Nodulation of Lupinus albus by strains of Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov.
ABSTRACT: The nodulation of legumes has for more than a century been considered an exclusive capacity of a group of microorganisms commonly known as rhizobia and belonging to the alpha-Proteobacteria. However, in the last 3 years four nonrhizobial species, belonging to alpha and beta subclasses of the Proteobacteria, have been described as legume-nodulating bacteria. In the present study, two fast-growing strains, LUP21 and LUP23, were isolated from nodules of Lupinus honoratus. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates belong to the genus Ochrobactrum. The strains were able to reinfect Lupinus plants. A plasmid profile analysis showed the presence of three plasmids. The nodD and nifH genes were located on these plasmids, and their sequences were obtained. These sequences showed a close resemblance to the nodD and nifH genes of rhizobial species, suggesting that the nodD and nifH genes carried by strain LUP21T were acquired by horizontal gene transfer. A polyphasic study including phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular features of the strains isolated in this study showed that they belong to a new species of the genus Ochrobactrum for which we propose the name Ochrobactrum lupini sp. nov. Strain LUP21T (LMG 20667T) is the type strain.
Project description:Rhizobia are the common bacterial symbionts that form nitrogen-fixing root nodules in legumes. However, recently other bacteria have been shown to nodulate and fix nitrogen symbiotically with these plants. Neptunia natans is an aquatic legume indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions and in African soils is nodulated by Allorhizobium undicola. This legume develops an unusual root-nodule symbiosis on floating stems in aquatic environments through a unique infection process. Here, we analyzed the low-molecular-weight RNA and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence of the same fast-growing isolates from India that were previously used to define the developmental morphology of the unique infection process in this symbiosis with N. natans and found that they are phylogenetically located in the genus Devosia, not Allorhizobium or RHIZOBIUM: The 16S rDNA sequences of these two Neptunia-nodulating Devosia strains differ from the only species currently described in that genus, Devosia riboflavina. From the same isolated colonies, we also located their nodD and nifH genes involved in nodulation and nitrogen fixation on a plasmid of approximately 170 kb. Sequence analysis showed that their nodD and nifH genes are most closely related to nodD and nifH of Rhizobium tropici, suggesting that this newly described Neptunia-nodulating Devosia species may have acquired these symbiotic genes by horizontal transfer.
Project description:Root mat of cucumbers and tomatoes has previously been shown to be caused by Agrobacterium radiobacter strains harboring a root-inducing Ri plasmid (pRi). Nine other pRi-harboring alpha-Proteobacteria have subsequently been isolated from root mat-infected crops. Fatty acid profiling and partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis identified three of these strains as being in the genus Ochrobactrum, five as being in the genus Rhizobium, and one as being in the genus Sinorhizobium: An in vitro pathogenicity test involving inoculation of cucumber cotyledons was developed. All pRi-harboring alpha-Proteobacteria induced typical root mat symptoms from the cotyledons. Average transformation rates for rhizogenic Ochrobactrum (46%) and Rhizobium (44%) strains were lower than those observed for rhizogenic A. radiobacter strains (64%). However, individual strains from these three genera all had transformation rates comparable to those observed from cotyledons inoculated with a rhizogenic Sinorhizobium strain (75%).
Project description:Phenotypic and DNA sequence comparisons are presented for eight Rhizobium isolates that were cultured from field-grown alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Oregon. These isolates were previously shown to nodulate both alfalfa and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) Savi.). The objective of the present study was to determine their phylogenetic relationships to the normal symbionts of these plants, Rhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, respectively. Phenotypically, the Oregon isolates more nearly resemble strains from P. vulgaris than those from M. sativa. For example, even though nitrogen fixation levels were low with both host species, the symbiotic efficiency of a representative Rhizobium isolate (Or 191) with common bean was twice that observed with alfalfa. Comparative sequencing of a 260-bp segment of the 16S rRNA gene (directly sequenced after amplification by the polymerase chain reaction) demonstrated that Or 191 is not closely related to the type strain of R. meliloti (ATCC 9930), R. leguminosarum (ATCC 10004), or Rhizobium tropici (CIAT 899). Instead, sequence comparisons of the 16S gene indicated that Or 191 belongs to a distinct and previously unrecognized taxonomic group that includes strains that have previously been called R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli type I. Unlike type I strains, however, Or 191 has only a single copy of the nifH gene (type I strains have three), and the nucleotide sequence of this gene is substantially different from those of other rhizobial and nonrhizobial nifH genes examined thus far.
Project description:Rhizobium tropici strains are able to nodulate a wide range of host plants: Phaseolus vulgaris, Leucaena spp., and Macroptilium atropurpureum. We studied the nodD regulatory gene for nodulation of two R. tropici strains: CIAT899, the reference R. tropici type IIb strain, and BR816, a heat-tolerant strain isolated from Leucaena leucocephala. A survey revealed several nodD-hybridizing DNA regions in both strains: five distinct regions in CIAT899 and four distinct regions in BR816. Induction experiments of a nodABC-uidA fusion in combination with different nodD-hybridizing fragments in the presence of root exudates of the different hosts indicate that one particular nodD copy contributes to nodulation gene induction far more than any other nodD copy present. The nucleotide sequences of both nodD genes are reported here and show significant homology to those of the nodD genes of other rhizobia and a Bradyrhizobium strain. A dendrogram based on the protein sequences of 15 different NodD proteins shows that the R. tropici NodD proteins are linked most closely to each other and then to the NodD of Rhizobium phaseoli 8002.
Project description:Micromonospora strains have been isolated from diverse niches, including soil, water, and marine sediments and root nodules of diverse symbiotic plants. In this work, we report the genome sequence of Micromonospora lupini Lupac 08 isolated from root nodules of the wild legume Lupinus angustifolious.
Project description:Some methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are known to be capable of expressing nitrogenase and utilizing N2 as a nitrogen source. However, no sequences are available for nif genes in these strains, and the known nitrogen-fixing methanotrophs are confined mainly to a few genera. The purpose of this work was to assess the nitrogen-fixing capabilities of a variety of methanotroph strains. nifH gene fragments from four type I methanotrophs and seven type II methanotrophs were PCR amplified and sequenced. Nitrogenase activity was confirmed in selected type I and type II strains by acetylene reduction. Activities ranged from 0.4 to 3.3 nmol/min/mg of protein. Sequence analysis shows that the nifH sequences from the type I and type II strains cluster with nifH sequences from other gamma proteobacteria and alpha proteobacteria, respectively. The translated nifH sequences from three Methylomonas strains show high identity (95 to 99%) to several published translated environmental nifH sequences PCR amplified from rice roots and a freshwater lake. The translated nifH sequences from the type II strains show high identity (94 to 99%) to published translated nifH sequences from a variety of environments, including rice roots, a freshwater lake, an oligotrophic ocean, and forest soil. These results provide evidence for nitrogen fixation in a broad range of methanotrophs and suggest that nitrogen-fixing methanotrophs may be widespread and important in the nitrogen cycling of many environments.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida strain AJ and Ochrobactrum strain TD were isolated from hazardous waste sites based on their ability to use vinyl chloride (VC) as the sole source of carbon and energy under aerobic conditions. Strains AJ and TD also use ethene and ethylene oxide as growth substrates. Strain AJ contained a linear megaplasmid (approximately 260 kb) when grown on VC or ethene, but it contained no circular plasmids. While strain AJ was growing on ethylene oxide, it was observed to contain a 100-kb linear plasmid, and its ability to use VC as a substrate was retained. The linear plasmids in strain AJ were cured, and the ability of strain AJ to consume VC, ethene, and ethylene oxide was lost following growth on a rich substrate (Luria-Bertani broth) through at least three transfers. Strain TD contained three linear plasmids, ranging in size from approximately 90 kb to 320 kb, when growing on VC or ethene. As with strain AJ, the linear plasmids in strain TD were cured following growth on Luria-Bertani broth and its ability to consume VC and ethene was lost. Further analysis of these linear plasmids may help reveal the pathway for VC biodegradation in strains AJ and TD and explain why this process occurs at many but not all sites where groundwater is contaminated with chloroethenes. Metabolism of VC and ethene by strains AJ and TD is initiated by an alkene monooxygenase. Their yields during growth on VC (0.15 to 0.20 mg of total suspended solids per mg of VC) are similar to the yields reported for other isolates (i.e., Mycobacterium sp., Nocardioides sp., and Pseudomonas sp.).
Project description:Thirty-one nodulating rhizobium strains were collected from root nodules of spring and winter type faba bean cultivars grown in micro ecoarea, i.e. the same field in Chengdu plain, China. The symbiotic efficiency and phylogeny of these strains were studied. Effectively nitrogen fixing strains were isolated from both winter type and spring type cultivars. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and concatenated sequence of atpD, glnII and recA genes, the isolates were assigned as Rhizobium anhuiense and a potential new Rhizobium species. The isolates were diverse on symbiosis related gene level, carrying five, four and three variants of nifH, nodC and nodD, respectively. Strains carrying similar gene combinations were trapped by both winter and spring cultivars, disagreeing with the specificity of symbiotic genotypes to reported earlier faba bean ecotypes.
Project description:The diversity and phylogeny of nodA and nifH genes were studied by using 52 rhizobial isolates from Acacia senegal, Prosopis chilensis, and related leguminous trees growing in Africa and Latin America. All of the strains had similar host ranges and belonged to the genera Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium, as previously determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The restriction patterns and a sequence analysis of the nodA and nifH genes divided the strains into the following three distinct groups: sinorhizobia from Africa, sinorhizobia from Latin America, and mesorhizobia from both regions. In a phylogenetic tree also containing previously published sequences, the nodA genes of our rhizobia formed a branch of their own, but within the branch no correlation between symbiotic genes and host trees was apparent. Within the large group of African sinorhizobia, similar symbiotic gene types were found in different chromosomal backgrounds, suggesting that transfer of symbiotic genes has occurred across species boundaries. Most strains had plasmids, and the presence of plasmid-borne nifH was demonstrated by hybridization for some examples. The nodA and nifH genes of Sinorhizobium teranga ORS1009T grouped with the nodA and nifH genes of the other African sinorhizobia, but Sinorhizobium saheli ORS609T had a totally different nodA sequence, although it was closely related based on the 16S rRNA gene and nifH data. This might be because this S. saheli strain was originally isolated from Sesbania sp., which belongs to a different cross-nodulation group than Acacia and Prosopis spp. The factors that appear to have influenced the evolution of rhizobial symbiotic genes vary in importance at different taxonomic levels.
Project description:Twenty Mimosa-nodulating bacterial strains from Brazil and Venezuela, together with eight reference Mimosa-nodulating rhizobial strains and two other beta-rhizobial strains, were examined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. They fell into 16 patterns and formed a single cluster together with the known beta-rhizobia, Burkholderia caribensis, Burkholderia phymatum, and Burkholderia tuberum. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 15 of the 20 strains were determined, and all were shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia; four distinct clusters could be discerned, with strains isolated from the same host species usually clustering very closely. Five of the strains (MAP3-5, Br3407, Br3454, Br3461, and Br3469) were selected for further studies of the symbiosis-related genes nodA, the NodD-dependent regulatory consensus sequences (nod box), and nifH. The nodA and nifH sequences were very close to each other and to those of B. phymatum STM815, B. caribensis TJ182, and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 but were relatively distant from those of B. tuberum STM678. In addition to nodulating their original hosts, all five strains could also nodulate other Mimosa spp., and all produced nodules on Mimosa pudica that had nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activities and structures typical of effective N2-fixing symbioses. Finally, both wild-type and green fluorescent protein-expressing transconjugant strains of Br3461 and MAP3-5 produced N2-fixing nodules on their original hosts, Mimosa bimucronata (Br3461) and Mimosa pigra (MAP3-5), and hence this confirms strongly that Burkholderia strains can form effective symbioses with legumes.