A critical epitope for substrate recognition by the nucleosome remodeling ATPase ISWI.
ABSTRACT: The ATPase ISWI is the catalytic core of several nucleosome remodeling complexes, which are able to alter histone-DNA interactions within nucleosomes such that the sliding of histone octamers on DNA is facilitated. Dynamic nucleosome repositioning may be involved in the assembly of chromatin with regularly spaced nucleosomes and accessible regulatory sequence elements. The mechanism that underlies nucleosome sliding is largely unresolved. We recently discovered that the N-terminal 'tail' of histone H4 is critical for nucleosome remodeling by ISWI. If deleted, nucleosomes are no longer recognized as substrates and do not stimulate the ATPase activity of ISWI. We show here that the H4 tail is part of a more complex recognition epitope which is destroyed by grafting the H4 N-terminus onto other histones. We mapped the H4 tail requirement to a hydrophilic patch consisting of the amino acids R17H18R19 localized at the base of the tail. These residues have been shown earlier to contact nucleosomal DNA, suggesting that ISWI recognizes an 'epitope' consisting of the DNA-bound H4 tail. Consistent with this hypothesis, the ISWI ATPase is stimulated by isolated H4 tail peptides ISWI only in the presence of DNA. Acetylation of the adjacent K12 and K16 residues impairs substrate recognition by ISWI.
Project description:ISWI is the catalytic subunit of several ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling factors that catalyse the sliding of nucleosomes along DNA and thereby endow chromatin with structural flexibility. Full activity of ISWI requires residues of a basic patch of amino acids in the N-terminal 'tail' of histone H4. Previous studies employing oligopeptides and mononucleosomes suggested that acetylation of the H4 tail at lysine 16 (H4K16) within the basic patch may inhibit the activity of ISWI. On the other hand, the acetylation of H4K16 is known to decompact chromatin fibres. Conceivably, decompaction may enhance the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA and the H4 tail for ISWI interactions. Such an effect can only be evaluated at the level of nucleosome arrays. We probed the influence of H4K16 acetylation on the ATPase and nucleosome sliding activity of Drosophila ISWI in the context of defined, in vitro reconstituted chromatin fibres with physiological nucleosome spacing and linker histone content. Contrary to widespread expectations, the acetylation did not inhibit ISWI activity, but rather stimulated ISWI remodelling under certain conditions. Therefore, the effect of H4K16 acetylation on ISWI remodelling depends on the precise nature of the substrate.
Project description:Chromatin-remodelling complexes (CRCs) mobilize nucleosomes to mediate the access of DNA-binding factors to their sites in vivo. These CRCs contain a catalytic subunit that bears an ATPase/DNA-translocase domain and flanking regions that bind nucleosomal epitopes. A central question is whether and how these flanking regions regulate ATP hydrolysis or the coupling of hydrolysis to DNA translocation, to affect nucleosome-sliding efficiency. ISWI-family CRCs contain the protein ISWI, which uses its ATPase/DNA-translocase domain to pump DNA around the histone octamer to enable sliding. ISWI is positively regulated by two 'activating' nucleosomal epitopes: the 'basic patch' on the histone H4 tail, and extranucleosomal (linker) DNA. Previous work defined the HAND-SANT-SLIDE (HSS) domain at the ISWI carboxy terminus that binds linker DNA, needed for ISWI activity. Here we define two new, conserved and separate regulatory regions on Drosophila ISWI, termed AutoN and NegC, which negatively regulate ATP hydrolysis (AutoN) or the coupling of ATP hydrolysis to productive DNA translocation (NegC). The two aforementioned nucleosomal epitopes promote remodelling indirectly by preventing the negative regulation of AutoN and NegC. Notably, mutation or removal of AutoN and NegC enables marked nucleosome sliding without the H4 basic patch or extranucleosomal DNA, or the HSS domain, conferring on ISWI the biochemical attributes normally associated with SWI/SNF-family ATPases. Thus, the ISWI ATPase catalytic core is an intrinsically active DNA translocase that conducts nucleosome sliding, onto which selective 'inhibition-of-inhibition' modules are placed, to help ensure that remodelling occurs only in the presence of proper nucleosomal epitopes. This supports a general concept for the specialization of chromatin-remodelling ATPases, in which specific regulatory modules adapt an ancient active DNA translocase to conduct particular tasks only on the appropriate chromatin landscape.
Project description:Several chromatin remodellers have the ability to space nucleosomes on DNA. For ISWI remodellers, this involves an interplay between H4 histone tails, the AutoN and NegC motifs of the motor domains that together regulate ATPase activity and sense the length of DNA flanking the nucleosome. By contrast, the INO80 complex also spaces nucleosomes but is not regulated by H4 tails and lacks the AutoN and NegC motifs. Instead nucleosome sliding requires cooperativity between two INO80 complexes that monitor DNA length simultaneously on either side of the nucleosome during sliding. The C-terminal domain of the human Ino80 subunit (Ino80CTD) binds cooperatively to DNA and dimerisation of these domains provides crosstalk between complexes. ATPase activity, rather than being regulated, instead gradually becomes uncoupled as nucleosome sliding reaches an end point and this is controlled by the Ino80CTD. A single active ATPase motor within the dimer is sufficient for sliding.
Project description:ISWI-family nucleosome remodeling enzymes need the histone H4 N-terminal tail to mobilize nucleosomes. Here we mapped the H4-tail binding pocket of ISWI. Surprisingly the binding site was adjacent to but not overlapping with the docking site of an auto-regulatory motif, AutoN, in the N-terminal region (NTR) of ISWI, indicating that AutoN does not act as a simple pseudosubstrate as suggested previously. Rather, AutoN cooperated with a hitherto uncharacterized motif, termed AcidicN, to confer H4-tail sensitivity and discriminate between DNA and nucleosomes. A third motif in the NTR, ppHSA, was functionally required in vivo and provided structural stability by clamping the NTR to Lobe 2 of the ATPase domain. This configuration is reminiscent of Chd1 even though Chd1 contains an unrelated NTR. Our results shed light on the intricate structural and functional regulation of ISWI by the NTR and uncover surprising parallels with Chd1.
Project description:Nucleosome Remodeling Factor (NURF) is an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling complex that alters chromatin structure by catalyzing nucleosome sliding, thereby exposing DNA sequences previously associated with nucleosomes. We systematically studied how the unstructured N-terminal residues of core histones (the N-terminal histone tails) influence nucleosome sliding. We used bacterially expressed Drosophila histones to reconstitute hybrid nucleosomes lacking one or more histone N-terminal tails. Unexpectedly, we found that removal of the N-terminal tail of histone H2B promoted uncatalyzed nucleosome sliding during native gel electrophoresis. Uncatalyzed nucleosome mobility was enhanced by additional removal of other histone tails but was not affected by hyperacetylation of core histones by p300. In addition, we found that the N-terminal tail of the histone H4 is specifically required for ATP-dependent catalysis of nucleosome sliding by NURF. Alanine scanning mutagenesis demonstrated that H4 residues 16-KRHR-19 are critical for the induction of nucleosome mobility, revealing a histone tail motif that regulates NURF activity. An exchange of histone tails between H4 and H3 impaired NURF-induced sliding of the mutant nucleosome, indicating that the location of the KRHR motif in relation to global nucleosome structure is functionally important. Our results provide functions for the N-terminal histone tails in regulating the mobility of nucleosomes.
Project description:Nucleosome-remodelling factors containing the ATPase ISWI, such as ACF, render DNA in chromatin accessible by promoting the sliding of histone octamers. Although the ATP-dependent repositioning of mononucleosomes is readily observable in vitro, it is unclear to which extent nucleosomes can be moved in physiological chromatin, where neighbouring nucleosomes, linker histones and the folding of the nucleosomal array restrict mobility. We assembled arrays consisting of 12 nucleosomes or 12 chromatosomes (nucleosomes plus linker histone) from defined components and subjected them to remodelling by ACF or the ATPase CHD1. Both factors increased the access to DNA in nucleosome arrays. ACF, but not CHD1, catalysed profound movements of nucleosomes throughout the array, suggesting different remodelling mechanisms. Linker histones inhibited remodelling by CHD1. Surprisingly, ACF catalysed significant repositioning of entire chromatosomes in chromatin containing saturating levels of linker histone H1. H1 inhibited the ATP-dependent generation of DNA accessibility by only about 50%. This first demonstration of catalysed chromatosome movements suggests that the bulk of interphase euchromatin may be rendered dynamic by dedicated nucleosome-remodelling factors.
Project description:Chromatin remodelers are ATP-driven machines that assemble, slide, and remove nucleosomes from DNA, but how the ATPase motors of remodelers are regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that the double chromodomain unit of the Chd1 remodeler blocks DNA binding and activation of the ATPase motor in the absence of nucleosome substrates. The Chd1 crystal structure reveals that an acidic helix joining the chromodomains can pack against a DNA-binding surface of the ATPase motor. Disruption of the chromodomain-ATPase interface prevents discrimination between nucleosomes and naked DNA and reduces the reliance on the histone H4 tail for nucleosome sliding. We propose that the chromodomains allow Chd1 to distinguish between nucleosomes and naked DNA by physically gating access to the ATPase motor, and we hypothesize that related ATPase motors may employ a similar strategy to discriminate among DNA-containing substrates.
Project description:The chromatin accessibility complex (CHRAC) was originally defined biochemically as an ATP-dependent 'nucleosome remodelling' activity. Central to its activity is the ATPase ISWI, which catalyses the transfer of histone octamers between DNA segments in cis. In addition to ISWI, four other potential subunits were observed consistently in active CHRAC fractions. We have now identified the p175 subunit of CHRAC as Acf1, a protein known to associate with ISWI in the ACF complex. Interaction of Acf1 with ISWI enhances the efficiency of nucleosome sliding by an order of magnitude. Remarkably, it also modulates the nucleosome remodelling activity of ISWI qualitatively by altering the directionality of nucleosome movements and the histone 'tail' requirements of the reaction. The Acf1-ISWI heteromer tightly interacts with the two recently identified small histone fold proteins CHRAC-14 and CHRAC-16. Whether topoisomerase II is an integral subunit has been controversial. Refined analyses now suggest that topoisomerase II should not be considered a stable subunit of CHRAC. Accordingly, CHRAC can be molecularly defined as a complex consisting of ISWI, Acf1, CHRAC-14 and CHRAC-16.
Project description:Chromatin remodellers are ATP-dependent motor proteins that physically reposition and reorganize nucleosomes. Chd1 and Iswi-type remodellers possess a DNA-binding domain (DBD) needed for efficient nucleosome mobilization; however, it has not been clear how this domain physically contributes to remodelling. Here we show that the Chd1 DBD promotes nucleosome sliding simply by tethering the remodeller to nucleosome substrates. Nucleosome sliding activity was largely resistant to increasing length and flexibility of the linker connecting the DBD and ATPase motor, arguing that the ATPase motor does not shift DNA onto the nucleosome by pulling on the DBD.
Project description:ISWI-family nucleosome remodeling enzymes need the histone H4 N-terminal tail to mobilize nucleosomes. Here we mapped the H4-tail binding pocket of ISWI. Surprisingly the binding site was adjacent to but not overlapping with the docking site of an auto-regulatory motif, AutoN, in the N-terminal region (NTR) of ISWI, indicating that AutoN does not act as a simple pseudosubstrate as suggested previously. Rather, AutoN cooperated with a hitherto uncharacterized motif, termed AcidicN, to confer H4-tail sensitivity and discriminate between DNA and nucleosomes. A third motif in the NTR, ppHSA, was functionally required in vivo and provided structural stability by clamping the NTR to Lobe 2 of the ATPase domain. This configuration is reminiscent of Chd1 even though Chd1 contains an unrelated NTR. Our results shed light on the intricate structural and functional regulation of ISWI by the NTR and uncover surprising parallels with Chd1. Elife. 2017 Jan 21;6. pii: e21477. doi: 10.7554/eLife.21477. [Epub ahead of print]