Preparation of recombinant human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments specific for Entamoeba histolytica.
ABSTRACT: Genes coding for human antibody Fab fragments specific for Entamoeba histolytica were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Lymphocytes were separated from the peripheral blood of a patient with an amebic liver abscess. Poly(A)+ RNA was isolated from the lymphocytes, and then genes coding for the light chain and Fd region of the heavy chain were amplified by a reverse transcriptase PCR. The amplified DNA fragments were ligated with a plasmid vector and were introduced into Escherichia coli. Three thousand colonies were screened for the production of antibodies to E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS by an indirect fluorescence-antibody (IFA) test. Lysates from five Escherichia coli clones were positive. Analysis of the DNA sequences of the five clones showed that three of the five heavy-chain sequences and four of the five light-chain sequences differed from each other. When the reactivities of the Escherichia coli lysates to nine reference strains of E. histolytica were examined by the IFA test, three Fab fragments with different DNA sequences were found to react with all nine strains and another Fab fragment was found to react with seven strains. None of the four human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments reacted with Entamoeba dispar reference strains or with other enteric protozoan parasites. These results indicate that the bacterial expression system reported here is effective for the production of human monoclonal antibodies specific for E. histolytica. The recombinant human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments may be applicable for distinguishing E. histolytica from E. dispar and for use in the serodiagnosis of amebiasis.
Project description:Entamoeba histolytica causes intestinal disease in endemic settings throughout the world. Diagnosis of E. histolytica infection would be improved by the identification of biomarkers that are expressed by cysts of E. histolytica, but not by cysts of closely related commensal species of Entamoeba. Herein, we describe two novel monoclonal antibodies (1A4 and 1D3) produced against a spacer region of the E. histolytica Jacob2 lectin, an outer cyst wall protein. These reagents demonstrated no cross-reaction to E. dispar recombinant antigen and low picomolar molecular detection limits when paired in ELISA sandwich assays. In an immunofluorescence microscopy assay, the ?-Jacob2 murine antibodies labeled cysts of three xenically cultured E. histolytica isolates but did not label cysts of three E. bangladeshi isolates. Monoclonal antibody 1A4 did not cross-react with xenic cultures of three E. dispar isolates, demonstrating specificity to E. histolytica, while monoclonal antibody 1D3 cross-reacted with two out of three E. dispar isolates. Both antibodies labeled cysts in formalin-fixed slides, a potential logistical advantage in some settings. The monoclonal antibody 1A4 was also used in an immunofluorescence microscopy assay with formalin-fixed stool specimens. Seven out of ten ELISA-positive stool specimens exhibited 1A4-labeled cyst-like objects, compared to one out of seven ELISA-negative specimens. These results demonstrate that antibodies generated against the flexible spacer of E. histolytica Jacob2 lectin recognize and bind to Jacob2 protein in whole cysts and are capable of differentiating Entamoeba species in fixed specimens. Thus, Jacob2 is a promising biomarker for use in diagnosing E. histolytica infection.
Project description:Galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin of Entamoeba histolytica has roles in pathogenicity and induction of protective immunity in rodent models of amoebiasis. Recently, the intermediate subunit of the lectin, Igl1, of E. histolytica has been shown to have hemolytic activity. However, the corresponding lectin is also expressed in a non-virulent species, Entamoeba dispar, and another subunit, Igl2, is expressed in the protozoa. Therefore, in this study, we compared the activities of Igl1 and Igl2 subunits from E. histolytica and E. dispar using various regions of recombinant Igl proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant E. dispar Igl proteins had comparable hemolytic activities with those of E. histolytica Igl proteins. Furthermore, Igl1 gene-silenced E. histolytica trophozoites showed less hemolytic activity compared with vector-transfected trophozoites, indicating that the expression level of Igl1 protein influences the activity. These results suggest that the lower hemolytic activity in E. dispar compared with E. histolytica reflects the lower expression level of Igl1 in the E. dispar parasite.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Six species of the genus Entamoeba, i.e., E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. polecki, E. coli, and E. hartmanii can be found in human stools. Among these, only E. histolytica is considered to be pathogenic, causing intestinal and extra-intestinal disease, but it is morphologically identical to E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. In general, E. polecki, E. coli, and E. hartmanii can be differentiated morphologically from E. histolytica, but some of their diagnostic morphologic features may overlap creating issues for the differential diagnosis. Moreover, the previous inability to differentiate among Entamoeba species has limited epidemiologic information on E histolytica. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, high-throughput screening method using Luminex technique for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Entamoeba species. METHODS: PCR amplification was performed with biotinylated Entamoeba sp 18S rRNA gene primers, designed to amplify a fragment ranging from 382 to 429 bp of the Entamoeba spp studied. Regions of this fragment that could differentiate among E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii, E. dispar, E. hartmanii and E. coli were selected to design hybridization probes to link to Luminex beads. The assay was standardized with cloned DNA samples of each species and evaluated with 24 DNA extracts from samples obtained from individuals diagnosed with these amebas in their stools. RESULTS: Using this approach we were able to correctly identify E. histoltyica, E. dispar, E hartmanni, E. coli and E. moshkovskii in all specimens studied. From twenty four samples tested by microscopy, PCR/DNA Sequencing and real-time PCR, 100% agreed with PCR-Luminex assay for identification of E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. histolytica, and E. coli. CONCLUSION: These results show that this method could be used in the diagnostic detection of Entamoeba spp in fecal samples. This diagnostic test was useful to clearly distinguish E histolytica from other species and also to strengthen epidemiologic data on Entamoeba spp.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mixed intestinal infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and bacteria with exacerbated manifestations of disease are common in regions where amoebiasis is endemic. However, amoeba-bacteria interactions remain largely unexamined. METHODOLOGY: Trophozoites of E. histolytica and E. dispar were co-cultured with enteropathogenic bacteria strains Escherichia coli (EPEC), Shigella dysenteriae and a commensal Escherichia coli. Amoebae that phagocytosed bacteria were tested for a cytopathic effect on epithelial cell monolayers. Cysteine proteinase activity, adhesion and cell surface concentration of Gal/GalNAc lectin were analyzed in amoebae showing increased virulence. Structural and functional changes and induction of IL-8 expression were determined in epithelial cells before and after exposure to bacteria. Chemotaxis of amoebae and neutrophils to human IL-8 and conditioned culture media from epithelial cells exposed to bacteria was quantified. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: E. histolytica digested phagocytosed bacteria, although S. dysenteriae retained 70% viability after ingestion. Phagocytosis of pathogenic bacteria augmented the cytopathic effect of E. histolytica and increased expression of Gal/GalNAc lectin on the amoebic surface and increased cysteine proteinase activity. E. dispar remained avirulent. Adhesion of amoebae and damage to cells exposed to bacteria were increased. Additional increases were observed if amoebae had phagocytosed bacteria. Co-culture of epithelial cells with enteropathogenic bacteria disrupted monolayer permeability and induced expression of IL-8. Media from these co-cultures and human recombinant IL-8 were similarly chemotactic for neutrophils and E. histolytica. CONCLUSIONS: Epithelial monolayers exposed to enteropathogenic bacteria become more susceptible to E. histolytica damage. At the same time, phagocytosis of pathogenic bacteria by amoebae further increased epithelial cell damage. SIGNIFICANCE: The in vitro system presented here provides evidence that the Entamoeba/enteropathogenic bacteria interplay modulates epithelial cell responses to the pathogens. In mixed intestinal infections, where such interactions are possible, they could influence the outcome of disease. The results offer insights to continue research on this phenomenon.
Project description:Intestinal parasitic infections, including those caused by Entamoeba species, are a persistent problem in rural areas of Thailand. The aims of this study were to identify pathogenic Entamoeba species and to analyze their genotypic diversity. Stool samples were collected from 1,233 students of three schools located in the Thai-Myanmar border region of Tak Province, Thailand. The prevalence of Entamoeba infection was measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific primers. Thirty-one (2.5%) positive cases were detected for E. histolytica, 55 (4.5%) for E. dispar, and 271 (22.0%) for E. coli. Positive samples for E. histolytica and E. dispar were exclusively obtained from a few school classes, whereas E. coli was detected in all grades. No infections caused by E. moshkovskii, E. nuttalli, E. chattoni, and E. polecki were detected in the students studied. The D-A locus of tRNA-linked short tandem repeats was analyzed in samples of E. histolytica (n = 13) and E. dispar (n = 47) to investigate their diversity and potential modes of transmission. Five genotypes of E. histolytica and 13 genotypes of E. dispar were identified. Sequences of the D-A were divergent, but several unique genotypes were significantly prevalent in limited classes, indicating that intra-classroom transmission has occurred. As it was unlikely that infection would have been limited within school classes if the mode of transmission of E. histolytica and E. dispar had been through the intake of contaminated drinking water or food, these results suggest a direct or indirect person-to-person transmission mode within school classes. Positive rates for three Entamoeba species were 2-fold higher in students who had siblings in the schools than in those without siblings, suggesting that transmission occurred even at home due to heavy contacts among siblings.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. are intestinal protozoa capable of infecting a range of host species, and are important causes of human morbidity and mortality. Understanding their epidemiology is important, both for public health and for the health of the animals they infect. This study investigated the occurrence of these protozoans in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in India, with the aim of providing preliminary information on the potential for transmission of these pathogens between macaques and humans. Faecal samples (n = 170) were collected from rhesus macaques from four districts of North-West India. Samples were analysed for Giardia/Cryptosporidium using a commercially available direct immunofluorescent antibody test after purification via immunomagnetic separation. Positive samples were characterised by sequencing of PCR products. Occurrence of Entamoeba was investigated first by using a genus-specific PCR, and positive samples further investigated via species-specific PCRs for Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Giardia cysts were found in 31% of macaque samples, with all isolates belonging to Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 1 sample, however this sample did not result in amplification by PCR. Entamoeba spp. were found in 79% of samples, 49% of which were positive for E. coli. Multiplex PCR for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, did not result in amplification in any of the samples. Thus in 51% of the samples positive at the genus specific PCR, the Entamoeba species was not identified. This study provides baseline information on the potential for transmission of these zoonotic parasites at the wildlife-human interface.
Project description:This study investigated the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii in stool samples from a patient population in Sydney, Australia. Stool samples were tested by microscopy and PCR. Five patients were found with E. histolytica infections, while E. dispar and E. moshkovskii were observed in 63 (70.8%) and 55 (61.8%) patients, respectively, by PCR. This is the first study in Australia using molecular techniques to determine the presence of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii.
Project description:Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Specific primers were designed for all three species, and then differentiation of E. histolytica and E. dispar was achieved simultaneously using a hybridization probe and melting curve analysis, whereas E. moshkovskii was detected with a separate probe under the same condition. This assay detected as little as 0.2 pg of E. histolytica DNA and 2 pg each for E. dispar and E. moshkovskii DNA. Thirty-five clinical samples suspected to be E. histolytica infection by microscopy were tested. The results showed 32 positive samples; four samples were E. histolytica and 28 samples were E. dispar. Interestingly, one E. dispar positive sample showed a mixed infection with E. moshkovskii. This is the first report of E. moshkovskii infection from Thailand and this assay is currently the most rapid and sensitive method to differentiate these human amoebas.
Project description:This study aimed to determine the frequency of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infection in school children in the community of Tlaltizapan, in order to understand the dynamics of infection within the school and family spheres of this population. Amoebiasis is an unsolved public health problem and an endemic disease in Mexico. The incidence rate varies depending on the state; the most affected states show the highest numbers of new cases of amoebiasis per year. Previously, we reported the molecular frequency of infection with E. histolytica and/or E. dispar in other rural communities of the state of Morelos.Children from 3 schools were studied to estimate the frequency of intestinal parasites through microscopic examination of fresh stool samples. The number of studied individuals were 309 school children. The molecular characterization of E. histolytica or E. dispar was carried out by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using species-specific primers to amplify short tandem repeats (STR) in non-coding sequences associated with the tRNA gene; the amplified fragments were sequenced and analyzed.Eight different genotypes were obtained from E. dispar isolates with the molecular marker NKD3-D5. None of the cases in which the species E. histolytica was detected developed symptoms attributable to an invasive process of disease. Moreover, the parasitized condition appeared to have no significant impact on the development or nutritional status of affected children. Genotype 1, which corresponds to the reference strain E. dispar SAW760, considered a non-pathogenic amoeba, was the most prevalent.The comparison of the genotypes of Entamoeba species did not show a correlation between children and their relatives. In this community, the species Entamoeba dispar genotype 1 was the most widespread. Based on the indicators of growth, development and nutrition status, the studied community seems to be reasonably adapted to constant exposure to intestinal parasites, since there were no evidences of a serious impact of the parasitized condition on the children's health.
Project description:This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms.