Selected tiles of the In Situ Sequencing Mouse Brain Dataset NT_ISS_KR0018
ABSTRACT: Each tile (1000x1000 px) contains 6 imaging channels (nuclei channel, anchor channel and 4 coding channels) over 4 registered sequencing rounds and there are 171 selected tiles of the right hemisphere of a mouse brain.
Project description:Vector tile technology is developing rapidly and has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to the raster tile, the vector tile has shown incomparable advantages, such as flexible map styles, suitability for high-resolution screens and ease of interaction. Recent studies on vector tiles have mostly focused on improving the efficiency on the server side and have overlooked the efficiency on the client side, which affects user experience. Parallel computing provides solutions to this issue. Parallel visualization of vector tiles is a typical example of embarrassing parallelism; thus, estimating the computing times of each tile accurately and decomposing the workload into multiple computing units evenly are key to the parallel visualization of vector tiles. This article adopts mainstream parallel computing and proposes an efficient tile-based parallel method for accelerating geographical feature visualization by building computational weight functions (CWFs) of geographical feature visualizations. The computing time of each vector tile is estimated by the CWF, and an effective workload decomposition strategy is proposed such that the efficiency of vector tile visualization is improved on the client side. Furthermore, a tile-based reconstruction scheme for geographical features is also proposed. Experiments show that the R-squared value of the estimated computing times of vector tiles is 0.914 and that the computational efficiency of the parallel visualization of vector tiles with the proposed workload decomposition strategy is 18.6% higher than that of common parallel visualization. Finally, users can obtain the entire set of features effectively and accurately based on the proposed reconstruction scheme.
Project description:Programmed self-assembly of strands of nucleic acid has proved highly effective for creating a wide range of structures with desired shapes. A particularly successful implementation is DNA origami, in which a long scaffold strand is folded by hundreds of short auxiliary strands into a complex shape. Modular strategies are in principle simpler and more versatile and have been used to assemble DNA or RNA tiles into periodic and algorithmic two-dimensional lattices, extended ribbons and tubes, three-dimensional crystals, polyhedra and simple finite two-dimensional shapes. But creating finite yet complex shapes from a large number of uniquely addressable tiles remains challenging. Here we solve this problem with the simplest tile form, a 'single-stranded tile' (SST) that consists of a 42-base strand of DNA composed entirely of concatenated sticky ends and that binds to four local neighbours during self-assembly. Although ribbons and tubes with controlled circumferences have been created using the SST approach, we extend it to assemble complex two-dimensional shapes and tubes from hundreds (in some cases more than one thousand) distinct tiles. Our main design feature is a self-assembled rectangle that serves as a molecular canvas, with each of its constituent SST strands--folded into a 3 nm-by-7 nm tile and attached to four neighbouring tiles--acting as a pixel. A desired shape, drawn on the canvas, is then produced by one-pot annealing of all those strands that correspond to pixels covered by the target shape; the remaining strands are excluded. We implement the strategy with a master strand collection that corresponds to a 310-pixel canvas, and then use appropriate strand subsets to construct 107 distinct and complex two-dimensional shapes, thereby establishing SST assembly as a simple, modular and robust framework for constructing nanostructures with prescribed shapes from short synthetic DNA strands.
Project description:DNA origami and single-stranded tile (SST) are two proven approaches to self-assemble finite-size complex DNA nanostructures. The construction elements appeared in structures from these two methods can also be found in multi-stranded DNA tiles such as double crossover tiles. Here we report the design and observation of four types of finite-size lattices with four different double crossover tiles, respectively, which, we believe, in terms of both complexity and robustness, will be rival to DNA origami and SST structures.
Project description:The development of scaffolded DNA origami, a technique in which a long single-stranded viral genome is folded into arbitrary shapes by hundreds of short synthetic oligonucleotides, represents an important milestone in DNA nanotechnology. Recent findings have revealed that two-dimensional (2D) DNA origami structures based on the original design parameters adopt a global twist with respect to the tile plane, which may be because the conformation of the constituent DNA (10.67 bp/turn) deviates from the natural B-type helical twist (10.4 bp/turn). Here we aim to characterize the effects of DNA hairpin loops on the overall curvature of the tile and explore their ability to control, and ultimately eliminate any unwanted curvature. A series of dumbbell-shaped DNA loops were selectively displayed on the surface of DNA origami tiles with the expectation that repulsive interactions among the neighboring dumbbell loops and between the loops and the DNA origami tile would influence the structural features of the underlying tiles. A systematic, atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of how the number and position of the DNA loops influenced the global twist of the structure was performed, and several structural models to explain the results were proposed. The observations unambiguously revealed that the first generation of rectangular shaped origami tiles adopt a conformation in which the upper right (corner 2) and bottom left (corner 4) corners bend upward out of the plane, causing linear superstructures attached by these corners to form twisted ribbons. Our experimental observations are consistent with the twist model predicted by the DNA mechanical property simulation software CanDo. Through the systematic design and organization of various numbers of dumbbell loops on both surfaces of the tile, a nearly planar rectangular origami tile was achieved.
Project description:Slate is a natural rock usually used in roofs, façades, and for tiling. In spite of this broad use, the production process of slate tiles requires substantial improvements. An important quantity of slate from the quarry is wasted during the manufacturing of the final product. Furthermore, processes are not automatized and the production lead times can be considerably shortened. Therefore, new processing methods to increase productivity, reduce costs and to provide added value to the final slate product are required. Drilling is an important part of these manufacturing processes. Conventional drilling processes usually cause the breaking of the slate tiles; then, even a higher quantity of material is wasted. To overcome these problems, lasers emerge as a feasible tool to produce holes in this material, since mechanical stresses are not induced on the workpiece. In this work, we have studied the CO₂ laser microdrilling of slate tiles. We used a Design of Experiments (DOE) methodology to determine the influence of the laser processing parameters on the hole quality. This work demonstrates the capability of a CO₂ laser to produce holes in slate with less than 100 microns in diameter, avoiding any fracture, and with a processing time of less than 50 ms per hole. Finally, this process demonstrates the viability of the production of high-density micron-sized holes in a slate tile for water draining purposes.
Project description:In this study, properties of newly developed reclaimed tiles in a harmful environment were investigated. A portion of clay used to manufacture tiles was replaced with sewage sludge ash (SSA) and waste glass to produce the new reclaimed tiles. To investigate the effects of SSA and waste glass on the properties of the tiles, different specimens were blended and placed in acid-alkali solutions. The reclaimed tile specimens were manufactured by clay, 10% SSA, and five different mixes of waste glass replacement, namely, 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, and 60%. These specimens were calcined at 1000 °C and subsequently underwent a series of tests, including TGA/DTA (thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis), SEM (scanning electron microscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), bending strength, weight loss, and porosity. Test results show that shortcomings associated with the introduction of the sludge ash were improved by the admixture of waste glass, especially in the aspects of shrinkage and bending strength. The study showed that the new reclaimed tiles performed relatively well in acid-alkali resistance tests but appeared to have better alkali resistance than acid resistance. It was also found that the optimal mix of such reclaimed tiles was 10% SSA, 10% waste glass, and 80% clay.
Project description:This paper presents the residual mechanical properties of concrete made with crushed bricks and clay roof tile aggregates after exposure to high temperatures. One referent mixture and eight mixtures with different percentages of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed bricks and roof tiles are experimentally tested. The properties of the concrete were measured before and after exposure to 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. In order to evaluate the basic residual mechanical properties of concrete with crushed bricks and roof tiles after exposure to high temperatures, ultrasonic pulse velocity is used as a non-destructive test method and the results are compared with those of a destructive method for validation. The mixture with the highest percentage of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed brick and roof tile aggregate has the best physical, mechanical, and thermal properties for application of such concrete in precast concrete elements exposed to high temperatures.
Project description:Structural DNA nanotechnology utilizes DNA molecules as programmable information-coding polymers to create higher order structures at the nanometer scale. An important milestone in structural DNA nanotechnology was the development of scaffolded DNA origami in which a long single-stranded viral genome (scaffold strand) is folded into arbitrary shapes by hundreds of short synthetic oligonucleotides (staple strands). The achievable dimensions of the DNA origami tile units are currently limited by the length of the scaffold strand. Here we demonstrate a strategy referred to as "superorigami" or "origami of origami" to scale up DNA origami technology. First, this method uses a collection of bridge strands to prefold a single-stranded DNA scaffold into a loose framework. Subsequently, preformed individual DNA origami tiles are directed onto the loose framework so that each origami tile serves as a large staple. Using this strategy, we demonstrate the ability to organize DNA origami nanostructures into larger spatially addressable architectures.
Project description:DNA-based nanotechnology is currently being developed as a general assembly method for nanopatterned materials that may find use in electronics, sensors, medicine, and many other fields. Here we present results on the construction and characterization of DNA nanotubes, a self-assembling superstructure composed of DNA tiles. Triple-crossover tiles modified with thiol-containing double-stranded DNA stems projected out of the tile plane were used as the basic building blocks. Triple-crossover nanotubes display a constant diameter of approximately 25 nm and have been observed with lengths up to 20 microm. We present high-resolution images of the constructs, experimental evidence of their tube-like nature as well as data on metallization of the nanotubes to form nanowires, and electrical conductivity measurements through the nanowires. DNA nanotubes represent a potential breakthrough in the self-assembly of nanometer-scale circuits for electronics layout because they can be targeted to connect at specific locations on larger-scale structures and can subsequently be metallized to form nanometer-scale wires. The dimensions of these nanotubes are also perfectly suited for applications involving interconnection of molecular-scale devices with macroscale components fabricated by conventional photolithographic methods.
Project description:In this investigation, natural radioactive contents in tiles manufactured in Nigeria and tiles imported from China were measured using gamma ray spectroscopy. High Purity Germanium detector was used to estimate the concentrations of some radioisotopes present in 17 samples of various tiles from Nigeria and China. The average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for the tiles were found to be 68.2?±?0.5; 173.9?±?9.2 and 490?±?15?Bq/kg and 58.2?±?0.5, 161.5?±?9.4 and 455.7?±?15.1?Bq/kg for the tiles from Nigeria and China respectively. Radiological hazard indices such as absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity, external Hazard Index (Hex), internal Hazard Index (Hin), Annual Effective Dose (mSv/y), Gamma activity Index (I?) and Alpha Index (I?) were determined for both kind of tiles from Nigeria and China. The mean values obtained were: 354.56 and 317.16?Bq/kg; 169.22 nGyh-1 and 153.92 nGyh-1; 0.95 and 0.87; 1.14 and 1.08; 1.59?mSv/y and 1.52?mSv/y; 1 and 1.15 and; 0.34 and 0.29 respectively. The mean value of radium equivalent obtained in this study is less than that of the international reference value of 370?Bq/kg for the both kind of tiles.