, SG and GG promote the interaction of S. meliloti with its host Medicago sativa in root nodule symbiosis. ExoB has been suggested to be the sole enzyme catalyzing synthesis of UDP-galactose in S. meliloti (A. M. Buendia, B. Enenkel, R. Köplin, K. Niehaus, et al. Mol Microbiol 5:1519-1530, 1991, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.1991.tb00799.x). Accordingly, exoB mutants were previously found to be affected in the synthesis of the galactose-containing glycans LPS, SG, and GG and consequently, in symbiosis. Here, we report that the S. meliloti Rm2011 uxs1-uxe-apsS-apsH1-apsE-apsH2 (SMb20458-63) gene cluster directs biosynthesis of an arabinose-containing polysaccharide (APS), which contributes to biofilm formation, and is solely or mainly composed of arabinose. Uxe has previously been identified as UDP-xylose 4-epimerase. Collectively, our data from mutational and overexpression analyses of the APS biosynthesis genes and in vitro enzymatic assays indicate that Uxe functions as UDP-xylose 4- and UDP-glucose 4-epimerase catalyzing UDP-xylose/UDP-arabinose and UDP-glucose/UDP-galactose interconversions, respectively. Overexpression of uxe suppressed the phenotypes of an exoB mutant, evidencing that Uxe can functionally replace ExoB. We suggest that under conditions stimulating expression of the APS biosynthesis operon, Uxe contributes to the synthesis of multiple glycans and thereby to cell protection, biofilm formation, and symbiosis. Furthermore, we show that the C2H2 zinc finger transcriptional regulator MucR counteracts the previously reported CuxR-c-di-GMP-mediated activation of the APS biosynthesis operon. This integrates the c-di-GMP-dependent control of APS production into the opposing regulation of EPS biosynthesis and swimming motility in S. meliloti IMPORTANCE Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides serve important cell protective, structural, and signaling roles. They have particularly attracted attention as adhesives and matrix components promoting biofilm formation, which significantly contributes to resistance against antibiotics. In the root nodule symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants, extracellular polysaccharides have a signaling function. UDP-sugar 4-epimerases are important enzymes in the synthesis of the activated sugar substrates, which are frequently shared between multiple polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways. Thus, these enzymes are potential targets to interfere with these pathways. Our finding of a bifunctional UDP-sugar 4-epimerase in Sinorhizobium meliloti generally advances the knowledge of substrate promiscuity of such enzymes and specifically of the biosynthesis of extracellular polysaccharides involved in biofilm formation and symbiosis in this alphaproteobacterium.
Project description:Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the etiologic agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), has genes predicted to encode three sensor kinases, one of which is annotated PleC, and three response regulators, one of which is PleD. Prior to this study, the roles of PleC and PleD in the obligatory intracellular parasitism of A. phagocytophilum and their biochemical activities were unknown. The present study illustrates the relevance of these factors by demonstrating that both pleC and pleD were expressed in an HGA patient. During A. phagocytophilum development in human promyelocytic HL-60 cells, PleC and PleD were synchronously upregulated at the exponential growth stage and downregulated prior to extracellular release. A recombinant PleC kinase domain (rPleCHKD) has histidine kinase activity; no activity was observed when the conserved site of phosphorylation was replaced with alanine. A recombinant PleD (rPleD) has autokinase activity using phosphorylated rPleCHKD as the phosphoryl donor but not with two other recombinant histidine kinases. rPleCHKD could not serve as the phosphoryl donor for a mutant rPleD (with a conserved aspartic acid, the site of phosphorylation, replaced by alanine) or two other A. phagocytophilum recombinant response regulators. rPleD had diguanylate cyclase activity to generate cyclic (c) di-GMP from GTP in vitro. UV cross-linking of A. phagocytophilum lysate with c-di-[(32)P]GMP detected an approximately 47-kDa endogenous protein, presumably c-di-GMP downstream receptor. A new hydrophobic c-di-GMP derivative, 2'-O-di(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-c-di-GMP, inhibited A. phagocytophilum infection in HL-60 cells. Our results suggest that the two-component PleC-PleD system is a diguanylate cyclase and that a c-di-GMP-receptor complex regulates A. phagocytophilum intracellular infection.
Project description:The ribonucleases (RNases) E and J are essential in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Sinorhizobium meliloti contains both, the rne gene encoding RNase E and the rnj gene encoding RNase J. The transcriptomes of the S. meliloti Rm2011 wild type, and rne and rnj mutants were compared.
Project description:Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger produced by GGDEF domain-containing proteins. The genome of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis, encodes a single protein that contains a GGDEF domain, called PleD. In this study, we investigated the effects of c-di-GMP signaling on E. chaffeensis infection of the human monocytic cell line THP-1. Recombinant E. chaffeensis PleD showed diguanylate cyclase activity as it generated c-di-GMP in vitro. Because c-di-GMP is not cell permeable, the c-di-GMP hydrophobic analog 2'-O-di(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-c-di-GMP (CDGA) was used to examine intracellular c-di-GMP signaling. CDGA activity was first tested with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. CDGA inhibited well-defined c-di-GMP-regulated phenomena, including cellulose synthesis, clumping, and upregulation of csgD and adrA mRNA, indicating that CDGA acts as an antagonist in c-di-GMP signaling. [(32)P]c-di-GMP bound several E. chaffeensis native proteins and two E. chaffeensis recombinant I-site proteins, and this binding was blocked by CDGA. Although pretreatment of E. chaffeensis with CDGA did not reduce bacterial binding to THP-1 cells, bacterial internalization was reduced. CDGA facilitated protease-dependent degradation of particular, but not all, bacterial surface-exposed proteins, including TRP120, which is associated with bacterial internalization. Indeed, the serine protease HtrA was detected on the surface of E. chaffeensis, and TRP120 was degraded by treatment of E. chaffeensis with recombinant E. chaffeensis HtrA. Furthermore, anti-HtrA inhibited CDGA-induced TRP120 degradation. Our results suggest that E. chaffeensis invasion is regulated by c-di-GMP signaling, which stabilizes some bacterial surface-exposed proteins against proteases.
Project description:The DivJ-DivK-PleC signaling system of Caulobacter crescentus is a signaling network that regulates polar development and the cell cycle. This system is conserved in related bacteria, including the sister genus Brevundimonas Previous studies had shown unexpected phenotypic differences between the C. crescentus divK mutant and the analogous mutant of Brevundimonas subvibrioides, but further characterization was not performed. Here, phenotypic assays analyzing motility, adhesion, and pilus production (the latter characterized by a newly discovered bacteriophage) revealed that divJ and pleC mutants have phenotypes mostly similar to their C. crescentus homologs, but divK mutants maintain largely opposite phenotypes than expected. Suppressor mutations of the B. subvibrioides divK motility defect were involved in cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling, including the diguanylate cyclase dgcB, and cleD which is hypothesized to affect flagellar function in a c-di-GMP dependent fashion. However, the screen did not identify the diguanylate cyclase pleD Disruption of pleD in B. subvibrioides caused no change in divK or pleC phenotypes, but did reduce adhesion and increase motility of the divJ strain. Analysis of c-di-GMP levels in these strains revealed incongruities between c-di-GMP levels and displayed phenotypes with a notable result that suppressor mutations altered phenotypes but had little impact on c-di-GMP levels in the divK background. Conversely, when c-di-GMP levels were artificially manipulated, alterations of c-di-GMP levels in the divK strain had minimal impact on phenotypes. These results suggest that DivK performs a critical function in the integration of c-di-GMP signaling into the B. subvibrioides cell cycle.IMPORTANCE Cyclic di-GMP and associated signaling proteins are widespread in bacteria, but their role in physiology is often complex and difficult to predict through genomic level analyses. In C. crescentus, c-di-GMP has been integrated into the developmental cell cycle, but there is increasing evidence that environmental factors can impact this system as well. The research presented here suggests that the integration of these signaling networks could be more complex than previously hypothesized, which could have a bearing on the larger field of c-di-GMP signaling. In addition, this work further reveals similarities and differences in a conserved regulatory network between organisms in the same taxonomic family, and the results show that gene conservation does not necessarily imply close functional conservation in genetic pathways.
Project description:In Caulobacter crescentus, phosphorylation of key regulators is coordinated with the second messenger cyclic di-GMP to drive cell-cycle progression and differentiation. The diguanylate cyclase PleD directs pole morphogenesis, while the c-di-GMP effector PopA initiates degradation of the replication inhibitor CtrA by the AAA+ protease ClpXP to license S phase entry. Here, we establish a direct link between PleD and PopA reliant on the phosphodiesterase PdeA and the diguanylate cyclase DgcB. PdeA antagonizes DgcB activity until the G1-S transition, when PdeA is degraded by the ClpXP protease. The unopposed DgcB activity, together with PleD activation, upshifts c-di-GMP to drive PopA-dependent CtrA degradation and S phase entry. PdeA degradation requires CpdR, a response regulator that delivers PdeA to the ClpXP protease in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thus, CpdR serves as a crucial link between phosphorylation pathways and c-di-GMP metabolism to mediate protein degradation events that irreversibly and coordinately drive bacterial cell-cycle progression and development.
Project description:c-di-GMP riboswitches are structured RNAs located in the 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs) of mRNAs that regulate expression of downstream genes in response to changing concentrations of the second messenger c-di-GMP. We discovered three complete c-di-GMP riboswitches (Bc3, Bc4 and Bc5 RNA) with similar structures, which are arranged in tandem to constitute a triple-tandem (Bc3-5 RNA) riboswitch in the 5'-UTR of the cspABCDE mRNA in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. chinensis CT-43. Our results showed that this natural triple-tandem riboswitch controlled the expression of the reporter gene more stringently and digitally than the double-tandem or single riboswitch. A sandwich-like dual-fluorescence reporter was further constructed by fusing the Bc3-5 RNA gene between the two fluorescence protein genes amcyan and turborfp. This reporter strain was found to exhibit detectable fluorescence color changes under bright field in response to intracellular c-di-GMP level altered by induced expression of diguanylate cyclase (DGC) PleD. Using this system, two putative membrane-bound DGCs from B. thuringiensis and Xanthomonas oryzae were verified to be functional by replacing pleD with the corresponding DGC genes. This report represented the first native triple-tandem riboswitch that was applied to serve as a riboswitch-based dual-fluorescence reporter for the efficient and convenient verification of putative DGC activity in vivo.