ABSTRACT: The intent of this experiment was to determine MAFB binding sites in human pancreatic beta cells. This is particularly relevant as MAFB is not expressed in mature rodent beta cells; thus, it may perform unique functions in human. Sequencing was performed following IP with an anti-MAFB antibody using chromatin isolated from the human pancreatic beta cell line, EndoCBH2 cells. Cells were proliferating and untreated when collected.
Project description:The intent of this experiment was to determine MAFB binding sites in human pancreatic beta cells. This is particularly relevant as MAFB is not expressed in mature rodent beta cells; thus, it may perform unique functions in human. Sequencing was performed following IP with an anti-MAFB antibody using chromatin isolated from the human pancreatic beta cell line, EndoCBH2 cells. Cells were proliferating and untreated when collected.
Project description:During pancreatic development insulin(+) cells co-express the transcription factors MafB and Pax6, and transition from a MafA(-) to MafA(+) state. To examine the role of Pax6 and MafB in the development of beta-cells, we analyzed embryonic pancreata from Pax6- and MafB-deficient mice. Pax6 deficiency, as manifest in the Pax6(Sey-Neu) allele, reduced not only the number of cells expressing insulin or glucagon, but also the number of MafB, PDX-1 and MafA expressing cells. We show that MafB can directly activate expression of insulin and glucagon, and a MafB protein engineered to contain N248S mutation in the MafB (kr(ENU)) results in significantly reduced activation. Furthermore, pancreata from MafB deficient (kr(ENU)/kr(ENU)) mice exhibited reduced number of cells expressing insulin, glucagon, PDX-1 and MafA, with only a minor reduction in MafB expressing cells. MafB deficiency does not affect endocrine specification but does affect the lineage commitment of the endocrine cells and their maturation. Similar to Pax6 deficient mice, MafB deficient mice showed reductions both in insulin and glucagon expressing cells and in the ability of MafB and PDX-1 expressing cells to activate expression of these hormones. However, MafB deficient mice exhibited no effect on Pax6 expression. These results suggest that MafB may function as a downstream mediator of Pax6 in regulating the specification of insulin and glucagon expressing cells. Interestingly, the remaining insulin(+) cells in these knockouts preferentially express Hb9, suggesting the existence of an alternate pathway for the generation of insulin expressing cells, even in the absence of Pax6 and MafB function. Thus, Pax6 acts upstream of MafB, which in turn may trigger the expression of insulin and regulate the PDX-1 and MafA expression required for beta-cell maturation.
Project description:Pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation depends on transcription factors that also contribute in adult insulin and glucagon gene expression. Islet cell development was examined in mice lacking MafB, a transcription factor expressed in immature alpha (glucagon(+)) and beta (insulin(+)) cells and capable of activating insulin and glucagon expression in vitro. We observed that MafB(-/-) embryos had reduced numbers of insulin(+) and glucagon(+) cells throughout development, whereas the total number of endocrine cells was unchanged. Moreover, production of insulin(+) cells was delayed until embryonic day (E) 13.5 in mutant mice and coincided with the onset of MafA expression, a MafB-related activator of insulin transcription. MafA expression was only detected in the insulin(+) cell population in MafB mutants, whereas many important regulatory proteins continued to be expressed in insulin(-) beta cells. However, Pdx1, Nkx6.1, and GLUT2 were selectively lost in these insulin-deficient cells between E15.5 and E18.5. MafB appears to directly regulate transcription of these genes, because binding was observed within endogenous control region sequences. These results demonstrate that MafB plays a previously uncharacterized role by regulating transcription of key factors during development that are required for the production of mature alpha and beta cells.
Project description:Viral infection induces type I interferons (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) that recruit unexposed cells in a self-amplifying response. We report that the transcription factor MafB thwarts auto-amplification by a metastable switch activity. MafB acted as a weak positive basal regulator of transcription at the IFNB1 promoter through activity at transcription factor AP-1-like sites. Interferon elicitors recruited the transcription factor IRF3 to the promoter, whereupon MafB acted as a transcriptional antagonist, impairing the interaction of coactivators with IRF3. Mathematical modeling supported the view that prepositioning of MafB on the promoter allows the system to respond rapidly to fluctuations in IRF3 activity. Higher expression of MafB in human pancreatic islet beta cells might increase cellular vulnerability to viral infections associated with the etiology of type 1 diabetes.
Project description:Pancreatic-duodenal homeobox factor-1 (Pdx1) is highly enriched in islet beta cells and integral to proper cell development and adult function. Of the four conserved 5'-flanking sequence blocks that contribute to transcription in vivo, Area II (mouse base pairs -2153/-1923) represents the only mammalian specific control domain. Here we demonstrate that regulation of beta-cell-enriched Pdx1 expression by the MafA and MafB transcription factors is exclusively through Area II. Thus, these factors were found to specifically activate through Area II in cell line transfection-based assays, and MafA, which is uniquely expressed in adult islet beta cells was only bound to this region in quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. MafA and MafB are produced in beta cells during development and were both bound to Area II at embryonic day 18.5. Expression of a transgene driven by Pdx1 Areas I and II was also severely compromised during insulin+ cell formation in MafB(-/-) mice, consistent with the importance of this large Maf in beta-cell production and Pdx1 expression. These findings illustrate the significance of large Maf proteins to Pdx1 expression in beta cells, and in particular MafB during pancreatic development.
Project description:MafA and MafB transcription factors have been shown to be key regulators of insulin and glucagon transcription. MafB is essential for alpha and beta cell differentiation, as MafB deficient mice produced fewer insulin+ and glucagon+ cells during development, with MafA expressed in remaining insulin+ cells. In contrast, beta cell development was reported to be normal in a total MafA knock out, although the animals developed beta cell dysfunction and diabetes as adults. However, we have found that MafB expression is elevated during development and retained in adult insulin+ cells after conditional removal of MafA in the pancreas. These studies will evaluate the broader significance of these insulin and glucagon regulators in alpha and beta cell development and function. Our efforts will focus on determining if the concerted actions of MafA and MafB factors are significant to beta cell formation, and we specifically plan to: Determine how alpha and beta cell differentiation is affected in MafA/MafB compound mutant mice during pancreas development. cDNA microarray studies (pancchip 6.0) with wild type, MafAKO, MafB-/-, and MafAKOMafB-/- mutant E18.5 pancreata will be performed to comprehensively identify genes controlled by MafA and MafB in developing alpha and beta cells.
Project description:Next generation sequencing studies have highlighted discrepancies in ?-cells which exist between mice and men. Numerous reports have identified MAF BZIP Transcription Factor B (MAFB) to be present in human ?-cells postnatally, while its expression is restricted to embryonic and neo-natal ?-cells in mice. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing, coupled with endocrine cell differentiation strategies, we dissect the contribution of MAFB to ?-cell development and function specifically in humans. Here we report that MAFB knockout hPSCs have normal pancreatic differentiation capacity up to the progenitor stage, but favor somatostatin- and pancreatic polypeptide-positive cells at the expense of insulin- and glucagon-producing cells during endocrine cell development. Our results describe a requirement for MAFB late in the human pancreatic developmental program and identify it as a distinguishing transcription factor within islet cell subtype specification. We propose that hPSCs represent a powerful tool to model human pancreatic endocrine development and associated disease pathophysiology.
Project description:Analyses in mouse models have revealed crucial roles for MafA (musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family A) and MafB in islet ? cells, with MafB being required during development and MafA in adults. These two closely related transcription factors regulate many genes essential for glucose sensing and insulin secretion in a cooperative and sequential manner. Significantly, the switch from MafB to MafA expression also appears to be vital for functional maturation of ? cells produced by human embryonic stem (hES) cell differentiation. This review summarizes the discovery, distribution, and function of MafA and MafB in rodent pancreatic ? cells, and describes some key questions regarding their importance to ? cells.
Project description:The MafB transcription factor is expressed in pancreatic ? and ? cells during development but becomes exclusive to ? cells in adult rodents. Mafb-null (Mafb-/- ) mice were reported to have reduced ?- and ?-cell numbers throughout embryonic development. To further analyze the postnatal function of MafB in the pancreas, we generated endocrine cell-specific (Mafb?Endo ) and tamoxifen-dependent (Mafb?TAM ) Mafb knockout mice. Mafb?Endo mice exhibited reduced populations of insulin-positive (insulin+) and glucagon+ cells at postnatal day 0, but the insulin+ cell population recovered by 8 weeks of age. In contrast, the Arx+ glucagon+ cell fraction and glucagon expression remained decreased even in adulthood. Mafb?TAM mice, with Mafb deleted after pancreas maturation, also demonstrated diminished glucagon+ cells and glucagon content without affecting ? cells. A decreased Arx+ glucagon+ cell population in Mafb?Endo mice was compensated for by an increased Arx+ pancreatic polypeptide+ cell population. Furthermore, gene expression analyses from both Mafb?Endo and Mafb?TAM islets revealed that MafB is a key regulator of glucagon expression in ? cells. Finally, both mutants failed to respond to arginine, likely due to impaired arginine transporter gene expression and glucagon production ability. Taken together, our findings reveal that MafB is critical for the functional maintenance of mouse ? cells in vivo, including glucagon production and secretion, as well as in development.
Project description:Maf transcription factors are critical regulators of beta-cell function. We have previously shown that reduced MafA expression in human and mouse islets is associated with a pro-inflammatory gene signature. Here, we investigate if the loss of Maf transcription factors induced autoimmune processes in the pancreas. Transcriptomics analysis showed expression of pro-inflammatory as well as immune cell marker genes. However, clusters of CD4+ T and B220+ B cells were associated primarily with adult MafA<sup>-/-</sup>MafB<sup>+/-</sup>, but not MafA<sup>-/-</sup> islets. MafA expression was detected in the thymus, lymph nodes and bone marrow suggesting a novel role of MafA in regulating immune-cell function. Analysis of pancreatic lymph node cells showed activation of CD4+ T cells, but lack of CD8+ T cell activation which also coincided with an enrichment of naïve CD8+ T cells. Further analysis of T cell marker genes revealed a reduction of T cell receptor signaling gene expression in CD8, but not in CD4+ T cells, which was accompanied with a defect in early T cell receptor signaling in mutant CD8+ T cells. These results suggest that loss of MafA impairs both beta- and T cell function affecting the balance of peripheral immune responses against islet autoantigens, resulting in local inflammation in pancreatic islets.