Sphingobium Nickel resistance analysis by RNA-seq approach
ABSTRACT: Nickel is an essential component of many eukaryotic and prokaryotic metallo-enzymes. Due to its employment in many industrial applications, wastewaters from industrial plants often contain millimolar concentrations of Ni2+ that are toxic and life-threatening for many organism. Several lines of preliminary evidence suggest that members of the genus Sphingobium are able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of metal ions. We have isolated a novel Sphingobium strain (sp. ba1) able to grow in the presence of high concentrations (up to 20 mM) of NiCl2. Sequencing of its genome allowed the identification of several genes coding for proteins potentially involved in efflux-mediated resistance mechanisms. Here we use the RNA-seq approach to analyze the response of the Sphingobium sp. ba1 strain to high concentrations (10 mM) of Ni ions. Transcriptomic data show the differential expression of about one-hundred and twenty genes, most of which are up-regulated and encode proteins such as membrane proteins and components of metal efflux systems, enzymes involved in oxidative stress responses (catalases, peroxidases) and signal transduction systems.
Project description:Nickel is an essential component of many eukaryotic and prokaryotic metallo-enzymes. Due to its employment in many industrial applications, wastewaters from industrial plants often contain millimolar concentrations of Ni2+ that are toxic and life-threatening for many organism. Several lines of preliminary evidence suggest that members of the genus Sphingobium are able to grow in the presence of high concentrations of metal ions. We have isolated a novel Sphingobium strain (sp. ba1) able to grow in the presence of high concentrations (up to 20 mM) of NiCl2. Sequencing of its genome allowed the identification of several genes coding for proteins potentially involved in efflux-mediated resistance mechanisms. Here we use the RNA-seq approach to analyze the response of the Sphingobium sp. ba1 strain to high concentrations (10 mM) of Ni ions. Transcriptomic data show the differential expression of about one-hundred and twenty genes, most of which are up-regulated and encode proteins such as membrane proteins and components of metal efflux systems, enzymes involved in oxidative stress responses (catalases, peroxidases) and signal transduction systems.
Project description:Nickel acts as cofactor for a number of enzymes of many bacteria species. Its homeostasis is ensured by proteins working as ion efflux or accumulation systems. These mechanisms are also generally adopted to counteract life-threatening high extra-cellular Ni2+ concentrations. Little is known regarding nickel tolerance in the genus Sphingobium. We studied the response of the novel Sphingobium sp. ba1 strain, able to adapt to high Ni2+ concentrations. Differential gene expression in cells cultured in 10?mM Ni2+, investigated by RNA-seq analysis, identified 118 differentially expressed genes. Among the 90 up-regulated genes, a cluster including genes coding for nickel and other metal ion efflux systems (similar to either cnrCBA, nccCBA or cznABC) and for a NreB-like permease was found. Comparative analyses among thirty genomes of Sphingobium species show that this cluster is conserved only in two cases, while in the other genomes it is partially present or even absent. The differential expression of genes encoding proteins which could also work as Ni2+-accumulators (HupE/UreJ-like protein, NreA and components of TonB-associated transport and copper-homeostasis systems) was also detected. The identification of Sphingobium sp. ba1 strain adaptive mechanisms to nickel ions, can foster its possible use for biodegradation of poly-aromatic compounds in metal-rich environments.
Project description:Carotenoids represent the most abundant lipid-soluble phytochemicals that have been shown to exhibit benefits for nutrition and health. The production of natural carotenoids is not yet cost effective to compete with chemically synthetic ones. Therefore, the demand for natural carotenoids and improved efficiency of carotenoid biosynthesis has driven the investigation of metabolic engineering of native carotenoid producers. In this study, a new <i>Sphingobium</i> sp. was isolated, and it was found that it could use a variety of agro-industrial byproducts like soybean meal, okara, and corn steep liquor to accumulate large amounts of nostoxanthin. Then we tailored it into three mutated strains that instead specifically accumulated ∼5 mg/g of CDW of phytoene, lycopene, and zeaxanthin due to the loss-of-function of the specific enzyme. A high-efficiency targeted engineering carotenoid synthesis platform was constructed in <i>Escherichia coli</i> for identifying the functional roles of candidate genes of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in <i>Sphingobium</i> sp. To further prolong the metabolic pathway, we engineered the <i>Sphingobium</i> sp. to produce high-titer astaxanthin (10 mg/g of DCW) through balance in the key enzymes β-carotene ketolase (BKT) and β-carotene hydroxylase (CHY). Our study provided more biosynthesis components for bioengineering of carotenoids and highlights the potential of the industrially important bacterium for production of various natural carotenoids.
Project description:The microbial conversion of lignin-derived aromatics is a promising strategy for the industrial utilization of this large biomass resource. However, efficient application requires an elucidation of the relevant transport and catabolic pathways. In Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6, most of the enzyme genes involved in 5,5'-dehydrodivanillate (DDVA) catabolism have been characterized, but the transporter has not yet been identified. Here, we identified SLG_07710 (ddvK) and SLG_07780 (ddvR), genes encoding a putative major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter and MarR-type transcriptional regulator, respectively. A ddvK mutant of SYK-6 completely lost the capacity to grow on and convert DDVA. DdvR repressed the expression of the DDVA O-demethylase oxygenase component gene (ligXa), while DDVA acted as the gene inducer. A DDVA uptake assay was developed by employing this DdvR-controlled ligXa transcriptional regulatory system. A Sphingobium japonicum UT26S transformant expressing ddvK acquired DDVA uptake capacity, indicating that ddvK encodes the DDVA transporter. DdvK, probably requiring the proton motive force, was suggested to be a novel MFS transporter on the basis of the amino acid sequence similarity. Subsequently, we evaluated the effects of ddvK overexpression on the production of the DDVA metabolite 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate (PDC), a building block of functional polymers. A SYK-6 mutant of the PDC hydrolase gene (ligI) cultured in DDVA accumulated PDC via 5-carboxyvanillate and grew by utilizing 4-carboxy-2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate. The introduction of a ddvK-expression plasmid into a ligI mutant increased the growth rate in DDVA and the amounts of DDVA converted and PDC produced after 48 h by 1.35- and 1.34-fold, respectively. These results indicate that enhanced transporter gene expression can improve metabolite production from lignin derivatives.IMPORTANCE The bioengineering of bacteria to selectively transport and metabolize natural substrates into specific metabolites is a valuable strategy for industrial-scale chemical production. The uptake of many substrates into cells requires specific transport systems, and so the identification and characterization of transporter genes are essential for industrial applications. A number of bacterial major facilitator superfamily transporters of aromatic acids have been identified and characterized, but many transporters of lignin-derived aromatic acids remain unidentified. The efficient conversion of lignin, an abundant but unutilized aromatic biomass resource, to value-added metabolites using microbial catabolism requires the characterization of transporters for lignin-derived aromatics. In this study, we identified the transporter gene responsible for the uptake of 5,5'-dehydrodivanillate, a lignin-derived biphenyl compound, in Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6. In addition to characterizing its function, we applied this transporter gene to the production of a value-added metabolite from 5,5'-dehydrodivanillate.
Project description:Sphingobium sp. strain SYK-6 is able to grow on an extensive variety of lignin-derived biaryls and monoaryls, and the catabolic genes for these compounds are useful for the production of industrially valuable metabolites from lignin. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the SYK-6 genome which consists of the 4,199,332-bp-long chromosome and the 148,801-bp-long plasmid.
Project description:Sphingobium sp. strain RSMS was described earlier as an efficient degrader of tributyl phosphate, an organic pollutant. This report describes the generation and annotation of the genome sequence of Sphingobium sp. strain RSMS, which will facilitate future studies to identify genetic elements responsible for the degradation of tributyl phosphate.
Project description:Sphingobium fuliginis ATCC 27551, previously classified as Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551, degrades neurotoxic organophosphate insecticides and nerve agents through the activity of a membrane-associated organophosphate hydrolase. This study was designed to determine the complete genome sequence of S. fuliginis ATCC 27551 to unravel its degradative potential and adaptability to harsh environments. The 5,414,624?bp genome with a GC content of 64.4% is distributed between two chromosomes and four plasmids and encodes 5,557 proteins. Of the four plasmids, designated as pSF1, pSF2, pSF3, and pSF4, only two (pSF1 and pSF2) are self-transmissible and contained the complete genetic repertoire for a T4SS. The other two plasmids (pSF3 and pSF4) are mobilizable and both showed the presence of an oriT and relaxase-encoding sequences. The sequence of plasmid pSF3 coincided with the previously determined sequence of pPDL2 and included an opd gene encoding organophosphate hydrolase as a part of the mobile element. About 15,455 orthologous clusters were identified from among the cumulatively annotated genes of 49 Sphingobium species. Phylogenetic analysis done using the core genome consisting of 802 orthologous clusters revealed a close relationship between S. fuliginis ATCC 27551 and bacteria capable of degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds. Genes coding for transposases, efflux pumps conferring resistance to heavy metals, and TonR-type outer membrane receptors are selectively enriched in the genome of S. fuliginis ATCC 27551 and appear to contribute to the adaptive potential of the organism to challenging and harsh environments.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The genus Sphingobium within the class Alpha-proteobacteria contains a small number of plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), although it is mostly comprised of organisms that play an important role in biodegradation and bioremediation in sediments and sandy soils. A Sphingobium sp. isolate was obtained from the rhizosphere of the beachgrass Ammophila breviligulata with a variety of plant growth-promoting properties and designated as Sphingobium sp. strain AEW4.<h4>Results</h4>Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene as well as full genome nucleotide and amino acid identities revealed that this isolate is most similar to Sphingobium xenophagum and Sphingobium hydrophobicum. Comparative genomics analyses indicate that the genome of strain AEW4 contains unique features that explain its relationship with a plant host as a PGPR, including pathways involved in monosaccharide utilization, fermentation pathways, iron sequestration, and resistance to osmotic stress. Many of these unique features are not broadly distributed across the genus. In addition, pathways involved in the metabolism of salicylate and catechol, phenyl acetate degradation, and DNA repair were also identified in this organism but not in most closely related organisms.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The genome of Sphingobium sp. strain AEW4 contains a number of distinctive features that are crucial to explain its role as a plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium, and comparative genomics analyses support its classification as a relevant Sphingobium strain involved in plant growth promotion of beachgrass and other plants.
Project description:Incubation of resting cells of Sphingobium indicum B90A, Sphingobium japonicum UT26, and Sphingobium francense Sp+ showed that they were able to transform beta- and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta- and delta-HCH, respectively), the most recalcitrant hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, to pentachlorocyclohexanols, but only resting cells of strain B90A could further transform the pentachlorocyclohexanol intermediates to the corresponding tetrachlorocyclohexanediols. Moreover, experiments with resting cells of Escherichia coli expressing the LinB proteins of strains B90A, UT26, and Sp+ indicated that LinB was responsible for these transformations. Purified LinB proteins from all three strains also effected the formation of the respective pentachlorocyclohexanols. Although the three LinB enzymes differ only marginally with respect to amino acid sequence, they showed interesting differences with respect to substrate specificity. When LinB from strain B90A was incubated with beta- and delta-HCH, the pentachlorocyclohexanol products were further transformed and eventually disappeared from the incubation mixtures. In contrast, the LinB proteins from strains UT26 and Sp+ could not catalyze transformation of the pentachlorocyclohexanols, and these products accumulated in the incubation mixture. A mutant of strain Sp+ lacking linA and linB did not degrade any of the HCH isomers, including beta-HCH, and complementation of this mutant by linB from strain B90A restored the ability to degrade beta- and delta-HCH.