Mutational landscape of a chemically induced mouse model of liver cancer
ABSTRACT: Liver cancer is one of the most prevalent and lethal human cancers. Mouse models of cancer are instrumental in the understanding of disease and the development of new treatments for patients. In this project we compare similarity of chemically induced mouse liver cancers to human liver cancers.
Project description:Liver cancer is one of the most prevalent and lethal human cancers. Mouse models of cancer are instrumental in the understanding of disease and the development of new treatments for patients. In this project we compare similarity of chemically induced mouse liver cancers to human liver cancers.
2020-04-03 | S-BSST141 | BioStudies
Project description:Liver cancer is one of the most prevalent and lethal human cancers. Mouse models of cancer are instrumental in the understanding of disease and the development of new treatments for patients. In this project we compare similarity of chemically induced liver cancers in three mouse and one rat strains.
2022-04-17 | S-BSST129 | BioStudies
Project description:Liver cancer is one of the most prevalent and lethal human cancers. Mouse models of cancer are instrumental in the understanding of disease and the development of new treatments for patients. In this project we compare similarity of chemically induced liver cancers in rodents.
Project description:Liver cancers are highly heterogeneous with poor prognosis and drug response. A better understanding between genetic alterations and drug responses would facilitate precision treatment for liver cancers. To characterize the landscape of pharmacogenomic interactions in liver cancers, we developed a protocol to establish human liver cancer cell models at a success rate of around 50% and generated the Liver Cancer Model Repository (LIMORE) with 81 cell models. LIMORE represented genomic and transcriptomic heterogeneity of primary cancers. Interrogation of the pharmacogenomic landscape of LIMORE discovered unexplored gene-drug associations, including synthetic lethalities to prevalent alterations in liver cancers. Moreover, predictive biomarker candidates were suggested for the selection of sorafenib-responding patients. LIMORE provides a rich resource facilitating drug discovery in liver cancers.
Project description:JNK proteins have been shown to be involved in liver carcinogenesis in mice, but the extent of their involvement in the development of human liver cancers is unknown. Here, we show that activation of JNK1 but not JNK2 was increased in human primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Further, JNK1 was required for human HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumorigenesis after xenotransplantation. Importantly, mice lacking JNK1 displayed decreased tumor cell proliferation in a mouse model of liver carcinogenesis and decreased hepatocyte proliferation in a mouse model of liver regeneration. In both cases, impaired proliferation was caused by increased expression of p21, a cell-cycle inhibitor, and reduced expression of c-Myc, a negative regulator of p21. Genetic inactivation of p21 in JNK1-/- mice restored hepatocyte proliferation in models of both liver carcinogenesis and liver regeneration, and overexpression of c-Myc increased proliferation of JNK1-/- liver cells. Similarly, JNK1 was found to control the proliferation of human HCC cells by affecting p21 and c-Myc expression. Pharmacologic inhibition of JNK reduced the growth of both xenografted human HCC cells and chemically induced mouse liver cancers. These findings provide a mechanistic link between JNK activity and liver cell proliferation via p21 and c-Myc and suggest JNK targeting can be considered as a new therapeutic approach for HCC treatment.
Project description:T-cell engaging bispecific antibodies (biAbs) can mediate potent and specific tumor cell eradication in liquid cancers. Substantial effort has been invested in expanding this concept to solid cancers. To explore their utility in the treatment of ovarian cancer, we built a set of asymmetric biAbs in IgG1-like format that bind CD3 on T cells with a conventional scFv arm and folate receptor 1 (FOLR1) on ovarian cancer cells with a conventional or a chemically programmed Fab arm. For avidity engineering, we also built an asymmetric biAb format with a tandem Fab arm. We show that both conventional and chemically programmed CD3 × FOLR1 biAbs exert specific in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity toward FOLR1-expressing ovarian cancer cells by recruiting and activating T cells. While the conventional T-cell engaging biAb was curative in an aggressive mouse model of human ovarian cancer, the potency of the chemically programmed biAb was significantly boosted by avidity engineering. Both conventional and chemically programmed CD3 × FOLR1 biAbs warrant further investigation for ovarian cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are critical for the initiation, propagation, and treatment resistance of multiple cancers. Yet functional interactions between specific signaling pathways in solid organ "cancer stem cells," such as those of the liver, remain elusive. We report that in regenerating human liver, two to four cells per 30,000-50,000 cells express stem cell proteins Stat3, Oct4, and Nanog, along with the prodifferentiation proteins TGF-beta-receptor type II (TBRII) and embryonic liver fodrin (ELF). Examination of human hepatocellular cancer (HCC) reveals cells that label with stem cell markers that have unexpectedly lost TBRII and ELF. elf(+/-) mice spontaneously develop HCC; expression analysis of these tumors highlighted the marked activation of the genes involved in the IL-6 signaling pathway, including IL-6 and Stat3, suggesting that HCC could arise from an IL-6-driven transformed stem cell with inactivated TGF-beta signaling. Similarly, suppression of IL-6 signaling, through the generation of mouse knockouts involving a positive regulator of IL-6, Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor-heavy chain-4 (ITIH4), resulted in reduction in HCC in elf(+/-) mice. This study reveals an unexpected functional link between IL-6, a major stem cell signaling pathway, and the TGF-beta signaling pathway in the modulation of mammalian HCC, a lethal cancer of the foregut. These experiments suggest an important therapeutic role for targeting IL-6 in HCCs lacking a functional TGF-beta pathway.
Project description:Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC), an inflammation-associated cancer induced by a variety of etiological factors, is still one of the most prevalent and lethal cancers in human population. In this study, the expression profiles of immune-related genes (IRGs) were integrated with the overall survival (OS) of 378 LIHC patients based on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Moreover, the differentially expressed and survival related IRGs among LIHC patients were predicted through the computational difference algorithm and COX regression analysis. As a result, 7 genes, including HSPA4, S100A10, FABP6, CACYBP, HDAC1, FCGR2B and SHC1, were retrieved to construct a predictive model associated with the overall survival (OS) of LIHC patients. Typically, the as-constructed model performed moderately in predicting prognosis, which was also correlated with tumor grade. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the genes of high-risk group were actively involved in mRNA binding and the spliceosome pathway. Intriguingly, the prognostic index established based on IRGs reflected infiltration by multiple types of immunocytes. Our findings screen several IRGs with clinical significance, reveal the drivers of immune repertoire, and illustrate the importance of a personalized, IRG-based immune signature in LIHC recognition, surveillance, and prognosis prediction.
Project description:Although the associations of p53 dysfunction, p53 interaction networks and oncogenesis have been widely explored, a systematic analysis of TP53 mutations and its related interaction networks in various types of human cancers is lacking. Our study explored the associations of TP53 mutations, gene expression, clinical outcomes, and TP53 interaction networks across 33 cancer types using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We show that TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in a number of cancers, and its mutations appear to be early events in cancer initiation. We identified genes potentially repressed by p53, and genes whose expression correlates significantly with TP53 expression. These gene products may be especially important nodes in p53 interaction networks in human cancers. This study shows that while TP53-truncating mutations often result in decreased TP53 expression, other non-truncating TP53 mutations result in increased TP53 expression in some cancers. Survival analyses in a number of cancers show that patients with TP53 mutations are more likely to have worse prognoses than TP53-wildtype patients, and that elevated TP53 expression often leads to poor clinical outcomes. We identified a set of candidate synthetic lethal (SL) genes for TP53, and validated some of these SL interactions using data from the Cancer Cell Line Project. These predicted SL genes are promising candidates for experimental validation and the development of personalized therapeutics for patients with TP53-mutated cancers.