Activities of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PrtP proteinase determined by construction of prtP-deficient mutants and expression of the gene in Bacteroides species.
ABSTRACT: PrtP is a major cysteine proteinase of Porphyromonas gingivalis. The gene encoding this proteinase, prtP, was cloned into the Escherichia coli-Bacteroides shuttle vectors pFD288 and pFD340 and was expressed in Bacteroides cells, apparently under the control of its own promoter, when in pFD288, or a Bacteroides promoter present on pFD340. Proteolytically active PrtP was detected by fibrinogen zymography in cells or spent growth medium of several Bacteroides species harboring the recombinant plasmids. The proteinase was recovered from Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285(pFD340-prtP) cells by 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethyl-ammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) extraction and characterized with regard to exopeptidase specificity and sensitivity to proteinase inhibitors. Lys-amidolytic activity, but not Arg-amidolytic activity, was detected. PrtP was activated by cysteine and, to a lesser extent, dithiothreitol, and it was stimulated by glycine-containing compounds. It also was inhibited by Nalpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) and, to a lesser extent, H-D-Tyr-L-Pro-L-arginyl chloromethyl ketone (YPRCK) and was relatively insensitive to EDTA and leupeptin. Neither B. fragilis ATCC 25285(pFD340-prtP) cells nor the CHAPS extract effected hemagglutination of sheep red blood cells or collagen cleavage, but the cells did cleave gelatin. Furthermore, P. gingivalis W12, ATCC 33277, KDP110, and HG66 with knockout mutations in prtP were constructed by allelic replacement. Unlike the parent strains, the mutant strains produced beige colonies on plates containing sheep blood. These strains also were affected in their ability to effect hemagglutination, cleave collagen, and cleave a Lys-specific peptide substrate. This report presents the results of the first characterization of the PrtP proteinase clearly in the absence of any influence by other P. gingivalis proteins and describes the properties of P. gingivalis cells defective in the production of PrtP.
Project description:The cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding porphypain, a cysteine proteinase previously isolated from detergent extracts of the Porphyromonas gingivalis W12 cell surface, are described. The prtP gene encoded a unique protein of 1,732 amino acids, including a putative signal sequence for protein secretion. The predicted molecular mass for the mature protein was 186 kDa, which was close to the observed molecular mass of 180 kDa. There was one copy of prtP in the genomes of seven P. gingivalis strains examined. The gene was located 5' to a region with a high degree of homology to the insertion element IS1126 in P. gingivalis W12. The PrtP protein had regions of high homology to HagA, a hemagglutinin of P. gingivalis, and to several purported proteinases of P. gingivalis that have Arg-X specificity. A detailed comparison of genes encoding the latter and cpgR suggested that rgp-1, prpR1, prtR, agp, cpgR, and possibly prtH were derived from identical genetic loci. Although an rgp-1-like locus was detected in seven P. gingivalis strains by Southern blot analyses, agp and cpgR were not detected, not even in the strains from which they were originally isolated. In addition, at least 20 copies of a repeat region common to PrtP, the Rgp-1-like proteins, and HagA were observed in each of the seven genomes examined. The repeat region hybridization patterns for strains W83 and W50 were very similar, and they were identical for strains 381 and ATCC 33277, providing further evidence that these strains are closely related genetically.
Project description:Interstrain differences in antigenic surface proteins may reflect immunological pressure or differences in receptor specificity of the antigen. Treponema denticola exhibits considerable interstrain variability in its major surface protein (Msp), but no studies have addressed this issue in dentilisin (CTLP), a surface protease complex that has a significant role in T. denticola-host interactions in periodontal disease. Furthermore, the genome annotation of the prcB-prcA-prtP operon encoding dentilisin contains apparent errors and lacks a deduced PrtP amino acid sequence. To address these issues we analysed the protease operon from diverse T. denticola strains, as well as clones of the ATCC 35405 Type strain from which the genome sequence and original GenBank prtP sequence were derived. 6xHis-tagging of the PrtP C-terminus in ATCC 35405 demonstrated absence of the 'authentic frameshift' in PrtP reported in the genome databases. We propose that T. denticola genome annotations be updated to reflect this new information. PrcB and the PrtP N-terminal region that includes the catalytic domain were highly conserved in common laboratory strains and clinical isolates of T. denticola. Dentilisin proteolytic activity varied considerably between strains. Antibodies against PrcB, PrcA and PrtP from the type strain recognized these proteins in most T. denticola strains. PrtP varied up to 20% over the C-terminal 270 residues between strains. The PrtP C-terminal eight-residues (DWFYVEYP) was present in all strains, with two strains containing an additional Y-residue preceding the stop codon. Such conserved PrtP domains may be required for interactions with PrcA and PrcB, or for substrate interactions.
Project description:In our previous study we demonstrated that proteinase PrtP is able to impair bacteriocin LcnB activity, despite being produced by the same organism and encoded by the same plasmid. However, precise mechanism of this action, i.e., the exact cleavage site within LcnB bacteriocin, as well as its effect on antimicrobial activity of the resulting peptide remained vague. Here we further explored the interplay between these two proteins and defined, using mass spectrometry, that this unusual hydrolysis indeed occurs in vivo, between the sixth and seventh amino acid on the N terminus of LcnB. To address whether the cleaved form of LcnB retains any level of activity, both recombinant and chemically synthesized variant of truncated LcnB were engineered and produced, but demonstrated no antimicrobial activity. When LcnB was recombinantly overexpressed and subjected to PrtP digestion, the change in its antimicrobial activity was monitored and the degradation products analyzed with reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The results confirmed the inactivity of the truncated LcnB and additionally corroborated the PrtP cleavage site in LcnB bacteriocin. In addition, it was demonstrated that, once truncated, LcnB is not able to bind its receptor and is susceptible to additional hydrolysis. This is the first report on proteolytic inactivation of bacteriocins inside the same bacterial host.
Project description:The Treponema denticola surface protease complex, consisting of PrtP protease (dentilisin) and two auxiliary polypeptides (PrcA1 and PrcA2), is believed to contribute to periodontal disease by degrading extracellular matrix components and disrupting host intercellular signaling. Previously, we showed that transcription of the protease operon initiates upstream of TDE0760 (herein designated prcB), the open reading frame immediately 5' of prcA-prtP. The prcB gene is conserved in T. denticola strains. PrcB localizes to the detergent phase of Triton X-114 cell surface extracts and migrates as a 22-kDa polypeptide, in contrast to the predicted 17-kDa cytoplasmic protein encoded in the annotated T. denticola genome. Consistent with this observation, the PrcB N terminus is unavailable for Edman sequencing, suggesting that it is acylated. Nonpolar deletion of prcB in T. denticola showed that PrcB is required for production of PrtP protease activity, including native PrtP cleavage of PrcA to PrcA1 and PrcA2. A 6xHis-tagged PrcB protein coimmunoprecipitates with native PrtP, using either anti-PrtP or anti-His-tag antibodies, and recombinant PrtP copurifies with PrcB-6xHis in nickel affinity chromatography. Taken together, these data are consistent with identification of PrcB as a PrtP-binding lipoprotein that likely stabilizes the PrtP polypeptide during localization to the outer membrane.
Project description:Porphyromonas gingivalis is recognized as an important etiologic agent in adult and early-onset periodontal disease. Proteases produced by this organism contribute to its virulence in mice. Protease-encoding genes have been shown to contain multiple copies of repeated nucleotide sequences. These conserved sequences have also been found in hemagglutinin genes. In the process of studying the genetic loci containing the conserved repeated sequences, we have characterized a prtP gene homolog from P. gingivalis W83 encoding a cysteine protease with Lys-X specificity. However, this prtP gene was interrupted by an insertion sequence-like element which we designated IS195. Furthermore, IS195 and another element, IS1126, were present downstream of prtP gene homologs (kgp) found in P. gingivalis H66 and 381. IS195, a 1,068-bp insertion sequence-like element, contained 11-bp inverted repeats at its termini and was bordered by 9-bp direct repeats presumed to be a transposition-mediated target site duplication. Its central region contained one large open reading frame encoding a predicted 300-amino-acid protein which appeared to be a transposase. We isolated two naturally occurring variants of P. gingivalis W83, one carrying IS195 within the coding region of the prtP gene and another containing an intact prtP gene. Biochemical characterization revealed a lack of trypsin-like Lys-X specific proteolytic activity in the P. gingivalis W83 variant carrying the disrupted prtP gene. Studies using a mouse model revealed a reduction of virulence resulting from insertion of IS195 into the coding region of the prtP gene. An allelic-exchange mutant defective in the prtP gene also was constructed and tested in vivo. It displayed intermediate virulence compared to that of the wild-type and prtP::IS195 mutant strains. We conclude that the Lys-X cysteine protease contributes to virulence in soft tissue infections.
Project description:The tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen/hapten Thomsen-nouveau (Tn; a-D-GalpNAc-ONH2) was conjugated to a zwitterionic capsular polysaccharide, PS A1, from commensal anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285/NCTC 9343 for the development of an entirely carbohydrate cancer vaccine construct and probed for immunogenicity. This communication discloses that murine anti-Tn IgG3 antibodies both bind to and recognize human tumor cells that display the Tn hapten. Furthermore, the sera from immunization of mice with Tn-PS A1 contain cytokine interleukin 17 (IL-17A), which is known to possess anti-tumor function and represents a striking difference to an IL-2, and IL-6 profile obtained with anti-PS A1 sera.
Project description:Analysis of potential virulence factors of oral spirochetes focuses on surface and secreted proteins. The Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like protease (CTLP) is implicated in degradation of host cell molecules and contributes to tissue invasion. The CTLP complex, composed of the 72-kDa PrtP protein and two auxiliary proteins with molecular masses of approximately 40 and 30 kDa, is also involved in localization and oligomerization of the T. denticola major surface protein (Msp). The larger auxiliary protein was reported to be encoded by an open reading frame (ORF2) directly upstream of prtP. The deduced 39-kDa translation product of ORF2 contains a sequence matching the N-terminal sequence determined from one of the CTLP complex proteins. No proteins with significant homology are known, nor was information available on the third protein of the complex. DNA sequence analysis showed that ORF2 extended an additional 852 bp upstream of the reported sequence. The complete gene, designated prcA, encodes a predicted N-terminally-acylated polypeptide of approximately 70 kDa. Isogenic mutants with mutations in prtP, prcA, and prcA-prtP all lacked CTLP protease activity. The prcA mutant lacked all three CTLP proteins. The prcA-prtP mutant produced only a C-terminally-truncated 62-kDa PrcA protein. The prtP mutant produced a full-length 70-kDa PrcA. Immunoblot analysis of recombinant PrcA constructs confirmed that PrcA is cleaved to yield the two smaller proteins of the CTLP complex, designated PrcA1 and PrcA2. These data indicate that PrtP is required for cleavage of PrcA and suggest that this cleavage may be required for formation or stability of outer membrane complexes.
Project description:Given the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial strains and the side effects caused by synthetic drugs, it is increasingly important to investigate potential herbal alternatives. In the present study, antimicrobial, cell cytotoxicity, and cleaning tests were performed to evaluate the potential of Fufang Bingpeng irrigant as a root canal irrigant, in addition to q-PCR and high-throughput sequencing analyses. Our in vitro results showed a low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Fufang Bingpeng irrigant against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 (6.25 and 12.5%, respectively), Prevotella intermedius ATCC 25611 (6.25 and 6.25%, respectively), Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25286 (6.25 and 6.25%, respectively), Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 (25 and 25%, respectively), and Bacteriodes fragilis ATCC 25285 (12.5 and 12.5%, respectively). Furthermore, it effectively removed the remaining debris and increased the number of open dentinal tubules in root canals compared to the NaCl irrigant (p < 0.05). Fufang Bingpeng irrigant also presented low cytotoxicity to L929 cells compared to the NaClO irrigant. The in vivo results indicated that all irrigants used significantly reduced the number of bacteria compared to the number prior to treatment, and only 1/104.95 bacteria remained in the root canal following the use of Fufang Bingpeng irrigant (p < 0.001). Moreover, the high-throughput sequencing results indicated that all irrigants markedly enhanced the ? diversity in the root canal compared to the before preparation control group, while Fufang Bingpeng maintained better microbial diversity than other groups. Therefore, Fufang Bingpeng irrigant presents a promising alternative for use as a root canal irrigant in clinical settings.
Project description:A chymotrypsin-like protease from Treponema denticola ATCC 35405 was purified by chromatographic techniques. The purified enzyme consisted of three polypeptides (38, 43, and 72 kDa). The protease exhibited specificity for peptide bonds containing phenylalanine and proline at the P1 and P2 positions, respectively, and was classified as a serine protease on the basis of inhibition studies. Naturally occurring protease inhibitors such as alpha1-antitrypsin and alpha1-antichymotrypsin had no effect on enzymatic activity. The enzyme degraded fibronectin, alpha1-antitrypsin, and gelatin while weakly degrading the immunoglobulin G heavy chain and type IV collagen. N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined for the 43- and 72-kDa proteins. On the basis of these sequences, the genes coding for the 43- and 72-kDa proteins were isolated and sequenced. The open reading frame which codes for the 72-kDa protein was designated prtP. This gene consists of 2,169 bp and codes for a protein with an Mr of 77,471. The protein appeared to be composed of a signal peptide region followed by a prosequence and the mature protein domain. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited similarity with that of the Bacillus subtilis serine protease subtilisin. The deduced properties of the sequence suggest that the 72-kDa protein is a chymotrypsin-like protease. However, the nature and function of the 43-kDa protein have not yet been determined.
Project description:Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative, black-pigmented, oral anaerobe strongly associated with adult periodontitis. Previous transposon mutagenesis studies with this organism were based on the Bacteroides transposon Tn4351. Characterization of Tn4351-disrupted genes by cloning has not been an efficient way to analyze large numbers of mutants and is further complicated by the high rate of cointegration of the suicide delivery vector containing Tn4351. In this study, we mutagenized P. gingivalis with a modified version of the Bacteroides fragilis transposon Tn4400. Plasmid pYT646B carrying the transposon was mobilized from Escherichia coli to P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 by conjugation. Both normal and inverse transposition frequencies were similar (3 x 10(-8)). However, the inverse transposon (Tn4400') contains a pBR322 replicon and a beta-lactamase gene; thus, the cloning of disrupted genomic DNAs from inverse transposition mutants was easily accomplished after ligation of genomic fragments and transformation into E. coli. Thousands of transconjugants could be obtained in a single mating experiment, and inverse transposition was random as demonstrated by Southern hybridization. By this procedure the disrupted genes from P. gingivalis pleiotropic mutants were quickly cloned, sequenced, and identified.