Cloning, sequence analysis, and characterization of the genes involved in isoprimeverose metabolism in Lactobacillus pentosus.
ABSTRACT: Two genes, xylP and xylQ, from the xylose regulon of Lactobacillus pentosus were cloned and sequenced. Together with the repressor gene of the regulon, xylR, the xylPQ genes form an operon which is inducible by xylose and which is transcribed from a promoter located 145 bp upstream of xylP. A putative xylR binding site (xylO) and a cre-like element, mediating CcpA-dependent catabolite repression, were found in the promoter region. L. pentosus mutants in which both xylP and xylQ (LPE1) or only xylQ (LPE2) was inactivated retained the ability to ferment xylose but were impaired in their ability to ferment isoprimeverose (alpha-D-xylopyranosyl-(1,6)-D-glucopyranose). Disruption of xylQ resulted specifically in the loss of a membrane-associated alpha-xylosidase activity when LPE1 or LPE2 cells were grown on xylose. In the membrane fraction of wild-type bacteria, alpha-xylosidase could catalyze the hydrolysis of isoprimeverose and p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-xylopyranoside with apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.2 mM and 446 nmol/min/mg of protein, and 1.3 mM and 54 nmol/min/mg of protein, respectively. The enzyme could also hydrolyze the alpha-xylosidic linkage in xyloglucan oligosaccharides, but neither methyl-alpha-D-xylopyranoside nor alpha-glucosides were substrates. Glucose repressed the synthesis of alpha-xylosidase fivefold, and 80% of this repression was released in an L. pentosus delta ccpA mutant. The alpha-xylosidase gene was also expressed in the absence of xylose when xylR was disrupted.
Project description:The axy43A gene encoding the intracellular trifunctional xylanolytic enzyme from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli Recombinant PcAxy43A consisting of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 and a family 6 carbohydrate-binding module exhibited endo-xylanase, β-xylosidase, and arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase activities. PcAxy43A hydrolyzed xylohexaose and birch wood xylan to release a series of xylooligosaccharides, indicating that PcAxy43A contained endo-xylanase activity. PcAxy43A exhibited β-xylosidase activity toward a chromogenic substrate, p-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside, and xylobiose, while it preferred to hydrolyze long-chain xylooligosaccharides rather than xylobiose. In addition, surprisingly, PcAxy43A showed arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase activity; that is, it released arabinose from both singly and doubly arabinosylated xylose, α-l-Araf-(1→2)-d-Xylp or α-l-Araf-(1→3)-d-Xylp and α-l-Araf-(1→2)-[α-l-Araf-(1→3)]-β-d-Xylp Moreover, the combination of PcAxy43A and P. curdlanolyticus B-6 endo-xylanase Xyn10C greatly improved the efficiency of xylose and arabinose production from the highly substituted rye arabinoxylan, suggesting that these two enzymes function synergistically to depolymerize arabinoxylan. Therefore, PcAxy43A has the potential for the saccharification of arabinoxylan into simple sugars for many applications. IMPORTANCE In this study, the glycoside hydrolase 43 (GH43) intracellular multifunctional endo-xylanase, β-xylosidase, and arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase (AXH) from P. curdlanolyticus B-6 were characterized. Interestingly, PcAxy43A AXH showed a new property that acted on both the C(O)-2 and C(O)-3 positions of xylose residues doubly substituted with arabinosyl, which usually obstruct the action of xylanolytic enzymes. Furthermore, the studies here show interesting properties for the processing of xylans from cereal grains, particularly rye arabinoxylan, and show a novel relationship between PcAxy43A and endo-xylanase Xyn10C from strain B-6, providing novel metabolic potential for processing arabinoxylans into xylose and arabinose.
Project description:?-Xylosidase is an important constituent of the hemicellulase system and it plays an important role in hydrolyzing xylooligosaccharides to xylose. Xylose, a useful monose, has been utilized in a wide range of applications such as food, light, chemical as well as energy industry. Therefore, the xylose-tolerant ?-xylosidase with high specific activity for bioconversion of xylooligosaccharides has a great potential in the fields as above.A ?-xylosidase gene (Tth xynB3) of 2,322 bp was cloned from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga thermarum DSM 5069 that encodes a protein containing 774 amino acid residues, and was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The phylogenetic trees of ?-xylosidases were constructed using Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum-Parsimony (MP) methods. The phylogeny and amino acid analysis indicated that the Tth xynB3 ?-xylosidase was a novel ?-xylosidase of GH3. The optimal activity of the Tth xynB3 ?-xylosidase was obtained at pH 6.0 and 95°C and was stable over a pH range of 5.0-7.5 and exhibited 2 h half-life at 85°C. The kinetic parameters Km and Vmax values for p-nitrophenyl-?-D-xylopyranoside and p-nitrophenyl-?-L-arabinofuranoside were 0.27 mM and 223.3 U/mg, 0.21 mM and 75 U/mg, respectively. The kcat/Km values for p-nitrophenyl-?-D-xylopyranoside and p-nitrophenyl-?-L-arabinofuranoside were 1,173.4 mM-1 s-1 and 505.9 mM-1 s-1, respectively. It displayed high tolerance to xylose, with Ki value approximately 1000 mM. It was stimulated by xylose at higher concentration up to 500 mM, above which the enzyme activity of Tth xynB3 ?-xylosidase was gradually decreased. However, it still remained approximately 50% of its original activity even if the concentration of xylose was as high as 1000 mM. It was also discovered that the Tth xynB3 ?-xylosidase exhibited a high hydrolytic activity on xylooligosaccharides. When 5% substrate was incubated with 0.3 U Tth xynB3 ?-xylosidase in 200 ?L reaction system for 3 h, almost all the substrate was biodegraded into xylose.The article provides a useful and novel ?-xylosidase displaying extraordinary and desirable properties: high xylose tolerance and catalytic activity at temperatures above 75°C, thermally stable and excellent hydrolytic activity on xylooligosaccharides.
Project description:A cDNA expression library of Trichoderma reesei RutC-30 was constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two genes, abf1 and bxl1, were isolated by screening the yeast library for extracellular alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase activity with the substrate p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside. The genes abf1 and bxl1 encode 500 and 758 amino acids, respectively, including the signal sequences. The deduced amino acid sequence of ABFI displays high-level similarity to the alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase B of Aspergillus niger, and the two can form a new family of glycosyl hydrolases. The deduced amino acid sequence of BXLI shows similarities to the beta-glucosidases grouped in family 3. The yeast-produced enzymes were tested for enzymatic activities against different substrates. ABFI released L-arabinose from p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside and arabinoxylans and showed some beta-xylosidase activity toward p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside. BXLI did not release L-arabinose from arabinoxylan. It showed alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, alpha-L-arabinopyranosidase, and beta-xylosidase activities against p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D- xylopyranoside, respectively, with the last activity being the highest. It was also able to hydrolyze xylobiose and slowly release xylose from polymeric xylan. ABFI and BXLI correspond to a previously purified alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase and a beta-xylosidase from T. reesei, respectively, as confirmed by partial amino acid sequencing of the Trichoderma-produced enzymes. Both enzymes produced in yeasts displayed hydrolytic properties similar to those of the corresponding enzymes purified from T. reesei.
Project description:BACKGROUND:?-D-xylosidase is a vital exoglycosidase with the ability to hydrolyze xylooligosaccharides to xylose and to biotransform some saponins by cleaving outer ?-xylose. ?-D-xylosidase is widely used as one of the xylanolytic enzymes in a diverse range of applications, such as fuel, food and the pharmaceutical industry; therefore, more and more studies have focused on the thermostable and xylose-tolerant ?-D-xylosidases. RESULTS:A thermostable ?-xylosidase gene (xln-DT) of 1509 bp was cloned from Dictyoglomus thermophilum and expressed in E.coli BL21. According to the amino acid and phylogeny analyses, the ?-xylosidase Xln-DT is a novel ?-xylosidase of the GH family 39. The recombinant ?-xylosidase was purified, showing unique bands on SDS-PAGE, and had a protein molecular weight of 58.7 kDa. The ?-xylosidase Xln-DT showed an optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 75 °C, with p-nitrophenyl-?-D-xylopyranoside (pNPX) as a substrate. Xln-DT displayed stability over a pH range of 4.0-7.5 for 24 h and displayed thermotolerance below 85 °C. The values of the kinetic parameters K m and V max for pNPX were 1.66 mM and 78.46 U/mg, respectively. In particular, Xln-DT displayed high tolerance to xylose, with 60% activity in the presence of 3 M xylose. Xln-DT showed significant effects on the hydrolyzation of xylobiose. After 3 h, all the xylobiose tested was degraded into xylose. Moreover, ?-xylosidase Xln-DT had a high selectivity for cleaving the outer xylose moieties of natural saponins, such as notoginsenoside R1 and astragaloside IV, which produced the ginsenoside Rg1 with stronger anti-fatigue activity and produced cycloastragenol with stronger anti-aging activity, respectively. CONCLUSION:This study provides a novel GH 39 ?-xylosidase displaying extraordinary properties of highly catalytic activity at temperatures above 75 °C, remarkable hydrolyzing activity of xylooligosaccharides and rare saponins producing ability in the pharmaceutical and commercial industries.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although α-linked xylose is a major constituent of the hemicelluloses of land plants, few secreted α-xylosidases have been described from fungi or bacteria. AxlA of Aspergillus niger is a secreted α-xylosidase that was earlier shown to promote the release of free glucose (Glc) and xylose (Xyl) from substrates containing α-linked xylose, including isoprimeverose (IP), the heptasaccharide subunit of pea xyloglucan (XG), and tamarind XG. RESULTS: The utility of AxlA for enhancing release of free Glc and Xyl in combination with commercial enzyme cocktails from dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants was examined. Without AxlA supplementation, a mixture of CTec2 and HTec2 (both of which are derived from T. reesei) did not release significant levels of Glc from pea XG or tamarind XG. This is consistent with their lack of detectable α-xylosidase activity using model substrates. On alkaline hydrogen peroxide-pretreated corn stover, supplementation of CTec2/HTec2 (at a loading of 2.5 mg/g glucan) with AxlA (at a loading of 8 mg/g glucan) increased Glc yields from 82% to 88% of the total available Glc and increased Xyl yields from 55% to 60%. AxlA supplementation also improved Glc yields from corn stover treated with the commercial cellulase Accellerase 1000. The AxlA enhancement was not a general protein effect because bovine serum albumin or bovine gamma-globulin at similar concentrations did not enhance Glc yields from corn stover in response to CTec2/HTec2. Supplementation of CTec2/HTec2 with AxlA did not enhance Glc release from pretreated green or etiolated pea tissue. However, AxlA did enhance Glc and Xyl yields compared to CTec2/HTec2 alone from another dicotyledonous herbaceous plant, Chenopodium album (lamb's quarters). CONCLUSION: Supplementation of commercial cellulase cocktails with AxlA enhances yields of Glc and Xyl from some biomass substrates under some conditions, and may prove useful in industrial lignocellulose conversion.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Complete enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan to xylose requires the action of endoxylanase and β-xylosidase. β-xylosidases play an important part in hydrolyzing xylo-oligosaccharides to xylose. Thermostable β-xylosidases have been a focus of attention as industrially important enzymes due to their long shelf life and role in the relief of end-product inhibition of xylanases caused by xylo-oligosaccharides. Therefore, a highly thermostable β-xylosidase with high specific activity has significant potential in lignocellulose bioconversion. RESULTS: A gene encoding a highly thermostable GH39 β-xylosidase was cloned from Geobacillus sp. strain WSUCF1 and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant β-xylosidase was active over a wide range of temperatures and pH with optimum temperature of 70 °C and pH 6.5. It exhibited very high thermostability, retaining 50% activity at 70 °C after 9 days. WSUCF1 β-xylosidase is more thermostable than β-xylosidases reported from other thermophiles (growth temperature ≤ 70 °C). Specific activity was 133 U/mg when incubated with p-nitrophenyl xylopyranoside, with Km and Vmax values of 2.38 mM and 147 U/mg, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the recombinant enzyme had a mass of 58 kDa, but omitting heating prior to electrophoresis increased the apparent mass to 230 kDa, suggesting the enzyme exists as a tetramer. Enzyme exhibited high tolerance to xylose, retained approximately 70% of relative activity at 210 mM xylose concentration. Thin layer chromatography showed that the enzyme had potential to convert xylo-oligomers (xylobiose, triose, tetraose, and pentaose) into fermentable xylose. WSUCF1 β-xylosidase along with WSUCF1 endo-xylanase synergistically converted the xylan into fermentable xylose with more than 90% conversion. CONCLUSIONS: Properties of the WSUCF1 β-xylosidase i.e. high tolerance to elevated temperatures, high specific activity, conversion of xylo-oligomers to xylose, and resistance to inhibition from xylose, make this enzyme potentially suitable for various biotechnological applications.
Project description:An aryl beta-xylosidase was purified to homogeneity from an Escherichia coli strain containing a recombinant plasmid carrying a beta-xylosidase (EC 22.214.171.124) gene from the extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium isolate Tp8T126.96.36.199 ('Caldocellum saccharolyticum'). It has a pI of 4.3 and shows optimal activity at pH 5.7. The enzyme is highly specific, acting on o- and p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranosides and minimally on p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinopyranoside. It does not act on xylobiose. The Km for p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside at the optimum pH for activity is 10 mM, and at pH 7.0 is 6.7 mM. Xylose is a competitive inhibitor with Ki 40 mM. Thermal inactivation follows first-order kinetics at 65 and 70 degrees C with t1/2 values of 4.85 h and 40 min respectively. The t1/2 at 70 degrees C is increased 3-fold and 4-fold by the addition of 0.5 mg of BSA/ml and 2 mM-dithiothreitol respectively.
Project description:Microbial hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is becoming increasingly important for the production of renewable biofuels to address global energy concerns. Hemicellulose is the second most abundant lignocellulosic biopolymer consisting of mostly xylan and other polysaccharides. A variety of enzymes is involved in complete hydrolysis of xylan into its constituent sugars for subsequent biofuel fermentation. Two enzymes, endo-?-xylanase and ?-xylosidase, are particularly important in hydrolyzing the xylan backbone into xylooligosaccharides and individual xylose units. In this study, we describe the cloning, expression, and characterization of xylanase and ?-xylosidase isolated from Bacillus subtilis M015 in Escherichia coli. The genes were identified to encode a 213 amino acid protein for xylanase (glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11) and a 533 amino acid protein for ?-xylosidase (GH family 43). Recombinant enzymes were produced by periplasmic-leaky E. coli JE5505 and therefore secreted into the supernatant during growth. Temperature and pH optima were determined to be 50 °C and 5.5-6 for xylanase and 35 °C and 7.0-7.5 for ?-xylosidase using beech wood xylan and p-nitrophenyl-?-D-xylopyranoside as the substrates, respectively. We have also investigated the synergy of two enzymes on xylan hydrolysis and observed 90 % increase in total sugar release (composed of xylose, xylobiose, xylotriose, and xylotetraose) for xylanase/?-xylosidase combination as opposed to xylanase alone.
Project description:A 3-kb region, located downstream of the Lactobacillus brevis xylA gene (encoding D-xylose isomerase), was cloned in Escherichia coli TG1. The sequence revealed two open reading frames which could code for the D-xylulose kinase gene (xylB) and another gene (xylT) encoding a protein of 457 amino acids with significant similarity to the D-xylose-H+ symporters of E. coli, XylE (57%), and Bacillus megaterium, XylT (58%), to the D-xylose-Na+ symporter of Tetragenococcus halophila, XylE (57%), and to the L-arabinose-H+ symporter of E. coli, AraE (60%). The L. brevis xylABT genes showed an arrangement similar to that of the B. megaterium xylABT operon and the T. halophila xylABE operon. Southern hybridization performed with the Lactobacillus pentosus xylR gene (encoding the D-xylose repressor protein) as a probe revealed the existence of a xylR homologue in L. brevis which is not located with the xyABT locus. The existence of a functional XylR was further suggested by the presence of xylO sequences upstream of xylA and xylT and by the requirement of D-xylose for the induction of D-xylose isomerase, D-xylulose kinase, and D-xylose transport activities in L. brevis. When L. brevis was cultivated in a mixture of D-glucose and D-xylose, the D-xylose isomerase and D-xylulose kinase activities were reduced fourfold and the D-xylose transport activity was reduced by sixfold, suggesting catabolite repression by D-glucose of D-xylose assimilation. The xylT gene was functionally expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum 80, a strain which lacks proton motive force-linked D-xylose transport activity. The role of the XylT protein was confirmed by the accumulation of D-xylose in L. plantarum 80 cells, and this accumulation was dependent on the proton motive force generated by either malolactic fermentation or by the metabolism of D-glucose. The apparent affinity constant of XylT for D-xylose was approximately 215 microM, and the maximal initial velocity of transport was 35 nmol/min per mg (dry weight). Furthermore, of a number of sugars tested, only 6-deoxy-D-glucose inhibited the transport of D-xylose by XylT competitively, with a Ki of 220 microM.
Project description:The xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila (previously called Pediococcus halophilus), was cloned and sequenced. The DNA was about 7.7 kb long and contained genes for a ribose binding protein and part of a ribose transporter, xylR (a putative regulatory gene), and the xyl operon, along with its regulatory region and transcription termination signal, in this order. The DNA was AT rich, the GC content being 35.8%, consistent with the GC content of this gram-positive bacterium. The xyl operon consisted of three genes, xylA, encoding a xylose isomerase, xylB, encoding a xylulose kinase, and xylE, encoding a xylose transporter, with predicted molecular weights of 49,400, 56,400, and 51,600, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the XylR, XylA, XylB, and XylE proteins were similar to those of the corresponding proteins in other gram-positive and -negative bacteria, the similarities being 37 to 64%. Each polypeptide of XylB and XylE was expressed functionally in Escherichia coli. XylE transported D-xylose in a sodium ion-dependent manner, suggesting that it is the first described xylose/Na+ symporter. The XylR protein contained a consensus sequence for binding catabolites of glucose, such as glucose-6-phosphate, which has been discovered in glucose and fructose kinases in bacteria. Correspondingly, the regulatory region of this operon contained a putative binding site of XylR with a palindromic structure. Furthermore, it contained a consensus sequence, CRE (catabolite-responsive element), for binding CcpA (catabolite control protein A). We speculate that the transcriptional regulation of this operon resembles the regulation of catabolite-repressible operons such as the amy, lev, xyl, and gnt operons in various gram-positive bacteria. We discuss the significance of the regulation of gene expression of this operon in T. halophila.