Pichia stipitis genes for alcohol dehydrogenase with fermentative and respiratory functions.
ABSTRACT: Two genes coding for isozymes of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH); designated PsADH1 and PsADH2, have been identified and isolated from Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 genomic DNA by Southern hybridization to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH genes, and their physiological roles have been characterized through disruption. The amino acid sequences of the PsADH1 and PsADH2 isozymes are 80.5% identical to one another and are 71.9 and 74.7% identical to the S. cerevisiae ADH1 protein. They also show a high level identity with the group I ADH proteins from Kluyveromyces lactis. The PsADH isozymes are presumably localized in the cytoplasm, as they do not possess the amino-terminal extension of mitochondrion-targeted ADHs. Gene disruption studies suggest that PsADH1 plays a major role in xylose fermentation because PsADH1 disruption results in a lower growth rate and profoundly greater accumulation of xylitol. Disruption of PsADH2 does not significantly affect ethanol production or aerobic growth on ethanol as long as PsADH1 is present. The PsADH1 and PsADH2 isozymes appear to be equivalent in the ability to convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, and either is sufficient to allow cell growth on ethanol. However, disruption of both genes blocks growth on ethanol. P. stipitis strains disrupted in either PsADH1 or PsADH2 still accumulate ethanol, although in different amounts, when grown on xylose under oxygen-limited conditions. The PsADH double disruptant, which is unable to grow on ethanol, still produces ethanol from xylose at about 13% of the rate seen in the parental strain. Thus, deletion of both PsADH1 and PsADH2 blocks ethanol respiration but not production, implying a separate path for fermentation.
Project description:The various strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis (Pichia stipitis) differ substantially with respect to their ability to ferment xylose into ethanol. Two P. stipitis strains CBS 5773 and CBS 6054 have been most often used in literature but comparison of their performance in xylose fermentation under identical conditions has not been reported so far. Conversion of xylose (22 g/L) by each of these P. stipitis strain was analyzed under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions. Ethanol yields of ?0.41 g/g were independent of strain and conditions used. Glycerol and acetate were formed in constant yields of 0.006 g/g and 0.02 g/g, respectively. Xylitol formation decreased from ?0.08 g/g to ?0.05 g/g upon switch from anaerobic to microaerobic conditions. Specific activities of enzymes of the two-step oxidoreductive xylose conversion pathway (xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase) matched for both strains within limits of error. When xylose was offered at 76 g/L under microaerobic reaction conditions, ethanol yields were still high (0.37-0.39 g/g) for both strains even though the xylitol yields (0.12-0.13 g/g) were increased as compared to the conditions of low xylose concentration. P. stipitis strains CBS 5773 and CBS 6054 are therefore identical by the criteria selected and show useful performance during conversion of xylose into ethanol, irrespective of the supply of oxygen.
Project description:XYL3, which encodes a D-xylulokinase (EC 22.214.171.124), was isolated from Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 genomic DNA by using primers designed against conserved motifs. Disruption of XYL3 eliminated D-xylulokinase activity, but D-ribulokinase activity was still present. Southern analysis of P. stipitis genomic DNA with XYL3 as a probe confirmed the disruption and did not reveal additional related genes. Disruption of XYL3 stopped ethanol production from xylose, but the resulting mutant still assimilated xylose slowly and formed xylitol and arabinitol. These results indicate that XYL3 is critical for ethanol production from xylose but that P. stipitis has another pathway for xylose assimilation. Expression of XYL3 using its P. stipitis promoter increased Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-xylulose consumption threefold and enabled the transformants to produce ethanol from a mixture of xylose and xylulose, whereas the parental strain only accumulated xylitol. In vitro, D-xylulokinase activity in recombinant S. cerevisiae was sixfold higher with a multicopy than with a single-copy XYL3 plasmid, but ethanol production decreased with increased copy number. These results confirmed the function of XYL3 in S. cerevisiae.
Project description:As one of the best xylose utilization microorganisms, Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibits great potential for the efficient lignocellulosic biomass fermentation. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of its unique physiological and metabolic characteristics is required to further improve its performance on cellulosic ethanol production.A constraint-based genome-scale metabolic model for S. stipitis CBS 6054 was developed on the basis of its genomic, transcriptomic and literature information. The model iTL885 consists of 885 genes, 870 metabolites, and 1240 reactions. During the reconstruction process, 36 putative sugar transporters were reannotated and the metabolisms of 7 sugars were illuminated. Essentiality study was conducted to predict essential genes on different growth media. Key factors affecting cell growth and ethanol formation were investigated by the use of constraint-based analysis. Furthermore, the uptake systems and metabolic routes of xylose were elucidated, and the optimization strategies for the overproduction of ethanol were proposed from both genetic and environmental perspectives.Systems biology modelling has proven to be a powerful tool for targeting metabolic changes. Thus, this systematic investigation of the metabolism of S. stipitis could be used as a starting point for future experiment designs aimed at identifying the metabolic bottlenecks of this important yeast.
Project description:Investigation of whole genome gene expression level changes in Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 grown aerobically in xylose, compared to the same strain grown aerobically in glucose. Overall design: A six array study using total RNA recovered from three separate cultures of Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 grown in glucose and three separate cultures of Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 grown in xylose. Each array measures the expression level of 374,100 probes (average probe length 53.6 +/- 4.1 nt) tiled across the Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 genome with a median spacing distance of 33 nt. During data processing, probes are filtered to include only those probes corresponding to annotated protein-coding genes.
Project description:Investigation of whole genome gene expression level changes in Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 grown aerobically in xylose, compared to the same strain grown aerobically in glucose. A six array study using total RNA recovered from three separate cultures of Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 grown in glucose and three separate cultures of Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 grown in xylose. Each array measures the expression level of 374,100 probes (average probe length 53.6 +/- 4.1 nt) tiled across the Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 genome with a median spacing distance of 33 nt. During data processing, probes are filtered to include only those probes corresponding to annotated protein-coding genes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fermentation of xylose, the major component in hemicellulose, is essential for economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. The yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis (formerly known as Pichia stipitis) has the highest known native capacity for xylose fermentation and possesses several genes for lignocellulose bioconversion in its genome. Understanding the metabolism of this yeast at a global scale, by reconstructing the genome scale metabolic model, is essential for manipulating its metabolic capabilities and for successful transfer of its capabilities to other industrial microbes. RESULTS: We present a genome-scale metabolic model for Scheffersomyces stipitis, a native xylose utilizing yeast. The model was reconstructed based on genome sequence annotation, detailed experimental investigation and known yeast physiology. Macromolecular composition of Scheffersomyces stipitis biomass was estimated experimentally and its ability to grow on different carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus sources was determined by phenotype microarrays. The compartmentalized model, developed based on an iterative procedure, accounted for 814 genes, 1371 reactions, and 971 metabolites. In silico computed growth rates were compared with high-throughput phenotyping data and the model could predict the qualitative outcomes in 74% of substrates investigated. Model simulations were used to identify the biosynthetic requirements for anaerobic growth of Scheffersomyces stipitis on glucose and the results were validated with published literature. The bottlenecks in Scheffersomyces stipitis metabolic network for xylose uptake and nucleotide cofactor recycling were identified by in silico flux variability analysis. The scope of the model in enhancing the mechanistic understanding of microbial metabolism is demonstrated by identifying a mechanism for mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: The genome-scale metabolic model developed for Scheffersomyces stipitis successfully predicted substrate utilization and anaerobic growth requirements. Useful insights were drawn on xylose metabolism, cofactor recycling and mechanism of mitochondrial respiration from model simulations. These insights can be applied for efficient xylose utilization and cofactor recycling in other industrial microorganisms. The developed model forms a basis for rational analysis and design of Scheffersomyces stipitis metabolic network for the production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass.
Project description:Microbial conversion of renewable raw materials to useful products is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. Pichia stipitis, a yeast that naturally ferments xylose, was genetically engineered for l-(+)-lactate production. We constructed a P. stipitis strain that expressed the l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from Lactobacillus helveticus under the control of the P. stipitis fermentative ADH1 promoter. Xylose, glucose, or a mixture of the two sugars was used as the carbon source for lactate production. The constructed P. stipitis strain produced a higher level of lactate and a higher yield on xylose than on glucose. Lactate accumulated as the main product in xylose-containing medium, with 58 g/liter lactate produced from 100 g/liter xylose. Relatively efficient lactate production also occurred on glucose medium, with 41 g/liter lactate produced from 94 g/liter glucose. In the presence of both sugars, xylose and glucose were consumed simultaneously and converted predominantly to lactate. Lactate was produced at the expense of ethanol, whose production decreased to approximately 15 to 30% of the wild-type level on xylose-containing medium and to 70 to 80% of the wild-type level on glucose-containing medium. Thus, LDH competed efficiently with the ethanol pathway for pyruvate, even though the pathway from pyruvate to ethanol was intact. Our results show, for the first time, that lactate production from xylose by a yeast species is feasible and efficient. This is encouraging for further development of yeast-based bioprocesses to produce lactate from lignocellulosic raw material.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pichia stipitis and Pichia pastoris have long been investigated due to their native abilities to metabolize every sugar from lignocellulose and to modulate methanol consumption, respectively. The latter has been driving the production of several recombinant proteins. As a result, significant advances in their biochemical knowledge, as well as in genetic engineering and fermentation methods have been generated. The release of their genome sequences has allowed systems level research. RESULTS: In this work, genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) of P. stipitis (iSS884) and P. pastoris (iLC915) were reconstructed. iSS884 includes 1332 reactions, 922 metabolites, and 4 compartments. iLC915 contains 1423 reactions, 899 metabolites, and 7 compartments. Compared with the previous GEMs of P. pastoris, PpaMBEL1254 and iPP668, iLC915 contains more genes and metabolic functions, as well as improved predictive capabilities. Simulations of physiological responses for the growth of both yeasts on selected carbon sources using iSS884 and iLC915 closely reproduced the experimental data. Additionally, the iSS884 model was used to predict ethanol production from xylose at different oxygen uptake rates. Simulations with iLC915 closely reproduced the effect of oxygen uptake rate on physiological states of P. pastoris expressing a recombinant protein. The potential of P. stipitis for the conversion of xylose and glucose into ethanol using reactors in series, and of P. pastoris to produce recombinant proteins using mixtures of methanol and glycerol or sorbitol are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion the first GEM of P. stipitis (iSS884) was reconstructed and validated. The expanded version of the P. pastoris GEM, iLC915, is more complete and has improved capabilities over the existing models. Both GEMs are useful frameworks to explore the versatility of these yeasts and to capitalize on their biotechnological potentials.
Project description:The ascomycetes Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis metabolize the pentose sugar xylose very differently. S. cerevisiae fails to grow on xylose, while C. albicans can grow, and S. stipitis can both grow and ferment xylose to ethanol. However, all three species contain highly similar genes that encode potential xylose reductases and xylitol dehydrogenases required to convert xylose to xylulose, and xylulose supports the growth of all three fungi. We have created C. albicans strains deleted for the xylose reductase gene GRE3, the xylitol dehydrogenase gene XYL2, as well as the gre3 xyl2 double mutant. As expected, all the mutant strains cannot grow on xylose, while the single gre3 mutant can grow on xylitol. The gre3 and xyl2 mutants are efficiently complemented by the XYL1 and XYL2 from S. stipitis. Intriguingly, the S. cerevisiae GRE3 gene can complement the Cagre3 mutant, while the ScSOR1 gene can complement the Caxyl2 mutant, showing that S. cerevisiae contains the enzymatic capacity for converting xylose to xylulose. In addition, the gre3 xyl2 double mutant of C. albicans is effectively rescued by the xylose isomerase (XI) gene of either Piromyces or Orpinomyces, suggesting that the XI provides an alternative to the missing oxido-reductase functions in the mutant required for the xylose-xylulose conversion. Overall this work suggests that C. albicans strains engineered to lack essential steps for xylose metabolism can provide a platform for the analysis of xylose metabolism enzymes from a variety of species, and confirms that S. cerevisiae has the genetic potential to convert xylose to xylulose, although non-engineered strains cannot proliferate on xylose as the sole carbon source.
Project description:Xylose reductase from the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis was purified to electrophoretic and spectral homogeneity via ion-exchange, affinity and high-performance gel chromatography. The enzyme was active with various aldose substrates, such as DL-glyceraldehyde, L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-ribose, D-galactose and D-glucose. Hence the xylose reductase of Pichia stipitis is an aldose reductase (EC 126.96.36.199). Unlike all aldose reductases characterized so far, the enzyme from this yeast was active with both NADPH and NADH as coenzyme. The activity with NADH was approx. 70% of that with NADPH for the various aldose substrates. NADP+ was a potent inhibitor of both the NADPH- and NADH-linked xylose reduction, whereas NAD+ showed strong inhibition only with the NADH-linked reaction. These results are discussed in the context of the possible use of Pichia stipitis and similar yeasts for the anaerobic conversion of xylose into ethanol.