Purification of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Zymomonas mobilis and identification and sequence analysis of the corresponding genes.
ABSTRACT: The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex of the gram-negative bacterium Zymomonas mobilis was purified to homogeneity. From 250 g of cells, we isolated 1 mg of PDH complex with a specific activity of 12.6 U/mg of protein. Analysis of subunit composition revealed a PDH (E1) consisting of the two subunits E1alpha (38 kDa) and E1beta (56 kDa), a dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) of 48 kDa, and a lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) of 50 kDa. The E2 core of the complex is arranged to form a pentagonal dodecahedron, as shown by electron microscopic images, resembling the quaternary structures of PDH complexes from gram-positive bacteria and eukaryotes. The PDH complex-encoding genes were identified by hybridization experiments and sequence analysis in two separate gene regions in the genome of Z. mobilis. The genes pdhAalpha (1,065 bp) and pdhAbeta (1,389 bp), encoding the E1alpha and E1beta subunits of the E1 component, were located downstream of the gene encoding enolase. The pdhB (1,323 bp) and lpd (1,401 bp) genes, encoding the E2 and E3 components, were identified in an unrelated gene region together with a 450-bp open reading frame (ORF) of unknown function in the order pdhB-ORF2-lpd. Highest similarities of the gene products of the pdhAalpha, pdhAbeta, and pdhB genes were found with the corresponding enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotes. Like the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferases of S. cerevisiae and numerous other organisms, the product of the pdhB gene contains a single lipoyl domain. The E1beta subunit PDH was found to contain an amino-terminal lipoyl domain, a property which is unique among PDHs.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) adapts to persist in a nutritionally limited macrophage compartment. Lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd), the third enzyme (E3) in Mtb's pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH), also serves as E1 of peroxynitrite reductase/peroxidase (PNR/P), which helps Mtb resist host-reactive nitrogen intermediates. In contrast to Mtb lacking dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT), the E2 of PDH and PNR/P, Lpd-deficient Mtb is severely attenuated in wild-type and immunodeficient mice. This suggests that Lpd has a function that DlaT does not share. When DlaT is absent, Mtb upregulates an Lpd-dependent branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKADH) encoded by pdhA, pdhB, pdhC, and lpdC. Without Lpd, Mtb cannot metabolize branched-chain amino acids and potentially toxic branched-chain intermediates accumulate. Mtb deficient in both DlaT and PdhC phenocopies Lpd-deficient Mtb. Thus, Mtb critically requires BCKADH along with PDH and PNR/P for pathogenesis. These findings position Lpd as a potential target for anti-infectives against Mtb.
Project description:The aceEF-lpd operon of Escherichia coli encodes the pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1p), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2p) and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDH complex). A thermoinducible expression system was developed to amplify a variety of genetically restructured PDH complexes, including those containing three, two, one and no lipoyl domains per E2p chain. Although large quantities of the corresponding complexes were produced, they had only 20-50% of the predicted specific activities. The activities of the E1p components were diminished to the same extent, and this could account for the shortfall in overall complex activity. Thermoinduction was used to express a mutant PDH complex in which the putative active-site histidine residue of the E2p component (His-602) was replaced by cysteine in the H602C E2p component. This substitution abolished dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase activity of the complex without affecting other E2p functions. The results support the view that His-602 is an active-site residue. The inactivation could mean that the histidine residue performs an essential role in the acetyltransferase reaction mechanism, or that the reaction is blocked by an irreversible modification of the cysteine substituent. Complementation was observed between the H602C PDH complex and a complex that is totally deficient in lipoyl domains, both in vitro, by the restoration of overall complex activity in mixed extracts, and in vivo, from the nutritional independence of strains that co-express the two complexes from different plasmids.
Project description:Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (ODH) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complexes catalyze key reactions in central metabolism, and in Corynebacterium glutamicum there is indication of an unusual supercomplex consisting of AceE (E1), AceF (E2), and Lpd (E3) together with OdhA. OdhA is a fusion protein of additional E1 and E2 domains, and odhA orthologs are present in all Corynebacterineae, including, for instance, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we show that deletion of any of the individual domains of OdhA in C. glutamicum resulted in loss of ODH activity, whereas PDH was still functional. On the other hand, deletion of AceF disabled both PDH activity and ODH activity as well, although isolated AceF protein had solely transacetylase activity and no transsuccinylase activity. Surprisingly, the isolated OdhA protein was inactive with 2-oxoglutarate as the substrate, but it gained transsuccinylase activity upon addition of dihydrolipoamide. Further enzymatic analysis of mutant proteins and mutant cells revealed that OdhA specifically catalyzes the E1 and E2 reaction to convert 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) but fully relies on the lipoyl residues provided by AceF involved in the reactions to convert pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. It therefore appears that in the putative supercomplex in C. glutamicum, in addition to dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase E3, lipoyl domains are also shared, thus confirming the unique evolutionary position of bacteria such as C. glutamicum and M. tuberculosis.
Project description:The archaeon Haloferax volcanii was previously shown to contain and transcribe the genes for a 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase (OADH) complex, but their presence remained a mystery because no enzymatic activity with any of the known OADH substrates could be found, and an inactivation of one of the genes did not lead to any phenotype. Here we report the identification of an additional oadh gene cluster in the genome of H. volcanii. In contrast to previously known oadh loci, it contains three genes, oadh2A1, oadh2A2, and oadh2ld, with coding capacity for the E1alpha and E1beta subunits and an unattached lipoyl domain, but it is devoid of the genes for a complete E2 and an E3. The genes were isolated by complementation of a nitrate respiration-deficient mutant of H. volcanii and therefore were shown to be functional in vivo. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the deduced E1alpha and E1beta subunits of OADH2 group with bacterial acetoin dehydrogenases but not with the OADH1 subunits, and thus, H. volcanii has obtained the two gene groups independently. Comparison of the wild type and the mutant allowed us to exclude a function of OADH2 in the aerobic or anaerobic degradation of acetoin or glucose. Instead, it could be shown that OADH2 is important during nitrate-respirative growth on Casamino Acids. Many physiological and biochemical experiments failed to indicate that OADH2 uses any of the previously known OADH substrates. Growth potentials of the mutant were markedly different in media with a single carbon source versus media with mixed carbon sources.
Project description:The human (h) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (hPDC) consists of multiple copies of several components: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2), dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), E3-binding protein (BP), and specific kinases and phosphatases. Mammalian PDC has a well organized structure with an icosahedral symmetry of the central E2/BP core to which the other component proteins bind non-covalently. Both hE2 and hBP consist of three well defined domains, namely the lipoyl domain, the subunit-binding domain and the inner domain, connected with flexible linkers. hE1 (alpha(2)beta(2)) binds to the subunit-binding domain of hE2; whereas hE3 binds to the E3-binding domain of hBP. Among several residues of the C-terminal surface of the hE1beta E1betaD289 was found to interact with hE2K276. The C-terminal residue I329 of the hE1beta did not participate in binding to hE2. This latter finding shows specificity in the interaction between E1beta and E2 in hPDC. The selective binding between hE3 and the E3-binding domain of hBP was investigated using specific mutants. E3R460G and E3340K showed significant reductions in affinity for hBP as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Both residues are involved in the structural organization of the binding site on hE3. Substitution of I157, N137 and R155 of hBP resulted in variable increases in the K(D) for binding with wild-type hE3, suggesting that the binding results from several weak electrostatic bonds and hydrophobic interactions among residues of hBP with residues at the interface of dimeric hE3. These results provide insight in the mono-specificity of binding of E1 to E2 and E3 to BP in hPDC and showed the differences in the binding of peripheral components (E1 and E3) in human and bacterial PDCs.
Project description:Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase is a flavoenzyme that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of reduced lipoyl substrates with the reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. In vivo, the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3) is associated with the pyruvate, ?-ketoglutarate, and glycine dehydrogenase complexes. The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex connects the glycolytic flux to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and is central to the regulation of primary metabolism. Regulation of PDH via regulation of the E3 component by the NAD(+)/NADH ratio represents one of the important physiological control mechanisms of PDH activity. Furthermore, previous experiments with the isolated E3 component have demonstrated the importance of pH in dictating NAD(+)/NADH ratio effects on enzymatic activity. Here, we show that a three-state mechanism that represents the major redox states of the enzyme and includes a detailed representation of the active-site chemistry constrained by both equilibrium and thermodynamic loop constraints can be used to model regulatory NAD(+)/NADH ratio and pH effects demonstrated in progress-curve and initial-velocity data sets from rat, human, Escherichia coli, and spinach enzymes. Global fitting of the model provides stable predictions to the steady-state distributions of enzyme redox states as a function of lipoamide/dihydrolipoamide, NAD(+)/NADH, and pH. These distributions were calculated using physiological NAD(+)/NADH ratios representative of the diverse organismal sources of E3 analyzed in this study. This mechanistically detailed, thermodynamically constrained, pH-dependent model of E3 provides a stable platform on which to accurately model multicomponent enzyme complexes that implement E3 from a variety of organisms.
Project description:A deletion in vitro can be made in the aceEF-lpd operon encoding the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli, which causes deletion of two of the three homologous lipoyl domains that comprise the N-terminal half of each dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2p) polypeptide chain. An active complex is still formed and 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of this modified complex revealed that many of the unusually sharp resonances previously attributed to conformationally mobile segments in the wild-type E2p polypeptide chains had correspondingly disappeared. A further deletion was engineered in the long (alanine + proline)-rich segment of polypeptide chain that linked the one remaining lipoyl domain to the C-terminal half of the E2p chain. 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of the resulting enzyme complex, which was also active, revealed a further corresponding loss in the unusually sharp resonances observed in the spectrum. These experiments strongly support the view that the sharp resonances derive, principally at least, from the three long (alanine + proline)-rich sequences which separate the three lipoyl domains and link them to the C-terminal half of the E2p chain. Closer examination of the 400 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectra of the wild-type and restructured complexes, and of the products of limited proteolysis, revealed another sharp but smaller resonance. This was tentatively attributed to another, but smaller, (alanine + proline)-rich sequence that separates the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-binding domain from the inner core domain in the C-terminal half of the E2p chain. If this sequence is also conformationally flexible, it may explain previous fluorescence data which suggest that dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase bound to the enzyme complex is quite mobile. The acetyltransferase active site in the E2p chain was shown to reside in the inner core domain, between residues 370 and 629.
Project description:Untreated maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) results in mental and physical disabilities and often leads to neonatal death. Newborn-screening programs, coupled with the use of protein-modified diets, have minimized the severity of this phenotype and allowed affected individuals to develop into productive adults. Although inheritance of MSUD adheres to rules for single-gene traits, mutations in the genes for E1alpha, E1beta, or E2 of the mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex can cause the disease. Randomly selected cell lines from 63 individuals with clinically diagnosed MSUD were tested by retroviral complementation of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity to identify the gene locus for mutant alleles. The frequencies of the mutations were 33% for the E1alpha gene, 38% for the E1beta gene, and 19% for the E2 gene. Ten percent of the tested cell lines gave ambiguous results by showing no complementation or restoration of activity with two gene products. These results provide a means to establish a genotype/phenotype relationship in MSUD, with the ultimate goal of unraveling the complexity of this single-gene trait. This represents the largest study to date providing information on the genotype for MSUD.
Project description:Aerobic glucose metabolism is indispensable for metabolically active cells; however, the regulatory mechanism of efficient energy generation in the highly evolved mammalian retina remains incompletely understood. Here, we revealed an unsuspected role for (pro)renin receptor, also known as ATP6AP2, in energy metabolism. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses identified the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex as Atp6ap2-interacting proteins in the mouse retina. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated direct molecular binding between ATP6AP2 and the PDH E1 β subunit (PDHB). Pdhb immunoreactivity co-localized with Atp6ap2 in multiple retinal layers including the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). ATP6AP2 knockdown in RPE cells reduced PDH activity, showing a predilection to anaerobic glycolysis. ATP6AP2 protected PDHB from phosphorylation, thus controlling its protein stability. Down-regulated PDH activity due to ATP6AP2 knockdown inhibited glucose-stimulated oxidative stress in RPE cells. Our present data unraveled the novel function of ATP6AP2/(P)RR as a PDHB stabilizer, contributing to aerobic glucose metabolism together with oxidative stress.
Project description:Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex deficiency is a major cause of lactic acidosis and Leigh's encephalomyelopathies in infancy and childhood, resulting in early death in the majority of patients. Most of the molecular defects have been localized in the coding regions of the E1alpha PDH gene. Recently, we identified a novel mutation of the E1alpha PDH gene in a patient with an encephalopathy and lactic acidosis. This mutation, located downstream of exon 7, activates a cryptic splice donor and leads to the retention of intronic sequences. Here, we demonstrate that the mutation results in an increased binding of the SR protein SC35. Consistently, ectopic overexpression of this splicing factor enhanced the use of the cryptic splice site, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated reduction of the SC35 protein levels in primary fibroblasts from the patient resulted in the almost complete disappearance of the aberrantly spliced E1alpha PDH mRNA. Our findings open the exciting prospect for a novel therapy of an inherited disease by altering the level of a specific splicing factor.