Intraspecific variation of unusual phospholipids from Corynebacterium spp. containing a novel fatty acid.
ABSTRACT: The novel fatty acid trans-9-methyl-10-octadecenoic acid was isolated from the coryneform bacterial strain LMG 3820 (previously misidentified as Arthrobacter globiformis) and identified by spectroscopic methods and chemical derivatization. This fatty acid is attached to the unusual lipid acyl phosphatidylglycerol. Five different species of this lipid type were identified; their structures were elucidated by tandem mass spectrometry and are reported here for the first time. Additionally, we identified three different cardiolipins, two bearing the novel fatty acid. The characteristic 10-methyl-octadecanoic acid was present only in phosphatidylinositol. Because of the unusual fatty acid pattern of strain LMG 3820, the 16S rDNA sequence was determined and showed regions of identity to sequences of Corynebacterium variabilis DSM 20132(T) and DSM 20536. All three strains possessed the novel fatty acid, identifying trans-9-methyl-10-octadecenoic acid as a potential biomarker characteristic for this taxon. Surprisingly, the fatty acid and relative abundances of phospholipids of Corynebacterium sp. strain LMG 3820 were similar to those of the type strain but different from those of Corynebacterium variabilis DSM 20536, although all three strains possessed identical 16S rDNA sequences and strains DSM 20132(T) and DSM 20536 have 90.5% DNA-DNA homology. This is one of the rare cases wherein different organisms with identical 16S rDNA sequences have been observed to present recognizably different fatty acid and lipid compositions. Since methylation of a fatty acid considerably lowers the transition temperature of the corresponding lipid resulting in a more flexible cell membrane, the intraspecific variation in the lipid composition, coinciding with the morphological and Gram stain reaction variability of this species, probably offers an advantage for this species to inhabit different environmental niches.
Project description:1. Mitochondrial and microsomal fractions of rat epididymal adipose tissue incorporated [1-(14)C]acetyl-CoA equally well into various fatty acids by a chain-elongation mechanism. C(18) and C(20) fatty acids were the two major products, and comprised about 80% of the total fatty acids synthesized in both particles. 2. When incubated in air, mitochondria synthesized stearic acid, octadecenoic acid and eicosamonoenoic acid in almost equal amounts (about 20% each), whereas in microsomal fractions, the synthesis of octadecenoic acid was more than fivefold the stearic acid formation. In both fractions, major components of synthesized monoenoic fatty acids were the Delta(11:12) isomers. Hexadecenoic acid and octadecenoic acid from whole adipose tissue contained approx. 11 and 14% of the Delta(11:12) isomer respectively. 3. When mitochondria or microsomal fractions were incubated in nitrogen, there was increased synthesis of stearic acid and palmitic acid and less of C(16) and C(18) monoenoic acids; synthesis of C(20) acids remained predominantly of the monoenoic acids. Determination of the position of the double bond in the monoenoic acids supported the view that the synthesis of hexadecenoic acid and octadecenoic acid involves a desaturase activity, whereas eicosamonoenoic acid and eicosadienoic acid are formed only by elongation of endogenous fatty acids. 4. Most of the radioactivity was found in free fatty acids (63%) and the phospholipid (26%) fraction. In phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the two major components. 5. Most of the fatty acids synthesized, including those not normally found in particle lipids (arachidic acid, eicosamonoenoic acid and eicosadienoic acid) were distributed fairly evenly in the phospholipid and free fatty acid fractions. However, stearic acid was found predominantly in the phospholipid fraction.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium resistens was initially recovered from human infections and recognized as a new coryneform species that is highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Bacteremia associated with this organism in immunocompromised patients was rapidly fatal as standard minocycline therapies failed. C. resistens DSM 45100 was isolated from a blood culture of samples taken from a patient with acute myelocytic leukemia. The complete genome sequence of C. resistens DSM 45100 was determined by pyrosequencing to identify genes contributing to multi-drug resistance, virulence, and the lipophilic lifestyle of this newly described human pathogen. RESULTS: The genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 consists of a circular chromosome of 2,601,311 bp in size and the 28,312-bp plasmid pJA144188. Metabolic analysis showed that the genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 lacks genes for typical sugar uptake systems, anaplerotic functions, and a fatty acid synthase, explaining the strict lipophilic lifestyle of this species. The genome encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes ensuring the availability of exogenous fatty acids for growth, including predicted virulence factors that probably contribute to fatty acid metabolism by damaging host tissue. C. resistens DSM 45100 is able to use external L-histidine as a combined carbon and nitrogen source, presumably as a result of adaptation to the hitherto unknown habitat on the human skin. Plasmid pJA144188 harbors several genes contributing to antibiotic resistance of C. resistens DSM 45100, including a tetracycline resistance region of the Tet W type known from Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus suis. The tet(W) gene of pJA144188 was cloned in Corynebacterium glutamicum and was shown to confer high levels of resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: The detected gene repertoire of C. resistens DSM 45100 provides insights into the lipophilic lifestyle and virulence functions of this newly recognized pathogen. Plasmid pJA144188 revealed a modular architecture of gene regions that contribute to the multi-drug resistance of C. resistens DSM 45100. The tet(W) gene encoding a ribosomal protection protein is reported here for the first time in corynebacteria. Cloning of the tet(W) gene mediated resistance to second generation tetracyclines in C. glutamicum, indicating that it might be responsible for the failure of minocycline therapies in patients with C. resistens bacteremia.
Project description:Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. C7T and C20) showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity) and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity), respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V. agarivorans CECT 5085T, V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T V. maritimus LMG 25439T, and V. variabilis LMG 25438T). In silico DDH data also supported the genomic relationship. The strains C7T also had less than 95% average amino acid identity (AAI) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) towards V. maritimus C210, V. variabilis C206, and V. mediterranei AK1T, V. brasiliensis LMG 20546T, V. orientalis ATCC 33934T, and V. sinaloensis DSM 21326. The name Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. is proposed with C7 as the type strains. Both V. agarivorans CECT 5058T and V. astriarenae C7T are members of the newest clade of Vibrionaceae named Agarivorans.
Project description:Comparative studies were made of the uptake and metabolism of cis- and trans-octadecenoic acids by the perfused chicken liver. No differences were observed in the rates of uptake of the isomers. There was considerable incorporation of radioactivity into triglycerides and phospholipids, and some release of labelled lipid into the perfusate was observed. The cis-fatty acids were more readily incorporated into triglycerides than phospholipids, the reverse being true of the trans-fatty acids. Examination of the intramolecular distribution of fatty acids in triglycerides showed that the trans-fatty acid and stearate mainly occupied the 1- and 3-positions, and cis-fatty acids the 2-position. In the phospholipids phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine the trans-fatty acids again behaved like stearic acid and favoured the 1-position. No evidence was obtained of atypical patterns of uptake or metabolism of the trans-fatty acids.
Project description:The lipid metabolism of schistosomes is characterized by several intriguing adaptations to a parasitic way of living. The surface of the parasite consists of two closely apposed phospholipid bilayers, a structure unique to blood flukes. Schistosomes do not synthesize fatty acids de novo, but are able to modify fatty acids, which they obtain from the host, by chain elongation. Here we present evidence that schistosomes are capable of another type of fatty acid modification, resulting in the formation of 5-octadecenoic acid [C18:1(5)]. This highly unusual fatty acid, which is absent in the blood of the host, was shown to be almost exclusively located in the outer membrane complex of the schistosome. Within these membranes, it was almost exclusively present in one molecular phospholipid species, 1-palmitoyl-2,5-octadecenoyl phosphatidylcholine [C16:0-18:1(5)PtdCho]. Apart from dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, this was the most abundant phosphatidylcholine species in the outer membrane complex. The specific synthesis by the schistosome of C18:1(5) and the highly specific localization of this fatty acid to the tegumental membranes suggest an important tegument-mediated role for this lipid.
Project description:Increasing prevalence of allergic diseases with an inadequate variety of treatment drives forward search for new alternative drugs. Fatty acids, abundant in nature, are regarded as important bioactive compounds and powerful nutrients playing an important role in lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Phytochemical study on Typhonium blumei Nicolson and Sivadasan (Araceae), a folk anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory medicine, yielded four oxygenated fatty acids, 12R-hydroxyoctadec-9Z,13E-dienoic acid methyl ester (1) and 10R-hydroxyoctadec-8E,12Z-dienoic acid methyl ester (2), 9R-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (3), and 12R*-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (4). Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods along with GC-MS analysis. Isolated fatty acids together with a series of saturated, unsaturated and oxygenated fatty acids were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities in vitro. Unsaturated (including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) as well as hydroxylated unsaturated fatty acids exerted strong anti-inflammatory activity in superoxide anion generation (IC50 2.14-3.73 ?M) and elastase release (IC50 1.26-4.57 ?M) assays. On the other hand, in the anti-allergic assays, the unsaturated fatty acids were inactive, while hydroxylated fatty acids showed promising inhibitory activity in A23187- and antigen-induced degranulation assays (e.g., 9S-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid, IC50 92.4 and 49.7 ?M, respectively). According to our results, the presence of a hydroxy group in the long chain did not influence the potent anti-inflammatory activity of free unsaturated acids. Nevertheless, hydroxylation of fatty acids (or their methyl esters) seems to be a key factor for the anti-allergic activity observed in the current study. Moreover, ChemGPS-NP was explored to predict the structure-activity relationship of fatty acids. The anti-allergic fatty acids formed different cluster distant from clinically used drugs. The bioactivity of T. blumei, which is historically utilized in folk medicine, might be related to the content of fatty acids and their metabolites.
Project description:We have studied oxygenation of fatty acids by cell extract of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 42A2. Oleic acid ((9Z)-18:1) was transformed to (10S)-hydroperoxy-(8E)-octadecenoic acid ((10S)-HPOME) and to (7S,10S)-dihydroxy-(8E)-octadecenoic acid (7,10-DiHOME). Experiments under oxygen-18 showed that 7,10-DiHOME contained oxygen from air and was formed sequentially from (10S)-HPOME by isomerization. (10R)-HPOME was not isomerized. The (10S)-dioxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase activities co-eluted on ion exchange chromatography and on gel filtration with an apparent molecular size of approximately 50 kDa. 16:1n-7, 18:2n-6, and 20:1n-11 were also oxygenated to 7,10-dihydroxy fatty acids, and (8Z)-18:1 was oxygenated to 6,9-dihydroxy-(7E)-octadecenoic acid. A series of fatty acids with the double bond positioned closer to ((6Z)-18:1, (5Z,9Z)-18:2) or more distant from the carboxyl group ((11Z)-, (13Z)-, and (15Z)-18:1) were poor substrates. The oxygenation mechanism was studied with [7S-(2)H]18:1n-9, [7R-(2)H]18:2n-6, and [8R-(2)H]18:2n-6 as substrates. The pro-R hydrogen at C-8 was lost in the biosynthesis of (10S)-HPODE, whereas the pro-S hydrogen was lost and the pro-R hydrogen was retained at C-7 during biosynthesis of the 7,10-dihydroxy metabolites. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of P. aeruginosa revealed relatively large amounts of (9E/Z)-16:1 and (11E/Z)-18:1 and only traces of 18:1n-9. We found that (11Z)-18:1 (vaccenic acid) was transformed to (11S,14S)-dihydroxy-(12E)-octadecenoic acid and to a mixture of 11- and 12-HPOME, possibly due to reverse orientation of (11Z)-18:1 at the active site compared with oleic acid. The reaction mechanism of the hydroperoxide isomerase suggests catalytic similarities to cytochrome P450.
Project description:Corynebacterium ulceribovis strain IMMIB L-1395(T) (= DSM 45146(T)) is an aerobic to facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile rod-shaped bacterium that was isolated from the skin of the udder of a cow, in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. The cell wall of C. ulceribovis contains corynemycolic acids. The cellular fatty acids are those described for the genus Corynebacterium, but tuberculostearic acid is not present. Here we describe the features of C. ulceribovis strain IMMIB L-1395(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 2,300,451 bp long genome containing 2,104 protein-coding genes and 54 RNA-encoding genes and is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG) project.
Project description:The taxonomic positions of two novel aerobic, Gram-stain-positive Actinobacteria, designated RB20T and RB56T, were determined using a polyphasic approach. Both were isolated from the fungus-farming termite Macrotermes natalensis. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that both strains are members of the genus Nocardia with the closest phylogenetic neighbours Nocardia miyunensis JCM12860T (98.9?%) and Nocardia nova DSM44481T (98.5?%) for RB20T and Nocardia takedensis DSM 44801T (98.3?%), Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis DSM 44290T (98.3?%) and Nocardia rayongensis JCM 19832T (98.2?%) for RB56T. Digital DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) between RB20T and N. miyunensis JCM12860T and N. nova DSM 44481T resulted in similarity values of 33.9 and 22.0?%, respectively. DDH between RB56T and N. takedensis DSM44801T and N. pseudobrasiliensis DSM44290T showed similarity values of 20.7 and 22.3?%, respectively. In addition, wet-lab DDH between RB56T and N. rayongensis JCM19832T resulted in 10.2?% (14.5?%) similarity. Both strains showed morphological and chemotaxonomic features typical for the genus Nocardia, such as the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid (A2pm) within the cell wall, arabinose and galactose as major sugar components within whole cell-wall hydrolysates, the presence of mycolic acids and major phospholipids (diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol), and the predominant menaquinone MK-8 (H4, ?-cyclo). The main fatty acids for both strains were hexadecanoic acid (C16?:?0), 10-methyloctadecanoic acid (10-methyl C18?:?0) and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (C18?:?1 ?9c). We propose two novel species within the genus Nocardia: Nocardia macrotermitis sp. nov. with the type strain RB20T (=VKM Ac-2841T=NRRL B65541T) and Nocardia aurantia sp. nov. with the type strain RB56T (=VKM Ac-2842T=NRRL B65542T).
Project description:To assess strains of lactobacilli for their capacity to produce functional fatty acid-conjugated linoleic acid. To assess the linoleate isomerase for CLA production in the most efficient CLA producer.In this study, strains of food-derived lactobacilli were cultured in media with linoleic acid and CLA production was assessed. Most of the selected strains produced CLA at different levels, with Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 being the most efficient CLA producer converting over 50% of linoleic acid to c9, t11-CLA and t9, t11-CLA. Some intermediates 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid, 10-oxo-cis-12-octadecenoic acid and 10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid were determined via GC-MS. The genes coding the multicomponent linoleate isomerase containing myosin-cross-reactive antigen, short-chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase and acetoacetate decarboxylase for CLA production in Lact. plantarum ZS2058 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. With the mixture of recombinant E. coli, c9, t11-CLA and three kinds of intermediates were produced from linoleic acid, which were in line with those in the lactobacilli.The ability for CLA production by lactobacilli exhibited variation. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lact. bulgaricus were the most efficient producers in the selected strains. Lact. plantarum ZS2058 converted linoleic acid to CLAs with 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid, 10-oxo-cis-12-octadecenoic acid and 10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid as intermediates. The multiple-step reactions for CLA production catalysed by multicomponent linoleate isomerase in Lact. plantarum ZS2058 were confirmed successfully.Multicomponent linoleate isomerase provides important results for the illustration of the mechanism for CLA production in lactic acid bacteria. Food-derived lactobacilli with CLA production ability offers novel opportunities for functional foods development.