Project description:Gliomas are the most frequent type of primary brain tumours. Low grade gliomas (LGGs, WHO grade II gliomas) may grow very slowly for the long periods of time, however they inevitably cause death due to the phenomenon known as the malignant transformation. This refers to the transition of LGGs to more aggressive forms of high grade gliomas (HGGs, WHO grade III and IV gliomas). In this paper we propose a mathematical model describing the spatio-temporal transition of LGGs into HGGs. Our modelling approach is based on two cellular populations with transitions between them being driven by the tumour microenvironment transformation occurring when the tumour cell density grows beyond a critical level. We show that the proposed model describes real patient data well. We discuss the relationship between patient prognosis and model parameters. We approximate tumour radius and velocity before malignant transformation as well as estimate the onset of this process.
Project description:Brain tumors constitute the largest source of oncologic mortality in children and low-grade gliomas are among most common pediatric central nervous system tumors. Pediatric low-grade gliomas differ from their counterparts in the adult population in their histopathology, genetics, and standard of care. Over the past decade, an increasingly detailed understanding of the molecular and genetic characteristics of pediatric brain tumors led to tailored therapy directed by integrated phenotypic and genotypic parameters and the availability of an increasing array of molecular-directed therapies. Advances in neuroimaging, conformal radiation therapy, and conventional chemotherapy further improved treatment outcomes. This article reviews the current classification of pediatric low-grade gliomas, their histopathologic and radiographic features, state-of-the-art surgical and adjuvant therapies, and emerging therapies currently under study in clinical trials.
Project description:Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are a diverse group of primary brain tumors that often arise in young, otherwise healthy patients and generally have an indolent course with longer-term survival in comparison with high-grade gliomas. Treatment options include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combined approach, and management is individualized based on tumor location, histology, molecular profile, and patient characteristics. Moreover, in this type of brain tumor with a relatively good prognosis and prolonged survival, the potential benefits of treatment must be carefully weighed against potential treatment-related risks. We review in this article current management strategies for LGG, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In addition, the importance of profiling the genetic and molecular properties of LGGs in the development of targeted anticancer therapies is also reviewed. Finally, given the prevalence of these tumors in otherwise healthy young patients, the impact of treatment on neurocognitive function and quality of life is also evaluated.
Project description:We carried out the analyses of chromosome variations between low-grade and high-grade gliomas in Chinese population. We found out the differences in chromosomes, cytobands, genes, pathways and GO functions. To identify the glioma tissue-specific genomic alterations and compare the genomic variations between low-grade and high-grade gliomas.