Project description:BACKGROUND:Postoperative pain is common after nasal endoscopic surgery. It interferes with the quality of sleep and delays postoperative recovery. Acupuncture is an effective tool for pain management. However, electroacupuncture specifically for the relief of postoperative pain after nasal endoscopic surgery has not yet been studied in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS/DESIGN:This randomized sham-controlled patient- and assessor-blind pilot trial has been designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture in managing postoperative pain following nasal endoscopic surgery to treat sinusitis due to nasal polyps. Altogether, 30 participants will be randomly allocated to an electroacupuncture or non-invasive sham control in a 1:1 ratio. Treatment will occur within 2?h before the operation, immediately after the operation upon arrival in the recovery ward, and once daily for 3?days. The primary outcome is the pain numerical rating scale, which will be analyzed using the area under the curve. The secondary outcome measures include heart rate and blood pressure after the operation, sleep quality during the hospital stay (actigraph), quality of recovery, and the 36-item short form health survey. This trial will use an intention-to-treat analysis. DISCUSSION:This pilot randomized controlled trial will explore the feasibility of the further clinical application of electroacupuncture for the management of postoperative pain. It will inform the design of a further full-scale trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1900024183. Registered on 29 June 2019.
Project description:Acupuncture is widely used for pain treatment in patients with osteoarthritis or low back pain, but molecular mechanisms remain largely enigmatic. In the early phase of inflammation neutrophilic chemokines direct opioid-containing neutrophils in the inflamed tissue and stimulate opioid peptide release and antinociception. In this study the molecular pathway and neuroimmune connections in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced hind paw inflammation and electroacupuncture for peripheral pain control were analyzed. Free moving Wistar rats with hind paw inflammation were treated twice with electroacupuncture at GB30 (Huan Tiao--gall bladder meridian) (day 0 and 1) and analyzed for mechanical and thermal nociceptive thresholds. The cytokine profiles as well as the expression of opioid peptides were quantified in the inflamed paw. Electroacupuncture elicited long-term antinociception blocked by local injection of anti-opioid peptide antibodies (beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin, dynorphin A). The treatment altered the cytokine profile towards an anti-inflammatory pattern but augmented interferon (IFN)-gamma and the chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10: interferon gamma-inducible protein) protein and mRNA expression with concomitant increased numbers of opioid peptide-containing CXCR3+ macrophages. In rats with CFA hind paw inflammation without acupuncture repeated injection of CXCL10 triggered opioid-mediated antinociception and increase opioid-containing macrophages. Conversely, neutralization of CXCL10 time-dependently decreased electroacupuncture-induced antinociception and the number of infiltrating opioid peptide-expressing CXCR3+ macrophages. In summary, we describe a novel function of the chemokine CXCL10--as a regulator for an increase of opioid-containing macrophages and antinociceptive mediator in inflammatory pain and as a key chemokine regulated by electroacupuncture.
Project description:Integrative approaches such as electroacupuncture, devoid of drug effects are gaining prominence for treating pain. Understanding the mechanisms of electroacupuncture induced analgesia would benefit chronic pain conditions such as sickle cell disease (SCD), for which patients may require opioid analgesics throughout life. Mouse models are instructive in developing a mechanistic understanding of pain, but the anesthesia/restraint required to administer electroacupuncture may alter the underlying mechanisms. To overcome these limitations, we developed a method to perform electroacupuncture in conscious, freely moving, unrestrained mice. Using this technique we demonstrate a significant analgesic effect in transgenic mouse models of SCD and cancer as well as complete Freund's adjuvant-induced pain. We demonstrate a comprehensive antinociceptive effect on mechanical, cold and deep tissue hyperalagesia in both genders. Interestingly, individual mice showed a variable response to electroacupuncture, categorized into high-, moderate-, and non-responders. Mechanistically, electroacupuncture significantly ameliorated inflammatory and nociceptive mediators both peripherally and centrally in sickle mice correlative to the antinociceptive response. Application of sub-optimal doses of morphine in electroacupuncture-treated moderate-responders produced equivalent antinociception as obtained in high-responders. Electroacupuncture in conscious freely moving mice offers an effective approach to develop a mechanism-based understanding of analgesia devoid of the influence of anesthetics or restraints.
Project description:Importance:Chronic low back pain has high societal and personal impact but remains challenging to treat. Electroacupuncture has demonstrated superior analgesia compared with placebo in animal studies but has not been extensively studied in human chronic pain conditions. Objective:To evaluate the treatment effect of real electroacupuncture vs placebo in pain and disability among adults with chronic low back pain and to explore psychophysical, affective, and demographic factors associated with response to electroacupuncture vs placebo in treating chronic low back pain. Design, Setting, and Participants:This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted between August 2, 2016, and December 18, 2018, at a single center in Stanford, California. Primary outcomes were collected at approximately 2 weeks before and after intervention. Participants included English-speaking adults with at least 6 months of chronic low back pain, pain intensity of at least 4 on a scale of 0 to 10, and no radiculopathy. Data analyses for this intent-to-treat study were conducted from June 2019 to June 2020. Interventions:Twelve sessions of real or placebo (sham) electroacupuncture administered twice a week over 6 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures:The main outcome was change in pain severity from baseline to 2 weeks after completion of treatment, measured by the National Institutes of Health PROMIS pain intensity scale. A secondary outcome was change in the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Baseline factors potentially associated with these outcomes included psychophysical testing (ie, thermal temporal summation, conditioned pain modulation, pressure pain threshold), participant's self-report (ie, widespread pain, coping strategies, expectations, self-efficacy, and pain catastrophizing), and demographic characteristics (eg, age, sex, and race). Results:A total of 121 adults were recruited to the study, among whom 59 participants (mean [SD] age, 46.8 [11.9] years; 36 [61.0%] women) were randomized to real electroacupuncture and 62 participants (mean [SD] age, 45.6 [12.8] years; 33 [53.2%] women) were randomized to sham electroacupuncture. At baseline, the mean (SD) PROMIS T-score was 50.49 (3.36) in the real electroacupuncture group and 51.71 (4.70) in the sham acupuncture group, and the mean (SD) RMDQ score was 10.16 (4.76) in the real electroacupuncture group and 10.03 (5.45) in the sham acupuncture group. After adjusting for baseline pain scores, there was no statistically significant difference between groups in change in T-scores 2 weeks after completion of treatment (real electroacupuncture: -4.33; 95% CI, -6.36 to -2.30; sham acupuncture: -2.90; 95% CI, -4.85 to -0.95; difference: -2.09; 95% CI, -4.27 to 0.09; P?=?.06). After adjusting for baseline RMDQ, there was a significantly greater reduction in RMDQ in the real electroacupuncture group (-2.77; 95% CI, -4.11 to -1.43) compared with the sham electroacupuncture group (-0.67; 95% CI, -1.88 to 0.55; difference: -2.11; 95% CI, -3.75 to -0.47; P?=?.01). Within the real electroacupuncture group, effective coping at baseline was associated with greater RMDQ reduction (r?=?-0.32; 95% CI, -0.54 to -0.05; P?=?.02), and White race was associated with worse outcomes in PROMIS score (??=?3.791; 95% CI, 0.616 to 6.965; P?=?.02) and RMDQ (??=?2.878; 95% CI, 0.506 to 5.250; P?=?.02). Conclusions and Relevance:This randomized clinical trial found no statistically significant difference in change in PROMIS pain score in real electroacupuncture vs sham electroacupuncture. There was a statistically significant treatment effect for the secondary outcome of RMDQ compared with sham electroacupuncture. Effective coping skills and non-White race were associated with response to electroacupuncture. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02890810.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) reduces the severity of acute pancreatitis. However, the effect of EA for pain relief in patients with acute pancreatitis has not been evaluated yet. The purpose of this study was to prove the efficacy of EA for pain relief in patients with acute pancreatitis compared with conventional treatment. METHODS:This study is a randomized, controlled, three-arm, parallel-group, multi-center trial. Patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis are enrolled and randomly assigned to EA 1, EA 2, or a control group in a 1:1:1 ratio. All the enrolled patients basically receive the conventional standard-of-care therapy for acute pancreatitis. Local EA is given in group EA 1, while local with additional distal EA is given in group EA 2. Local EA includes two acupoints, Zhong Wan (CV12) and Shang Wan (CV13), located in the abdomen, while distal EA includes 12 peripheral acupoints, Zhong Wan (CV12), Shang Wan (CV13), He Gu (LI4), Nei Guan (PC6), San Yin Jiao (SP6), Xuan Zhong (GB39), Zu San Li (ST36), and Shang Ju Xu (ST37). The patients randomized to the EA 1 and EA 2 groups undergo one session of EA daily from day 1 until day 4, or until pain resolves. The primary endpoint is the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) change for pain on day 5. Secondary endpoints include daily VAS, requirement of analgesics, changes of inflammatory markers, time to pain disappearance, and hospital days. DISCUSSION:The results of this trial are expected to prove the efficacy of EA for pain relief in patients with acute pancreatitis. Based upon the results, EA would be applied to a variety of clinical practices for reducing pain. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03173222 . Registered on 1 August 2017.
Project description:Introduction. Results from previous studies on acupuncture for labour pain are contradictory and lack important information on methodology. However, studies indicate that acupuncture has a positive effect on women's experiences of labour pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different acupuncture stimulations, manual or electrical stimulation, compared with standard care in the relief of labour pain as the primary outcome. This paper will present in-depth information on the design of the study, following the CONSORT and STRICTA recommendations. Methods. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial based on western medical theories. Nulliparous women with normal pregnancies admitted to the delivery ward after a spontaneous onset of labour were randomly allocated into one of three groups: manual acupuncture, electroacupuncture, or standard care. Sample size calculation gave 101 women in each group, including a total of 303 women. A Visual Analogue Scale was used for assessing pain every 30 minutes for five hours and thereafter every hour until birth. Questionnaires were distributed before treatment, directly after the birth, and at one day and two months postpartum. Blood samples were collected before and after the first treatment. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01197950.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer without effective targeted drugs. While breast cancer patients often use acupuncture for the relief of cancer-induced pain or the side effects of chemo- or radiation therapy, little information is known regarding the direct effects of electroacupuncture on TNBC tumor and its potential mechanisms. Here, we created a mice model of TNBC and electroacupuncture with encircled needling around the tumors was given to the animals daily for 3 weeks at 15-20 Hz (3 min, each time). For sham electroacupuncture control, the skin was punctured to a depth of 5 mm and then the needle was quickly withdrawn without electrical stimulation or manual needle manipulation. We found that electroacupuncture significantly inhibited TNBC tumor growth and the inhibitory rate increased gradually overtime. Mechanistic analysis showed that electroacupuncture inhibited tumor angiogenesis by reducing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), its receptor VEGF-R and neuropilin 1 (NRP-1). Electroacupuncture also led to a significant decrease of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression and an increase of tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-2) expression. Additionally, the expression of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) p75 in TNBC tissue was significantly upregulated in response to electroacupuncture. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha level in the serum was dramatically reduced after electroacupuncture. These results showed that electroacupuncture could directly inhibit TNBC tumor growth through the inhibition of proteins related to tumor angiogenesis and extracellular matrix, the suppression of TNBC-induced inflammation and the upregulation of nerve growth factor receptors.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Although some of the current treatments offer some symptomatic relief, this disease cannot be cured at present. Electroacupuncture may be effective for Alzheimer's disease for cognitive function, but the evidence for its effectiveness is still limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the add-on effect of electroacupuncture to donepezil for improving the cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease.A total of 334 participants with Alzheimer's disease will be randomly assigned to either an electroacupuncture combined with donepezil group or a donepezil group with a ratio of 1:1. Participants in the electroacupuncture combined with donepezil group will receive electroacupuncture in addition to donepezil for 12 weeks and will keep taking donepezil for the following 24 weeks. Participants in the control group will take donepezil only. The primary outcome is the change from baseline in the total score of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognition at week 12. A follow-up will be conducted 24 weeks after the treatment.We expect to verify the hypothesis that acupuncture in addition to donepezil is better than donepezil in improving the cognitive function of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This trial has a limitation that participant blinding is impossible.Clinical Trials.gov: ID: NCT02305836 . Registered on 13 November 2014.