Nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase regulation by nitrogen oxides in Rhodobacter sphaeroides f. sp. denitrificans IL106.
ABSTRACT: We have cloned the nap locus encoding the periplasmic nitrate reductase in Rhodobacter sphaeroides f. sp. denitrificans IL106. A mutant with this enzyme deleted is unable to grow under denitrifying conditions. Biochemical analysis of this mutant shows that in contrast to the wild-type strain, the level of synthesis of the nitrite and N(2)O reductases is not increased by the addition of nitrate. Growth under denitrifying conditions and induction of N oxide reductase synthesis are both restored by the presence of a plasmid containing the genes encoding the nitrate reductase. This demonstrates that R. sphaeroides f. sp. denitrificans IL106 does not possess an efficient membrane-bound nitrate reductase and that nitrate is not the direct inducer for the nitrite and N(2)O reductases in this species. In contrast, we show that nitrite induces the synthesis of the nitrate reductase.
Project description:Hyphomicrobium spp. are commonly identified as major players in denitrification systems supplied with methanol as a carbon source. However, denitrifying Hyphomicrobium species are poorly characterized, and very few studies have provided information on the genetic and physiological aspects of denitrification in pure cultures of these bacteria. This is a comparative study of three denitrifying Hyphomicrobium species, H. denitrificans ATCC 51888, H. zavarzinii ZV622, and a newly described species, H. nitrativorans NL23, which was isolated from a denitrification system treating seawater. Whole-genome sequence analyses revealed that although they share numerous orthologous genes, these three species differ greatly in their nitrate reductases, with gene clusters encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) in H. nitrativorans, a membrane-bound nitrate reductase (Nar) in H. denitrificans, and one Nap and two Nar enzymes in H. zavarzinii. Concurrently with these differences observed at the genetic level, important differences in the denitrification capacities of these Hyphomicrobium species were determined. H. nitrativorans grew and denitrified at higher nitrate and NaCl concentrations than did the two other species, without significant nitrite accumulation. Significant increases in the relative gene expression levels of the nitrate (napA) and nitrite (nirK) reductase genes were also noted for H. nitrativorans at higher nitrate and NaCl concentrations. Oxygen was also found to be a strong regulator of denitrification gene expression in both H. nitrativorans and H. zavarzinii, although individual genes responded differently in these two species. Taken together, the results presented in this study highlight the potential of H. nitrativorans as an efficient and adaptable bacterium that is able to perform complete denitrification under various conditions.
Project description:Denitrification is a respiratory process that produces nitrous oxide as an intermediate, which may escape to the atmosphere before its reduction to dinitrogen through the nitrous oxide reductase NosZ. In this work, the denitrification process carried out by Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 has been explored through a quantitative proteomic analysis. Under anaerobic conditions, with nitrate as sole nitrogen source, the synthesis of all the enzymes involved in denitrification, the respiratory nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide reductases, was increased. However, the periplasmic and assimilatory nitrate reductases decreased. Synthesis of transporters for alcohols, D-methionine, sulfate and copper, most of the enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and proteins involved in other metabolic processes like lysine catabolism, fatty acids degradation and acetyl-CoA synthesis, was increased during denitrification in P. denitrificans PD1222. As consequence, an enhanced production of the central metabolite acetyl-CoA was observed. After establishing the key features of the denitrification proteome, its changes by the influence of a competitive electron acceptor, oxygen, or competitive nitrogen source, ammonium, were evaluated.
Project description:Beller, H. R., T. E. Letain, A. Chakicherla, S. R. Kane, T. C. Legler, and M. A. Coleman. 2006. Whole-genome transcriptional analysis of chemolithoautotrophic thiosulfate oxidation by Thiobacillus denitrificans under aerobic vs. denitrifying conditions. Journal of Bacteriology 188:7005-7015. Thiobacillus denitrificans is one of the few known obligate chemolithoautotrophic bacteria capable of energetically coupling thiosulfate oxidation to denitrification as well as aerobic respiration. As very little is known about the differential expression of genes associated with key chemolithoautotrophic functions (such as sulfur-compound oxidation and CO2 fixation) under aerobic versus denitrifying conditions, we conducted whole-genome, cDNA microarray studies to explore this topic systematically. The microarrays identified 277 genes (approximately ten percent of the genome) as differentially expressed using Robust Multi-array Average statistical analysis and a 2-fold cutoff. Genes upregulated (ca. 6- to 150-fold) under aerobic conditions included a cluster of genes associated with iron acquisition (e.g., siderophore-related genes), a cluster of cytochrome cbb3 oxidase genes, cbbL and cbbS (encoding the large and small subunits of form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, or RubisCO), and multiple molecular chaperone genes. Genes upregulated (ca. 4- to 95-fold) under denitrifying conditions included nar, nir, and nor genes (associated respectively with nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and nitric oxide reductase, which catalyze successive steps of denitrification), cbbM (encoding form II RubisCO), and genes involved with sulfur-compound oxidation (including two physically separated but highly similar copies of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase and of dsrC, associated with dissimilatory sulfite reductase). Among genes associated with denitrification, relative expression levels (i.e., degree of upregulation with nitrate) tended to decrease in the order nar > nir > nor > nos. Reverse transcription, quantitative PCR analysis was used to validate these trends. Keywords: bacterial metabolism Overall design: After growth under either aerobic or denitrifying conditions (at least two successive transfers) with thiosulfate as the electron donor, triplicate cultures were harvested for RNA extraction. The specific rates of thiosulfate oxidation were assessed in all cultures immediately before the harvesting of cells and were comparable under aerobic and denitrifying conditions.
Project description:Nitrite reductase catalyzes the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide, the first step in denitrification to produce a gaseous product. We have cloned the gene nirK, which encodes the copper-type nitrite reductase from a denitrifying variant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, strain 2.4.3. The deduced open reading frame has significant identity with other copper-type nitrite reductases. Analysis of the promoter region shows that transcription initiates 31 bases upstream of the translation start codon. The transcription initiation site is 43.5 bases downstream of a putative binding site for a transcriptional activator. Maximal expression of a nirK-lacZ construct in 2.4.3 requires both a low level of oxygen and the presence of a nitrogen oxide. nirK-lacZ expression was severely impaired in a nitrite reductase-deficient strain of 2.4.3. This suggests that nirK expression is dependent on nitrite reduction. The inability of microaerobically grown nitrite reductase-deficient cells to induce nirK-lacZ expression above basal levels in medium unamended with nitrate demonstrates that changes in oxygen concentrations are not sufficient to modulate nirK expression.
Project description:Nitrate and nitrite transport across biological membranes is often facilitated by protein transporters that are members of the major facilitator superfamily. Paracoccus denitrificans contains an unusual arrangement whereby two of these transporters, NarK1 and NarK2, are fused into a single protein, NarK, which delivers nitrate to the respiratory nitrate reductase and transfers the product, nitrite, to the periplasm. Our complementation studies, using a mutant lacking the nitrate/proton symporter NasA from the assimilatory nitrate reductase pathway, support that NarK1 functions as a nitrate/proton symporter while NarK2 is a nitrate/nitrite antiporter. Through the same experimental system, we find that Escherichia coli NarK and NarU can complement deletions in both narK and nasA in P. denitrificans, suggesting that, while these proteins are most likely nitrate/nitrite antiporters, they can also act in the net uptake of nitrate. Finally, we argue that primary sequence analysis and structural modelling do not readily explain why NasA, NarK1 and NarK2, as well as other transporters from this protein family, have such different functions, ranging from net nitrate uptake to nitrate/nitrite exchange.
Project description:Thiobacillus denitrificans is one of the few known obligate chemolithoautotrophic bacteria capable of energetically coupling thiosulfate oxidation to denitrification as well as aerobic respiration. As very little is known about the differential expression of genes associated with key chemolithoautotrophic functions (such as sulfur compound oxidation and CO2 fixation) under aerobic versus denitrifying conditions, we conducted whole-genome, cDNA microarray studies to explore this topic systematically. The microarrays identified 277 genes (approximately 10% of the genome) as differentially expressed using RMA (robust multiarray average) statistical analysis and a twofold cutoff. Genes upregulated (ca. 6- to 150-fold) under aerobic conditions included a cluster of genes associated with iron acquisition (e.g., siderophore-related genes), a cluster of cytochrome cbb3 oxidase genes, cbbL and cbbS (encoding the large and small subunits of form I ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, or RubisCO), and multiple molecular chaperone genes. Genes upregulated (ca. 4- to 95-fold) under denitrifying conditions included nar, nir, and nor genes (associated, respectively, with nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and nitric oxide reductase, which catalyze successive steps of denitrification), cbbM (encoding form II RubisCO), and genes involved with sulfur compound oxidation (including two physically separated but highly similar copies of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase and of dsrC, associated with dissimilatory sulfite reductase). Among genes associated with denitrification, relative expression levels (i.e., degree of upregulation with nitrate) tended to decrease in the order nar > nir > nor > nos. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis was used to validate these trends.
Project description:Denitrification is a microbial pathway that constitutes an important part of the nitrogen cycle on earth. Denitrifying organisms use nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor and reduce it stepwise to nitrogen gas, a process that produces the toxic nitric oxide (NO) molecule as an intermediate. In this work, we have investigated the possible functional interaction between the enzyme that produces NO; the cd1 nitrite reductase (cd1NiR) and the enzyme that reduces NO; the c-type nitric oxide reductase (cNOR), from the model soil bacterium P. denitrificans. Such an interaction was observed previously between purified components from P. aeruginosa and could help channeling the NO (directly from the site of formation to the side of reduction), in order to protect the cell from this toxic intermediate. We find that electron donation to cNOR is inhibited in the presence of cd1NiR, presumably because cd1NiR binds cNOR at the same location as the electron donor. We further find that the presence of cNOR influences the dimerization of cd1NiR. Overall, although we find no evidence for a high-affinity, constant interaction between the two enzymes, our data supports transient interactions between cd1NiR and cNOR that influence enzymatic properties of cNOR and oligomerization properties of cd1NiR. We speculate that this could be of particular importance in vivo during metabolic switches between aerobic and denitrifying conditions.
Project description:Both membrane-bound and periplasmic nitrate reductases have been found in denitrifying bacteria. Yet the role of periplasmic nitrate reductase in denitrification has not been clearly defined. To analyze the function of the periplasmic nitrate reductase in Pseudomonas sp. strain G-179, the nap gene cluster was identified and found to be linked to genes involved in reduction of nitrite and nitric oxide and anaerobic heme biosynthesis. Mutation in the nap region rendered the cells incapable of growing under anaerobic conditions with nitrate as the alternative electron acceptor. No nitrate reduction activity was detected in the Nap- mutant, but that activity could be restored by complementation with the nap region. Unlike the membrane-bound nitrate reductase, the nitrate reduction activity in strain G-179 was not inhibited by a low concentration of azide. Nor could it use NADH as the electron donor to reduce nitrate or use chlorate as the alternative substrate. These results suggest that the periplasmic nitrate reductase in this strain plays a primary role in dissimilatory nitrate reduction.
Project description:A pleiotropic mutant of Paracoccus denitrificans, which has a severe defect that affects its anaerobic growth when either nitrate, nitrite, or nitrous oxide is used as the terminal electron acceptor and which is also unable to use ethanolamine as a carbon and energy source for aerobic growth, was isolated. This phenotype of the mutant is expressed only during growth on minimal media and can be reversed by addition of cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) or cobinamide to the media or by growth on rich media. Sequence analysis revealed the mutation causing this phenotype to be in a gene homologous to cobK of Pseudomonas denitrificans, which encodes precorrin-6x reductase of the cobalamin biosynthesis pathway. Convergently transcribed with cobK is a gene homologous to cobJ of Pseudomonas denitrificans, which encodes precorrin-3b methyltransferase. The inability of the cobalamin auxotroph to grow aerobically on ethanolamine implies that wild-type P. denitrificans (which can grow on ethanolamine) expresses a cobalamin-dependent ethanolamine ammonia lyase and that this organism synthesizes cobalamin under both aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. Comparison of the cobK and cobJ genes with their orthologues suggests that P. denitrificans uses the aerobic pathway for cobalamin synthesis. It is paradoxical that under anaerobic growth conditions, P. denitrificans appears to use the aerobic (oxygen-requiring) pathway for cobalamin synthesis. Anaerobic growth of the cobalamin auxotroph could be restored by the addition of deoxyribonucleosides to minimal media. These observations provide evidence that P. denitrificans expresses a cobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase, which is essential for growth only under anaerobic conditions.
Project description:Denitrification is a respiratory process by which nitrate is reduced to dinitrogen. Incomplete denitrification results in the emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide and this is potentiated in acidic soils, which display reduced denitrification rates and high N<sub>2</sub>O/N<sub>2</sub> ratios compared to alkaline soils. In this work, impact of pH on the proteome of the soil denitrifying bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 was analysed with nitrate as sole energy and nitrogen source under anaerobic conditions at pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.5. Quantitative proteomic analysis revealed that the highest difference in protein representation was observed when the proteome at pH 6.5 was compared to the reference proteome at pH 7.2. However, this difference in the extracellular pH was not enough to produce modification of intracellular pH, which was maintained at 6.5 ± 0.1. The biosynthetic pathways of several cofactors relevant for denitrification and nitrogen assimilation like cobalamin, riboflavin, molybdopterin and nicotinamide were negatively affected at pH 6.5. In addition, peptide representation of reductases involved in nitrate assimilation and denitrification were reduced at pH 6.5. Data highlight the strong negative impact of pH on NosZ synthesis and intracellular copper content, thus impairing active NosZ assembly and, in turn, leading to elevated nitrous oxide emissions.