SilicoDArT marker data of a Aegilops biuncialis collection
ABSTRACT: Genotyping has been performed with the wheat DArTseq platform in a Aegilops biuncialis collection comprise 86 wild Aegilops biuncialis accessions, collected from 64 sites in 16 countries.
The attached table shows the silicoDArT markers were used in the subsequent analysis. silicoDArT markers referring to the presence or absence of restriction fragment in the genomic representation.
Project description:Production of wheat-alien disomic addition lines is of great value to the exploitation and utilization of elite genes originated from related species to wheat. In this study, a novel wheat-Aegilops biuncialis 5Mb disomic addition line WA317 was characterized by in situ hybridization (ISH) and specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) markers. Compared to its parent Chinese Spring (CS), the glumes of WA317 had black color and were difficult to remove after harvesting, suggesting chromosome 5Mb carried gene(s) related to glume development and Triticeae domestication process. A total of 242 Ae. biuncialis SLAF-based markers (298 amplified patterns) were developed and further divided into four categories by Ae. biuncialis Y17, Ae. umbellulata Y139 and Ae. comosa Y258, including 172 markers amplifying the same bands of U and M genome, six and 102 markers amplifying U-specific and M-specific bands, respectively and eighteen markers amplifying specific bands in Y17. Among them, 45 markers had the specific amplifications in WA317 and were 5Mb specific markers. Taken together, line WA317 with tenacious and black glumes should serve as the foundation for understanding of the Triticeae domestication process and further exploitation of primitive alleles for wheat improvement. Ae. biuncialis SLAF-based markers can be used for studying syntenic relationships between U and M genomes as well as rapid tracking of U and M chromosomal segments in wheat background.
Project description:Aegilops biuncialis is a promising gene source to improve salt tolerance of wheat via interspecific hybridization. In the present work, the salt stress responses of wheat-Ae. biuncialis addition lines were investigated during germination and in young plants to identify which Aegilops chromosomes can improve the salt tolerance of wheat. After salt treatments, the Aegilops parent and the addition lines 2M, 3M and 3M.4BS showed higher germination potential, shoot and root growth, better CO2 assimilation capacity and less chlorophyll degradation than the wheat parent. The Aegilops parent accumulated less Na in the roots due to an up-regulation of SOS1, SOS2 and HVP1 genes, while it contained higher amount of proline, fructose, glucose, galactose, maltose and raffinose. In the leaves, lower Na level was accompanied by high amount of proline and increased expression of NHX2 gene. The enhanced accumulation of sugars and proline was also observed in the roots of 3M and 3M.4BS addition lines. Typical mechanism of 2M addition line was the sequestration of Na into the vacuole due to the increased expression of HVP1 in the roots and NHX2 in the leaves. These results suggest the Aegilops chromosomes 2M and 3M can improve salt tolerance of wheat in different way.
Project description:Genotyping by Sequencing has been performed in an Central European wheat collection. Genotyping has been performed with the wheat DArTseq platform and generated two types of marker data: (1) genotyping by sequencing (GBS) markers are SNP markers obtained by sequencing the fragments derived from genome complexity reduction and subsequent SNP calling, and (2) silicoDArT markers referring to the presence or absence of restriction fragment in the genomic representation.
Moreover phenotypic performance of the entire collection was investigated during 3 successive seasons
Project description:Powdery mildew is one of the most widespread diseases of wheat. The development and deployment of resistant varieties are one of the most economical and effective methods to manage this disease. Our previous study showed that the gene(s) at 2Mb in Chinese Spring (CS)-Aegilops biuncialis 2Mb disomic addition line TA7733 conferred a high level of resistance to powdery mildew of wheat. In this study, resistance spectrum of TA7733 was assayed by using 15 Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) isolates prevalent in different regions of China. The result indicated that TA7733 was highly resistant to all tested Bgt isolates and the gene(s) on chromosome 2Mb conferred broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. In order to characterize mechanism of powdery mildew resistance by identifying candidates R-genes derived from Ae. biuncialis chromosome 2Mb and develop 2Mb-specific molecular markers, we performed RNA-seq analysis on TA7733 and CS. In total we identified 7,278 unigenes that showed specific expression in TA7733 pre and post Bgt-infection when compared to CS. Of these 7,278 unigenes, 295 were annotated as putative resistance (R) genes. Comparatively analysis of R-gene sequences from TA7733 and CS and integration CS Ref Seq v1.0 were used to develop R-gene specific primers. Of 295 R-genes we identified 53 R-genes were specific to 2Mb and could be involved in powdery mildew resistance. Functional annotation of majority of the 53 R-genes encoded nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (NLR) protein. The broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in TA7733 and availability of 2Mb-derived putative candidate R-gene specific molecular markers identified in this study will lay foundations for transferring powdery mildew resistance from 2Mb to common wheat by inducing CS-Ae. biuncialis homoeologous recombination. Our study also provides useful candidates for further isolation and cloning of powdery mildew resistance gene(s) from Ae. biuncialis chromosome 2Mb.
Project description:Understanding the genetic diversity of Aegilops biuncialis, a valuable source of agronomical useful genes, may significantly facilitate the introgression breeding of wheat. The genetic diversity and population structure of 86 Ae. biuncialis genotypes were investigated by 32700 DArT markers with the simultaneous application of three statistical methods- neighbor-joining clustering, Principal Coordinate Analysis, and the Bayesian approach to classification. The collection of Ae. biuncialis accessions was divided into five groups that correlated well with their eco-geographic habitat: A (North Africa), B (mainly from Balkans), C (Kosovo and Near East), D (Turkey, Crimea, and Peloponnese), and E (Azerbaijan and the Levant region). The diversity between the Ae. biuncialis accessions for a phenological trait (heading time), which is of decisive importance in the adaptation of plants to different eco-geographical environments, was studied over 3 years. A comparison of the intraspecific variation in the heading time trait by means of analysis of variance and principal component analysis revealed four phenotypic categories showing association with the genetic structure and geographic distribution, except for minor differences. The detailed exploration of genetic and phenologic divergence provides an insight into the adaptation capacity of Ae. biuncialis, identifying promising genotypes that could be utilized for wheat improvement.
Project description:Diploid Aegilops umbellulata and Ae. comosa and their natural allotetraploid hybrids Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata are important wild gene sources for wheat. With the aim of assisting in alien gene transfer, this study provides gene-based conserved orthologous set (COS) markers for the U and M genome chromosomes. Out of the 140 markers tested on a series of wheat-Aegilops chromosome introgression lines and flow-sorted subgenomic chromosome fractions, 100 were assigned to Aegilops chromosomes and six and seven duplications were identified in the U and M genomes, respectively. The marker-specific EST sequences were BLAST-ed to Brachypodium and rice genomic sequences to investigate macrosyntenic relationships between the U and M genomes of Aegilops, wheat and the model species. Five syntenic regions of Brachypodium identified genome rearrangements differentiating the U genome from the M genome and from the D genome of wheat. All of them seem to have evolved at the diploid level and to have been modified differentially in the polyploid species Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata. A certain level of wheat-Aegilops homology was detected for group 1, 2, 3 and 5 chromosomes, while a clearly rearranged structure was showed for the group 4, 6 and 7 Aegilops chromosomes relative to wheat. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species, wheat and model species will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U and M genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to allopolyploidization.
Project description:Recent stem rust epidemics in eastern Africa and elsewhere demonstrated that wheat stem rust is a re-emerging disease posing a threat to wheat production worldwide. The cultivated wheat gene pool has a narrow genetic base for resistance to virulent races, such as races in the Ug99 race group. Wild relatives of wheat are a tractable source of stem rust resistance genes. Aegilops species in the tertiary genepool have not been exploited to any great extent as a source of stem rust resistance. We evaluated 1,422 accessions of Aegilops spp. for resistance to three highly virulent races (TTKSK, TRTTF, and TTTTF) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Species studied include Ae. biuncialis, Ae. caudata, Ae. comosa, Ae. cylindrica, Ae. geniculata, Ae. neglecta, Ae. peregrina, Ae. triuncialis, and Ae. umbellulata that do not share common genomes with cultivated wheat. High frequencies of resistance were observed as 977 (68.8%), 927 (65.2%), and 850 (59.8%) accessions exhibited low infection types to races TTKSK, TTTTF, and TRTTF, respectively. Contingency table analyses showed strong association for resistance to different races in several Aegilops spp., indicating that for a given species, the resistance genes effective against multiple races. Inheritance studies in selected accessions showed that resistance to race TTKSK is simply inherited.
Project description:Cereal grain fiber is an important health-promoting component in the human diet. One option to improve dietary fiber content and composition in wheat is to introduce genes from its wild relatives Aegilops biuncialis and Aegilops geniculata. This study showed that the addition of chromosomes 2Ug, 4Ug, 5Ug, 7Ug, 2Mg, 5Mg, and 7Mg of Ae. geniculata and 3Ub, 2Mb, 3Mb, and 7Mb of Ae. biuncialis into bread wheat increased the seed protein content. Chromosomes 1Ug and 1Mg increased the proportion of polymeric glutenin proteins, while the addition of chromosomes 1Ub and 6Ub led to its decrease. Both Aegilops species had higher proportions of ?-glucan compared to arabinoxylan (AX) than wheat lines, and elevated ?-glucan content was also observed in wheat chromosome addition lines 5U, 7U, and 7M. The AX content in wheat was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5Ug, 7Ug, and 1Ub while water-soluble AX was increased by the addition of chromosomes 5U, 5M, and 7M, and to a lesser extent by chromosomes 3, 4, 6Ug, and 2Mb. Chromosomes 5Ug and 7Mb also affected the structure of wheat AX, as shown by the pattern of oligosaccharides released by digestion with endoxylanase. These results will help to map genomic regions responsible for edible fiber content in Aegilops and will contribute to the efficient transfer of wild alleles in introgression breeding programs to obtain wheat varieties with improved health benefits. Key Message: Addition of Aegilops U- and M-genome chromosomes 5 and 7 improves seed protein and fiber content and composition in wheat.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Repetitive DNA sequences are thought to be involved in the formation of chromosomal rearrangements. The aim of this study was to analyse the distribution of microsatellite clusters in Aegilops biuncialis and Aegilops geniculata, and its relationship with the intergenomic translocations in these allotetraploid species, wild genetic resources for wheat improvement. METHODS: The chromosomal localization of (ACG)(n) and (GAA)(n) microsatellite sequences in Ae. biuncialis and Ae. geniculata and in their diploid progenitors Aegilops comosa and Aegilops umbellulata was investigated by sequential in situ hybridization with simple sequence repeat (SSR) probes and repeated DNA probes (pSc119·2, Afa family and pTa71) and by dual-colour genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Thirty-two Ae. biuncialis and 19 Ae. geniculata accessions were screened by GISH for intergenomic translocations, which were further characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization and GISH. KEY RESULTS: Single pericentromeric (ACG)(n) signals were localized on most U and on some M genome chromosomes, whereas strong pericentromeric and several intercalary and telomeric (GAA)(n) sites were observed on the Aegilops chromosomes. Three Ae. biuncialis accessions carried 7U(b)-7M(b) reciprocal translocations and one had a 7U(b)-1M(b) rearrangement, while two Ae. geniculata accessions carried 7U(g)-1M(g) or 5U(g)-5M(g) translocations. Conspicuous (ACG)(n) and/or (GAA)(n) clusters were located near the translocation breakpoints in eight of the ten translocated chromosomes analysed, SSR bands and breakpoints being statistically located at the same chromosomal site in six of them. CONCLUSIONS: Intergenomic translocation breakpoints are frequently mapped to SSR-rich chromosomal regions in the allopolyploid species examined, suggesting that microsatellite repeated DNA sequences might facilitate the formation of those chromosomal rearrangements. The (ACG)(n) and (GAA)(n) SSR motifs serve as additional chromosome markers for the karyotypic analysis of UM genome Aegilops species.
Project description:The appropriate selection of various traits in valuable plants is very important for modern plant breeding. Effective resistance to fungal diseases, such as powdery mildew, is an example of such a trait in oats. Marker-assisted selection is an important tool that reduces the time and cost of selection. The aims of the present study were the identification of dominant DArTseq markers associated with a new resistance gene, annotated as Pm11 and derived from Avena sterilis genotype CN113536, and the subsequent conversion of these markers into a PCR-based assay. Among the obtained 30,620 silicoDArT markers, 202 markers were highly associated with resistance in the analysed population. Of these, 71 were selected for potential conversion: 42 specific to resistant and 29 to susceptible individuals. Finally, 40 silicoDArT markers were suitable for primer design. From this pool, five markers, 3 for resistant and 2 for susceptible plants, were selected for product amplification in the expected groups. The developed method, based on 2 selection markers, provides certain identification of resistant and susceptible homozygotes. Also, the use of these markers allowed the determination of heterozygotes in the analysed population. Selected silicoDArT markers were also used for chromosomal localization of new resistance genes. Five out of 71 segregating silicoDArT markers for the Pm11 gene were found on the available consensus genetic map of oat. Five markers were placed on linkage groups corresponding to Mrg12 on the Avena sativa consensus map.