Generation of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against parvovirus B19 proteins.
ABSTRACT: Infections caused by human parvovirus B19 are known to be controlled mainly by neutralizing antibodies. To analyze the immune reaction against parvovirus B19 proteins, four cell lines secreting human immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated from two healthy donors and one human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive individual with high serum titers against parvovirus. One MAb is specific for nonstructural protein NS1 (MAb 1424), two MAbs are specific for the unique region of minor capsid protein VP1 (MAbs 1418-1 and 1418-16), and one MAb is directed to major capsid protein VP2 (MAb 860-55D). Two MAbs, 1418-1 and 1418-16, which were generated from the same individual have identity in the cDNA sequences encoding the variable domains, with the exception of four base pairs resulting in only one amino acid change in the light chain. The NS1- and VP1-specific MAbs interact with linear epitopes, whereas the recognized epitope in VP2 is conformational. The MAbs specific for the structural proteins display strong virus-neutralizing activity. The VP1- and VP2-specific MAbs have the capacity to neutralize 50% of infectious parvovirus B19 in vitro at 0.08 and 0.73 microgram/ml, respectively, demonstrating the importance of such antibodies in the clearance of B19 viremia. The NS1-specific MAb mediated weak neutralizing activity and required 47.7 micrograms/ml for 50% neutralization. The human MAbs with potent neutralizing activity could be used for immunotherapy of chronically B19 virus-infected individuals and acutely infected pregnant women. Furthermore, the knowledge gained regarding epitopes which induce strongly neutralizing antibodies may be important for vaccine development.
Project description:In order to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of parvovirus B19 in human colorectal cancer, plasmids containing the VP1 or VP2 viral capsid proteins or the NS1 non-structural proteins of parvovirus B19 were constructed and transfected into primary human colorectal epithelial cells and LoVo cells. Differential gene expression was detected using a human genome expression array. Functional gene annotation analyses were performed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery v6.7 software. Gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed that VP1-related functions included the immune response, immune system process, defense response and the response to stimulus, while NS1-associated functions were found to include organelle fission, nuclear division, mitosis, the M-phase of the mitotic cell cycle, the mitotic cell cycle, M-phase, cell cycle phase, cell cycle process and cell division. Pathway expression analysis revealed that VP1-associated pathways included cell adhesion molecules, antigen processing and presentation, cytokines and the inflammatory response. Moreover, NS1-associated pathways included the cell cycle, pathways in cancer, colorectal cancer, the wnt signaling pathway and focal adhesion. Among the differential genes detected in the present study, 12 genes were found to participate in general cancer pathways and six genes were observed to participate in colorectal cancer pathways. NS1 is a key molecule in the pathogenic mechanism of parvovirus B19 in colorectal cancer. Several GO categories, pathways and genes were selected and may be the key targets through which parvovirus B19 participates in colorectal cancer pathogenesis.
Project description:Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) suffer life-threatening transient aplastic crisis (TAC) when infected with parvovirus B19. In utero, infection of healthy fetuses may result in anemia, hydrops, and death. Unfortunately, although promising vaccine candidates exist, no product has yet been licensed. One barrier to vaccine development has been the lack of a cost-effective, standardized parvovirus B19 neutralization assay. To fill this void, we evaluated the unique region of VP1 (VP1u), which contains prominent targets of neutralizing antibodies. We discovered an antigenic cross-reactivity between VP1 and VP2 that, at first, thwarted the development of a surrogate neutralization assay. We overcame the cross-reactivity by designing a mutated VP1u (VP1uAT) fragment. A new VP1uAT ELISA yielded results well correlated with neutralization (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.581; <i>p</i> = 0.001), superior to results from a standard clinical diagnostic ELISA or an ELISA with virus-like particles. Virus-specific antibodies from children with TAC, measured by the VP1uAT and neutralization assays, but not other assays, gradually increased from days 0 to 120 post-hospitalization. We propose that this novel and technically simple VP1uAT ELISA might now serve as a surrogate for the neutralization assay to support rapid development of a parvovirus B19 vaccine.
Project description:The transcription map of simian parvovirus (SPV), an Erythrovirus similar to Parvovirus B19, was investigated. RNA was extracted from tissues of experimentally infected cynomolgus macaques and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR with SPV-specific primers. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced to identify splice junctions. A total of 14 distinct sequences were identified as putative partial transcripts. Of these, 13 were spliced; a single unspliced transcript putatively encoded NS1. Sequence analysis revealed that spliced partial transcripts may encode portions of open reading frames for the major capsid proteins VP1 and VP2 and smaller, unknown proteins. These unspliced and spliced transcripts and putative proteins encoded by SPV were similar to those of B19. Initial splice junctions at nucleotides 279 and 333 were analogous to those at nucleotides 406 and 441, respectively, in B19. Seven of the 10 splices identified had typical GT/AG donor/acceptor junctions. The splice sites were confirmed by Northern blotting and autoradiography. In contrast to B19, which has a maximum of two splices per transcript, up to three splices were observed in SPV transcripts. A spliced transcript putatively encoding a truncated version of NS1, as seen with minute virus of mice and adeno-associated virus 2, was also observed. The findings indicate that that the splicing pattern of transcripts of SPV and B19 is similar, but SPV also has coding strategies in common with other parvoviruses.
Project description:Parvovirus B19, one of the most common human pathogens, is a small DNA virus that belongs to the Parvoviridae As a result of previous infections, antibodies to B19 are present in most adults. B19 has a strong tropism to erythroid progenitor cells and is able to cause a series of medical conditions, including fifth disease, arthritis, myocarditis, hydrops fetalis, and aplastic crisis. No approved vaccine is currently available for B19, and there is a lack of structural characterization of any B19 epitopes. Here we present the first cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a B19 virus-like particle (VLP) complexed with the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of a human neutralizing antibody, 860-55D. A model was built into the 3.2-Å-resolution map, and the antigenic residues on the surface of the B19 capsid were identified. Antibody 860-55D bridges the capsid of B19 by binding to a quaternary structure epitope formed by residues from three neighboring VP2 capsid proteins.IMPORTANCE Parvovirus B19 is a common human pathogen and a particular threat to children, pregnant women, and patients with sickle cell disease or AIDS. Currently, neutralizing antibody is the most efficient treatment for acute B19 infections. Research on the antigenic properties of B19 will guide the usage of these antibodies and facilitate vaccine development. We have determined and report here the high-resolution structure of B19 virus-like particles (VLPs) complexed with the Fab of a human neutralizing antibody. The structure shows a quaternary structure epitope formed by three VP2 proteins and provides details on host recognition of human B19 virus.
Project description:Human erythrovirus (parvovirus) B19 (B19) is a common human pathogen. The recent discovery of three genotypes, 1 to 3, raised issues related to the ability of genotype-specific antigens to cross-react with antibodies elicited by other genotypes. This study assessed antibody capture and immunoglobulin G (IgG) cross-reactivity between genotype 1 and genotype 3 recombinant antigens and analyzed the potential gain of adding VP1 protein to VP2 capsid antigen. Plasma samples from genotype 1- or genotype 3-infected populations were blindly tested with blindly prepared reagents. The IgG reactivity was assessed with baculovirus-expressed VP2 or VP1 and VP2 recombinant genotype 1 or genotype 3 proteins in a standardized enzyme immunoassay (EIA). A high degree of agreement (>95%) between EIA results was observed, with Spearman correlation coefficient and kappa reliability coefficient results of >/=0.95 for samples from the United Kingdom and >/=0.77 for samples from Ghanaian children, respectively. Most discrepant results were related to equivocal reactivity. The addition of VP1 to VP2 capsids did not significantly impact antibody detection. These data suggest that the currently available genotype-1-based IgG EIA is suitable to detect antibody to B19 genotype 3 in Ghanaian children. However, samples from the Ghanaian adult population exhibited atypical results in the assay, possibly due to the high levels of nonspecific IgG antibodies found in adults living in this region. Within these limitations, the study demonstrates that genotype 1 and genotype 3 antigens are equally effective in detecting either antibody species.
Project description:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with unknown etiology that impacts various organs including liver. Recently, human parvovirus B19 (B19) is recognized to exacerbate SLE. However, the effects of B19 on liver in SLE are still unclear. Herein we aimed to investigate the effects of B19 on liver in NZB/W F1 mice by injecting subcutaneously with PBS, recombinant B19 NS1, VP1u or VP2, respectively. Our experimental results revealed that B19 NS1 protein significantly enhanced the TGF-?/Smad fibrotic signaling by increasing the expressions of TGF-?, Smad2/3, phosphorylated Smad2/3, Smad4 and Sp1. The consequent fibrosis-related proteins, PAI-1 and ?-SMA, were also significantly induced in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 protein. Accordingly, markedly increased collagen deposition was also observed in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 protein. However, no significant difference was observed in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 VP1u or VP2 as compared to the controls. These findings indicate that B19 NS1 plays a crucial role in exacerbating liver fibrosis in NZB/W F1 mice through enhancing the TGF-â/Smad fibrotic signaling.
Project description:Human parvovirus B19 (B19) has been associated with a variety of diseases. However, the influence of B19 viral proteins on hepatic injury in SLE is still obscure. To elucidate the effects of B19 viral proteins on livers in SLE, recombinant B19 NS1, VP1u or VP2 proteins were injected subcutaneously into NZB/W F1 mice, respectively. Significant expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were detected in NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Markedly hepatocyte disarray and lymphocyte infiltration were observed in livers from NZB/WF 1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Additionally, significant increases of Tumor Necrosis Factor -? (TNF-?), TNF-? receptor, I?B kinase -? (IKK-?), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor (I?B) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) were detected in livers from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Accordingly, significant increases of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and U-plasminogen activator (uPA) were also detected in livers from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Contrarily, no significant variation on livers from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 VP1u or VP2 was observed as compared to those mice receiving PBS. These findings firstly demonstrated the aggravated effects of B19 NS1 but not VP1u or VP2 protein on hepatic injury and provide a clue in understanding the role of B19 NS1 on hepatic injury in SLE.
Project description:Recent reports demonstrated an association of human parvovirus B19 with inflammatory cardiomyopathy (iCMP), which is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. As intracellular Ca(2+) activity is a key regulator of cell function and participates in mechanisms leading to endothelial dysfunction, the present experiments explored the effects of the B19 capsid proteins VP1 and VP2. A secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-like activity has been located in the VP1 unique region of the B19 minor capsid protein. As PLA2 has recently been shown to activate the store-operated or capacitative Ca(2+) channel I(CRAC), we analyzed the impact of the viral PLA2 motif on Ca(2+) entry. We cloned the VP1 and VP2 genes isolated from a patient suffering from fatal B19 iCMP into eukaryotic expression vectors. We also generated a B19 replication-competent plasmid to demonstrate PLA2 activity under the control of the complete B19 genome. After the transfection of human endothelial cells (HMEC-1), cytosolic Ca(2+) activity was determined by utilizing Fura-2 fluorescence. VP1 and VP2 expression did not significantly modify basal cytosolic Ca(2+) activity or the decline of cytosolic Ca(2+) activity following the removal of extracellular Ca(2+). However, expression of VP1 and of the full-length B19 clone, but not of VP2, significantly accelerated the increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) activity following the readdition of extracellular Ca(2+) in the presence of thapsigargin, indicating an activation of I(CRAC.) The effect of VP1 was mimicked by the PLA2 product lysophosphatidylcholine and abolished by an inactivating mutation of the PLA2-encoding region of the VP1 gene. Our observations point to the activation of Ca(2+) entry by VP1 PLA2 activity, an effect likely participating in the pathophysiology of B19 infection.
Project description:Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is pathogenic for humans and has an extreme tropism for human erythroid progenitors. We report cell type-specific expression of the B19V capsid genes (VP1 and VP2) and greatly increased B19V capsid protein production in nonpermissive cells by codon optimization. Codon usage limitation, rather than promoter type and the 3' untranslated region of the capsid genes, appears to be a key factor in capsid protein production in nonpermissive cells. Moreover, B19 virus-like particles were successfully generated in nonpermissive cells by transient transfection of a plasmid carrying both codon-optimized VP1 and VP2 genes.
Project description:The present study aims to clarify the possible involvement of parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis by investigating the presence of B19V infection markers (genomic sequences and virus-specific antibodies) in association with the level of cytokines and RA clinical activity and aggressiveness. A total of 118 RA patients and 49 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Nested PCR was used to detect B19V sequences in whole blood and cell-free plasma DNA, ELISA to detect virus-specific antibodies and cytokine levels in plasma and recomLine dot blot assay for antibodies to separate B19V antigens. The detection frequency of B19V DNA was higher in patients with RA (25.4?%) in comparison with healthy persons (18.4?%). B19V DNA in cell-free plasma (B19+p) was detected significantly often in RA patients in comparison with healthy controls (13.6 vs 2?%; P=0.0002). RA B19+p patients had higher disease activity and aggressiveness, decreased haemoglobin and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rates. IL-6 plasma levels were significantly higher in RA patients than in controls. Within the RA patients' group the IL-6 level was significantly increased in B19+p patients with disease activity scores of DAS28>5.2, high C-reactive protein and low haemoglobin. Contrary to the healthy controls, the majority of RA B19+p patients did not have antibodies to VP-1S (VP1u) and VP-N (N-terminal half of structural proteins VP1 and VP2), which correspond to the epitopes of neutralizing antibodies. These results indicate that B19V infection at least in some patients is involved in RA pathogenesis.