Chromosomal regions specific to pathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli have a phylogenetically clustered distribution.
ABSTRACT: We studied the ancestry of virulence-associated genes in Escherichia coli by examining chromosomal regions specific to pathogenic isolates. The four virulence determinants examined were the alpha-hemolysin (hly) loci hlyI and hlyII, the type II capsule gene cluster kps, and the P (pap) and S (sfa) fimbria gene clusters. All four loci were shown previously to be associated with pathogenicity islands of uropathogenic E. coli isolates. The hly, kps, sfa, and pap regions each have an unexpected clustered distribution among the E. coli collection of reference (ECOR) strains, but all these regions were absent from a collection of diarrheagenic E. coli isolates. Strains in the ECOR subgroup B2 typically had a combination of at least three of the four loci, and all strains in subgroup D had a copy of the kps and pap clusters. In contrast, only four strains in subgroup A had either hly, kps, sfa, or pap, and no subgroup A strains had all four together. Strains of subgroup B1 were devoid of all four virulence regions, with the exception of one isolate that had a copy of the sfa gene cluster. This phylogenetic distribution of strain-specific sequences corresponds to the ECOR groups with the largest genome size, namely, B2 and D. We propose that the pathogenicity islands are ancestral to subgroups B2 and D and were acquired after speciation, with subsequent horizontal transfer into some group A, B1, and E lineages. These results suggest that the hly, kps, sfa, and pap pathogenicity determinants may play a role in the evolution of enteric bacteria quite apart from, and perhaps with precedence over, their ability to cause disease.
Project description:Chromosomal DNAs of enterohemorrhagic, uropathogenic, and laboratory attenuated Escherichia coli strains differ in the rpoS-mutS region. Many uropathogens lack a deletion and an insertion characteristic of enterohemorrhagic strains. At the same chromosomal position, they harbor a 2.1-kb insertion of unknown origin with a base composition suggestive of horizontal gene transfer. Unlike virulence determinants associated with urinary tract infection and/or neonatal meningitis (pap or prs, sfa, kps, and hly), the 2.1-kb insertion is shared by all group B2 strains of the E. coli Reference Collection.
Project description:To assess the implication of the genetic background of Escherichia coli strains in the emergence of extended-spectrum-Beta -lactamases (ESBL), 55 TEM-, 52 CTX-M-, and 22 SHV-type ESBL-producing clinical isolates involved in various extraintestinal infections or colonization were studied in terms of phylogenetic group, virulence factor (VF) content (pap, sfa/foc, hly, and aer genes), and fluoroquinolone resistance. A factorial analysis of correspondence showed that SHV type, and to a lesser extent TEM type, were preferentially observed in B2 phylogenetic group strains that exhibited numerous VFs but were fluoroquinolone-susceptible, whereas the newly emerged CTX-M type was associated with the D phylogenetic group strains that lacked VF but were fluoroquinolone-resistant. Thus, the emergence of ESBL-producing E. coli seems to be the result of complex interactions between the type of ESBL, genetic background of the strain, and selective pressures in ecologic niches.
Project description:Specific virulence factors associated with the pathogenesis of Escherichia coli strains causing neonatal meningitis (ECNM), such as the K1 capsular polysaccharide, the S fimbriae, and the Ibe10 protein, have been previously identified. However, some other yet unidentified factors are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of ECNM. To identify specialized unique DNA regions associated with ECNM virulence, we used the representational difference analysis technique. The genomes of two strains belonging to nonpathogenic phylogenetic group A of the ECOR reference collection were subtracted from E. coli strain C5, isolated from a case of neonatal meningitis. Strain C5 belongs to the phylogenetic group B2 as do the majority of ECNM. We have isolated and mapped 64 DNA fragments which are specific for strain C5 and not found in nonpathogenic strains. Of these clones, 44 were clustered in six distinct regions on the chromosome. The sfa and ibe10 genes were located in regions 2 and 6, respectively. A group of genes (cnf1, hra, hly, and prs) known to be present in a pathogenicity island of the uropathogenic strain E. coli J96 colocalized with region 6. The occurrence of these DNA regions was tested in a set of meningitis-associated strains and in a control group composed of non-meningitis-associated strains belonging to the same B2 group. Regions 1, 3, and 4 were present in 91, 82, and 81%, respectively, of the meningitis strains and in 40, 13, and 47% of the control strains. Together, these data suggest that regions 1, 3, and 4 code for factors associated with the ability of E. coli to invade the meninges of neonates.
Project description:Four distinct Escherichia coli immunoglobulin-binding (eib) genes, each of which encodes a surface-exposed protein that binds immunoglobulins in a nonimmune manner, are carried by separate prophages in E. coli reference (ECOR) strain ECOR-9. Each eib gene was transferred to test E. coli strains, both in the form of multicopy recombinant plasmids and as lysogenized prophage. The derived lysogens express little or no Eib protein, in sharp contrast to the parental lysogen, suggesting that ECOR-9 has an expression-enhancing activity that the derived lysogens lack. Supporting this hypothesis, we cloned from ECOR-9 overlapping genes, ibrA and ibrB (designation is derived from "immunoglobulin-binding regulator"), which together activated eib expression in the derived lysogens. The proteins encoded by ibrA and ibrB are very similar to uncharacterized proteins encoded by genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and E. coli O157:H7 (in a prophage-like element of the Sakai strain and in two O islands of strain EDL933). The genomic segment containing ibrA and ibrB has been designated the IbrAB island. It contains regions of homology to the Shiga toxin-converting prophage, Stx2, as well as genes homologous to phage antirepressor genes. The left boundary between the IbrAB island and the chromosomal framework is located near min 35.8 of the E. coli K-12 genome. Homology to IbrAB was found in certain other ECOR strains, including the other five eib-positive strains and most strains of the phylogenetic group B2. Sequencing of a 1.1-kb portion of ibrAB revealed that the other eib-positive strains diverge by </=0.1% from ECOR-9, whereas eib-negative ECOR-47 diverges by 16%.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A set of 1181 E. coli strains of human fecal origin isolated in the South Moravia region of the Czech Republic was collected during the years 2007-2010. Altogether, 17 virulence determinants and 31 bacteriocin-encoding genes were tested in each of them. RESULTS: The occurrence of bacteriocin-encoding genes was found to be positively correlated with the occurrence of E. coli virulence factors. Based on the presence of virulence factors and their combinations, E. coli strains were classified as non-pathogenic E. coli (n?=?399), diarrhea-associated E. coli (n?=?179) and ExPEC strains (n?=?603). Non-pathogenic and diarrhea-associated E. coli strains had a low frequency of bacteriocinogeny (32.6% and 36.9%, respectively). ExPEC strains encoding S-fimbriae (sfa), P-fimbriae (pap) and having genes for aerobactin biosynthesis (aer, iucC), ?-hemolysis (?-hly) and cytotoxic necrosis factor (cnf1) were often bacteriocinogenic (73.8%), had a high prevalence of bacteriocin multi-producers and showed a higher frequency of genes encoding microcins H47, M, V, B17 and colicins E1, Ia and S4. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of bacteriocin-encoding genes and ExPEC virulence determinants correlate positively in E. coli strains of human fecal origin. Bacteriocin synthesis appears to modulate the ability of E. coli strains to reside in the human intestine and/or the virulence of the corresponding strains.
Project description:Multilocus sequencing of housekeeping genes has been used previously for bacterial strain typing and for inferring evolutionary relationships among strains of Escherichia coli. In this study, we used shorter intergenic sequences that contained simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of repeating mononucleotide motifs (mononucleotide repeats [MNRs]) to infer the phylogeny of pathogenic and commensal E. coli strains. Seven noncoding loci (four MNRs and three non-SSRs) were sequenced in 27 strains, including enterohemorrhagic (six isolates of O157:H7), enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, B, and K-12 strains. The four MNRs were also sequenced in 20 representative strains of the E. coli reference (ECOR) collection. Sequence polymorphism was significantly higher at the MNR loci, including the flanking sequences, indicating a higher mutation rate in the sequences flanking the MNR tracts. The four MNR loci were amplifiable by PCR in the standard ECOR A, B1, and D groups, but only one (yaiN) in the B2 group was amplified, which is consistent with previous studies that suggested that B2 is the most ancient group. High sequence compatibility was found between the four MNR loci, indicating that they are in the same clonal frame. The phylogenetic trees that were constructed from the sequence data were in good agreement with those of previous studies that used multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The results demonstrate that MNR loci are useful for inferring phylogenetic relationships and provide much higher sequence variation than housekeeping genes. Therefore, the use of MNR loci for multilocus sequence typing should prove efficient for clinical diagnostics, epidemiology, and evolutionary study of bacteria.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Uropathogenic E. coli is the leading cause of Urinary tract infections (UTIs), contributing to 80-90% of all community-acquired and 30-50% of all hospital-acquired UTIs. Biofilm forming Uropathogenic E. coli are associated with persistent and chronic inflammation leading to complicated and or recurrent UTIs. Biofilms provide an environment for poor antibiotic penetration and horizontal transfer of virulence genes which favors the development of Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). Understanding biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance determinants of Uropathogenic E. coli strains will provide insight into the development of treatment options for biofilm-associated UTIs. The aim of this study was to determine the biofilm forming capability, presence of virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Uropathogenic E. coli isolates in Uganda. METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study carried in the Clinical Microbiology and Molecular biology laboratories at the Department of Medical Microbiology, Makerere University College of Health Sciences. We randomly selected 200 Uropathogenic E. coli clinical isolates among the stored isolates collected between January 2018 and December 2018 that had significant bacteriuria (>?105?CFU). All isolates were subjected to biofilm detection using the Congo Red Agar method and Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby disk diffusion method. The isolates were later subjected PCR for the detection of Urovirulence genes namely; Pap, Fim, Sfa, Afa, Hly and Cnf, using commercially designed primers. RESULTS:In this study, 62.5% (125/200) were positive biofilm formers and 78% (156/200) of these were multi-drug resistant (MDR). The isolates were most resistant to Trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole and Amoxicillin (93%) followed by gentamycin (87%) and the least was imipenem (0.5%). Fim was the most prevalent Urovirulence gene (53.5%) followed by Pap (21%), Sfa (13%), Afa (8%), Cnf (5.5%) and Hyl (0%). CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrate a high prevalence of biofilm-forming Uropathogenic E. coli strains that are highly associated with the MDR phenotype. We recommend routine surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation to understand the antibiotics suitable in the management of biofilm-associated UTIs.
Project description:Wild birds can be colonized by bacteria, which are often resistant to antibiotics and have various virulence profiles. The aim of this study was to analyze antibiotic resistance mechanisms and virulence profiles in relation to the phylogenetic group of E. coli strains that were isolated from the GI tract of wildfowl. Out of 241 faecal samples, presence of E. coli resistant to a cephalosporin (ESBL/AmpC) was estimated for 33 isolates (13,7%). Based on the analysis of the coexistence of 4 genes encoding ESBLs/AmpC (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaAmpC) and class 1 and 2 integrons genes (intI1, intI2) a subset of two resistance profiles was observed among the investigated E. coli isolates carrying blaAmpC, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M, blaTEM, class 1 and 2 integrons, respectively. The E. coli isolates were categorized into 4 phylogenetic groups A (39.4%), B2 (24.25%), D (24.25%) and B1 (12.1%). The pathogenic B2 and D groups were mainly typical for the Laridae family. Among the 28 virulence factors (Vfs) detected in pathogenic phylogenetic groups B2 and D, 7 were exclusively found in those groups (sfa, vat, tosA, tosB, hly, usp, cnf), while 4 VFs (fecA, fyuA, irp2, kspMTII) showed a statistically significant association (P≤0.05) with phylogroups A and B1. Our results indicated that strains belonging to commensal phylogroups A/B1 possess extensive iron acquisition systems (93,9%) and autotransporters (60,6%), typical for pathogens, hence we suggest that these strains evolve towards higher levels of virulence. This study, which is a point assessment of the virulence and drug resistance potential of wild birds, confirms the importance of taking wild birds as a reservoir of strains that pose a growing threat to humans. The E. coli analyzed in our study derive from different phylogenetic groups and possess an arsenal of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors that contribute to their ability to cause diseases.
Project description:The potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients to damage the integrity of the intestinal epithelium was investigated.E. coli strains isolated from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy controls were tested for virulence capacity by molecular techniques and cytotoxic assays and transepithelial electric resistance (TER). E. coli isolate p19A was selected, and deletion mutants were created for alpha-hemolysin (α-hemolysin) (hly) clusters and cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (cnf1). Probiotic E. coli Nissle and pathogenic E. coli LF82 were used as controls.E. coli strains from patients with active UC completely disrupted epithelial cell tight junctions shortly after inoculation. These strains belong to phylogenetic group B2 and are all α-hemolysin positive. In contrast, probiotic E. coli Nissle, pathogenic E. coli LF82, four E. coli from patients with inactive UC and three E. coli strains from healthy controls did not disrupt tight junctions. E. coli p19A WT as well as cnf1, and single loci of hly mutants from cluster I and II were all able to damage Caco-2 (Heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma) cell tight junctions. However, this phenotype was lost in a mutant with knockout (Δ) of both hly loci (P<0.001).UC-associated E. coli producing α-hemolysin can cause rapid loss of tight junction integrity in differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers. This effect was abolished in a mutant unable to express α-hemolysin. These results suggest that high Hly expression may be a mechanism by which specific strains of E. coli pathobionts can contribute to epithelial barrier dysfunction and pathophysiology of disease in IBD.
Project description:The primary habitat of the Escherichia coli species is the gut of warm-blooded vertebrates. The E. coli species is structured into four main phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2, and D. We estimated the relative proportions of these phylogroups in the feces of 137 wild and domesticated animals with various diets living in the Ile de France (Paris) region by real-time PCR. We distinguished three main clusters characterized by a particular abundance of two or more phylogroups within the E. coli animal commensal populations, which we called "enterocolitypes" by analogy with the enterotypes defined in the human gut microbiota at the genus level. These enterocolitypes were characterized by a dominant (>50%) B2, B1, or A phylogroup and were associated with different host species, diets, and habitats: wild and herbivorous species (wild rabbits and deer), domesticated herbivorous species (domesticated rabbits, horses, sheep, and cows), and omnivorous species (boar, pigs, and chickens), respectively. By analyzing retrospectively the data obtained using the same approach from 98 healthy humans living in Ile de France (Smati et al. 2013, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79, 5005-5012), we identified a specific human enterocolitype characterized by the dominant and/or exclusive (>90%) presence of phylogroup B2. We then compared B2 strains isolated from animals and humans, and revealed that human and animal strains differ regarding O-type and B2 subgroup. Moreover, two genes, sfa/foc and clbQ, were associated with the exclusive character of strains, observed only in humans. In conclusion, a complex network of interactions exists at several levels (genus and intra-species) within the intestinal microbiota.