MppA, a periplasmic binding protein essential for import of the bacterial cell wall peptide L-alanyl-gamma-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate.
ABSTRACT: Mutants of a diaminopimelic acid (Dap)-requiring strain of Escherichia coli were isolated which failed to grow on media in which Dap was replaced by the cell wall murein tripeptide, L-alanyl-gamma-D-glutamyl-mesodiaminopimelate. In one such mutant, which is oligopeptide permease (Opp) positive, we have identified a new gene product, designated MppA (murein peptide permease A), that is about 46% identical to OppA, the periplasmic binding protein for Opp. A plasmid carrying the wild-type mppA gene allows the mutant to grow on tripeptide. Two other mutants that failed to grow on tripeptide were resistant to triornithine toxicity, indicating a defect in the opp operon. An E. coli strain whose entire opp operon was deleted but which carried the mppA locus was unable to grow on murein tripeptide unless it was provided with oppBCDF genes in trans. Our data suggest a model whereby the periplasmic MppA binds the murein tripeptide, which is then transported into the cytoplasm via membrane-bound and cytoplasmic OppBCDF. In assessing the affinity of MppA for non-cell wall peptides, we have found that proline auxotrophy can be satisfied with the peptide Pro-Phe-Lys, which utilizes either MppA or OppA in conjunction with OppBCDF for its uptake. Thus, MppA, OppA, and perhaps the third OppA paralog revealed by the E. coli genome sequence may each bind a particular family of peptides but interact with common membrane-associated components for transport of their bound ligands into the cell. As to the physiological function of MppA, the possibility that it may be involved in signal transduction pathway(s) is discussed.
Project description:The oligopeptide permease (Opp) of Escherichia coli is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that uses the substrate-binding protein (SBP) OppA to bind peptides and deliver them to the membrane components (OppBCDF) for transport. OppA binds conventional peptides 2-5 residues in length regardless of their sequence, but does not facilitate transport of the cell wall component murein tripeptide (Mtp, L-Ala-?-D-Glu-meso-Dap), which contains a D-amino acid and a ?-peptide linkage. Instead, MppA, a homologous substrate-binding protein, forms a functional transporter with OppBCDF for uptake of this unusual tripeptide. Here we have purified MppA and demonstrated biochemically that it binds Mtp with high affinity (K(D) ? 250 nM). The crystal structure of MppA in complex with Mtp has revealed that Mtp is bound in a relatively extended conformation with its three carboxylates projecting from one side of the molecule and its two amino groups projecting from the opposite face. Specificity for Mtp is conferred by charge-charge and dipole-charge interactions with ionic and polar residues of MppA. Comparison of the structure of MppA-Mtp with structures of conventional tripeptides bound to OppA, reveals that the peptide ligands superimpose remarkably closely given the profound differences in their structures. Strikingly, the effect of the D-stereochemistry, which projects the side chain of the D-Glu residue at position 2 in the direction of the main chain in a conventional tripeptide, is compensated by the formation of a ?-linkage to the amino group of diaminopimelic acid, mimicking the peptide bond between residues 2 and 3 of a conventional tripeptide.
Project description:Periplasmic ligand-binding proteins (PBPs) bind ligands with a high affinity and specificity. They undergo a large conformational change upon ligand binding, and they have a robust protein fold. These physical features have made them ideal candidates for use in protein engineering projects to develop novel biosensors and signaling molecules. The Escherichia coli MppA (murein peptide permease A) PBP binds the murein tripeptide, l-alanyl-?-d-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate, (l-Ala-?-d-Glu-meso-Dap), which contains both a D-amino acid and a gamma linkage between two of the amino acids. We have solved a high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of E. coli MppA at 1.5 Å resolution in the unliganded, open conformation. Now, structures are available for this member of the PBP protein family in both the liganded/closed form and the unliganded/open form.
Project description:Escherichia coli strain TP985, which has an insertional mutation in the gene for the periplasmic murein tripeptide binding protein MppA, was previously reported to overproduce MarA and exhibit a multiple-antibiotic resistance (Mar) phenotype (H. Li and J. T. Park, J. Bacteriol. 181:4842-4847, 1999). We found that TP985 contained a previously unrecognized marR mutation which was responsible for the Mar phenotype. Transduction of the mppA mutation from TP985 to another wild-type strain did not affect antibiotic susceptibility. Overproduction of MppA repressed marA transcription in TP985 but not in other mppA or marR mutants. Therefore, TP985 contains an additional unknown mutation(s) that facilitates the repression of marA expression by MppA.
Project description:Oligopeptides internalized by oligopeptide permease (Opp) transporters play key roles in bacterial nutrition, signaling, and virulence. To date, two opp operons, opp-1 and opp-2, have been identified in Staphylococcus aureus. Systematic in silico analysis of 11 different S. aureus genomes revealed the existence of two new opp operons, opp-3 and opp-4, plus an opp-5A gene encoding a putative peptide-binding protein. With the exception of opp-4, the opp operons were present in all S. aureus strains. Within a single strain, the different opp operons displayed little sequence similarity and distinct genetic organization. Transcriptional studies showed that opp-1, opp-2, opp-3, and opp-4 operons were polycistronic and that opp-5A is monocistronic. We designed a minimal chemically defined medium for S. aureus RN6390 and showed that all opp genes were expressed but at different levels. Where tested, OppA protein production paralleled transcriptional profiles. opp-3, which encodes proteins most similar to known peptide transport proteins, displayed the highest expression level and was the only transporter to be regulated by specific amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine. Defined deletion mutants in one or several peptide permeases were constructed and tested for their capacity to grow in peptide-containing medium. Among the four putative Opp systems, Opp-3 was the only system able to provide oligopeptides for growth, ranging in length from 3 to 8 amino acids. Dipeptides were imported exclusively by DtpT, a proton-driven di- and tripeptide permease. These data provide a first complete inventory of the peptide transport systems opp and dtpT of S. aureus. Among them, the newly identified Opp-3 appears to be the main Opp system supplying the cell with peptides as nutritional sources.
Project description:The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila is a mutualist of Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes and a pathogen of insects. Presently, it is not known what nutrients the bacterium uses to thrive in these host environments. In other symbiotic bacteria, oligopeptide permeases have been shown to be important in host interactions, and we therefore sought to determine if oligopeptide uptake is essential for growth or symbiotic functions of X. nematophila in laboratory or host environments. We identified an X. nematophila oligopeptide permease (opp) operon of two sequential oppA genes, predicted to encode oligopeptide-binding proteins, and putative permease-encoding genes oppB, oppC, oppD, and oppF. Peptide-feeding studies indicated that this opp operon encodes a functional oligopeptide permease. We constructed strains with mutations in oppA(1), oppA(2), or oppB and examined the ability of each mutant strain to grow in a peptide-rich laboratory medium and to interact with the two hosts. We found that the opp mutant strains had altered growth phenotypes in the laboratory medium and in hemolymph isolated from larval insects. However, the opp mutant strains were capable of initiating and maintaining both mutualistic and pathogenic host interactions. These data demonstrate that the opp genes allow X. nematophila to utilize peptides as a nutrient source but that this function is not essential for the existence of X. nematophila in either of its host niches. To our knowledge, this study represents the first experimental analysis of the role of oligopeptide transport in mediating a mutualistic invertebrate-bacterium interaction.
Project description:The oligopeptide permease (Opp) of group A streptococci (GAS) is a membrane-associated protein and belongs to the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. It is encoded by a polycistronic operon containing oppA, oppB, oppC, oppD, and oppF. The biological function of these genes in GAS is poorly understood. In order to understand more about the effects of Opp on GAS virulence factors, an oppA isogenic mutant was constructed by using an integrative plasmid to disrupt the opp operon and confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. No transcript was detected in the oppA isogenic mutant by Northern blot analysis and reverse transcriptase PCR. The growth curve for the oppA isogenic mutant was similar to that for wild-type strain A-20. The oppA isogenic mutant not only decreased the transcription of speB, speX, and rofA but also increased the transcription of speF, sagA (streptolysin S-associated gene A), slo (streptolysin O), pel (pleotrophic effect locus), and dppA (dipeptide permease). No effects on the transcription of emm, sda, speJ, speG, rgg, and csrR were found. The phenotypes of the oppA mutant were restored by the oppA revertant and by the complementation strain. The oppA mutant caused less mortality and tissue damage than the wild-type strain when inoculated into BALB/c mice via an air pouch. Based on these data, we suggest that the opp operon plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GAS infection.
Project description:Peptidoglycan, the sugar-amino acid polymer that composes the bacterial cell wall, requires a significant expenditure of energy to synthesize and is highly immunogenic. To minimize the loss of an energetically expensive metabolite and avoid host detection, bacteria often recycle their peptidoglycan, transporting its components back into the cytoplasm, where they can be used for subsequent rounds of new synthesis. The peptidoglycan-recycling substrate binding protein (SBP) MppA, which is responsible for recycling peptidoglycan fragments in Escherichia coli, has not been annotated for most intracellular pathogens. One such pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, has a limited capacity to synthesize amino acids de novo and therefore must obtain oligopeptides from its host cell for growth. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the putative C. trachomatis oligopeptide transporter OppABCDF (OppABCDF Ct ) encodes multiple SBPs (OppA1 Ct , OppA2 Ct , and OppA3 Ct ). Intracellular pathogens often encode multiple SBPs, while only one, OppA, is encoded in the E. coli opp operon. We hypothesized that the putative OppABCDF transporter of C. trachomatis functions in both oligopeptide transport and peptidoglycan recycling. We coexpressed the putative SBP genes (oppA1Ct , oppA2Ct , oppA3Ct ) along with oppBCDFCt in an E. coli mutant lacking the Opp transporter and determined that all three chlamydial OppA subunits supported oligopeptide transport. We also demonstrated the in vivo functionality of the chlamydial Opp transporter in C. trachomatis Importantly, we found that one chlamydial SBP, OppA3 Ct , possessed dual substrate recognition properties and is capable of transporting peptidoglycan fragments (tri-diaminopimelic acid) in E. coli and in C. trachomatis These findings suggest that Chlamydia evolved an oligopeptide transporter to facilitate the acquisition of oligopeptides for growth while simultaneously reducing the accumulation of immunostimulatory peptidoglycan fragments in the host cell cytosol. The latter property reflects bacterial pathoadaptation that dampens the host innate immune response to Chlamydia infection.
Project description:In nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), the oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA) serves as the substrate-binding protein (SBP) of the oligopeptide transport system responsible for the import of peptides. We solved the crystal structure of nthiOppA in complex with hydrophobic peptides of various sizes. Our novel hexapeptide complex demonstrates the flexibility of the nthiOppA-binding cavity to expand and accommodate the longer peptide while maintaining similar protein-peptide interactions of smaller peptide complexes. In addition to acquiring peptides from the host environment, as a heme auxotroph NTHi utilizes host hemoproteins as a source of essential iron. OppA is a member of the Cluster C SBP family, and unlike other SBP families, some members recognize two distinctly different substrates. DppA (dipeptide), MppA (murein tripeptide), and SapA (antimicrobial peptides) are Cluster C proteins known to also transport heme. We observed nthiOppA shares this heme-binding characteristic and established heme specificity and affinity by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the four Cluster C proteins in NTHi. Ligand-docking studies predicted a distinct heme-specific cleft in the binding pocket, and using SPR competition assays, we observed that heme does not directly compete with peptide in the substrate-binding pocket. Additionally, we identified that the individual nthiOppA domains differentially contribute to substrate binding, with one domain playing a dominant role in heme binding and the other in peptide binding. Our results demonstrate the multisubstrate specificity of nthiOppA and the role of NTHi Cluster C proteins in the heme-uptake pathway for this pathogen.
Project description:We identified a new oligopeptide permease operon in the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. This opp operon consists of five genes (oppA, oppB, oppC, oppD, and oppF) and displays the same genetic organization as those of several bacterial species. The first gene of this operon, oppA, encodes a 62-kDa protein sharing 33% identity with OppA of Bacillus subtilis and is expressed predominantly during exponential growth. The function of oppA was studied by constructing an oppA deletion mutant. The phenotype analysis of this mutant revealed that OppA mediates the transport of oligopeptides and is required for bacterial growth at low temperature. The wild-type phenotype was restored by complementing the mutant with oppA. We also found that OppA is involved in intracellular survival in macrophages and in bacterial growth in organs of mice infected with L. monocytogenes, although the level of virulence was not altered in the mutant. These results show the major role of OppA in the uptake of oligopeptides and the pleiotropic effects of this oligopeptide-binding protein on the behavior of this pathogen in the environment and in its host.
Project description:Moraxella catarrhalis is a strict human pathogen that causes otitis media in children and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults, resulting in significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. M. catarrhalis has a growth requirement for arginine; thus, acquiring arginine is important for fitness and survival. M. catarrhalis has a putative oligopeptide permease ABC transport operon (opp) consisting of five genes (oppB, oppC, oppD, oppF, and oppA), encoding two permeases, two ATPases, and a substrate binding protein. Thermal shift assays showed that the purified recombinant substrate binding protein OppA binds to peptides 3 to 16 amino acid residues in length regardless of the amino acid composition. A mutant in which the oppBCDFA gene cluster is knocked out showed impaired growth in minimal medium where the only source of arginine came from a peptide 5 to 10 amino acid residues in length. Whether methylated arginine supports growth of M. catarrhalis is important in understanding fitness in the respiratory tract because methylated arginine is abundant in host tissues. No growth of wild-type M. catarrhalis was observed in minimal medium in which arginine was present only in methylated form, indicating that the bacterium requires l-arginine. An oppA knockout mutant showed marked impairment in its capacity to persist in the respiratory tract compared to the wild type in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. We conclude that the Opp system mediates both uptake of peptides and fitness in the respiratory tract.