Cloning of the koi herpesvirus (KHV) gene encoding thymidine kinase and its use for a highly sensitive PCR based diagnosis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Outbreaks with mass mortality among common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi Cyprinus carpio koi have occurred worldwide since 1998. The herpes-like virus isolated from diseased fish is different from Herpesvirus cyprini and channel catfish virus and was accordingly designated koi herpesvirus (KHV). Diagnosis of KHV infection based on viral isolation and current PCR assays has a limited sensitivity and therefore new tools for the diagnosis of KHV infections are necessary. RESULTS:A robust and sensitive PCR assay based on a defined gene sequence of KHV was developed to improve the diagnosis of KHV infection. From a KHV genomic library, a hypothetical thymidine kinase gene (TK) was identified, subcloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. Preliminary characterization of the recombinant TK showed that it has a kinase activity using dTTP but not dCTP as a substrate. A PCR assay based on primers selected from the defined DNA sequence of the TK gene was developed and resulted in a 409 bp amplified fragment. The TK based PCR assay did not amplify the DNAs of other fish herpesviruses such as Herpesvirus cyprini (CHV) and the channel catfish virus (CCV). The TK based PCR assay was specific for the detection of KHV and was able to detect as little as 10 fentograms of KHV DNA corresponding to 30 virions. The TK based PCR was compared to previously described PCR assays and to viral culture in diseased fish and was shown to be the most sensitive method of diagnosis of KHV infection. CONCLUSION:The TK based PCR assay developed in this work was shown to be specific for the detection of KHV. The TK based PCR assay was more sensitive for the detection of KHV than previously described PCR assays; it was as sensitive as virus isolation which is the golden standard method for KHV diagnosis and was able to detect as little as 10 fentograms of KHV DNA corresponding to 30 virions.
Project description:Common carp (including ornamental koi carp) Cyprinus carpio L. are ecologically and economically important freshwater fish in Europe and Asia. C. carpio have recently been endangered by a third cyprinid herpesvirus, known as cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), the etiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), which causes significant morbidity and mortality in koi and common carp. Clinical and pathological signs include epidermal abrasions, excess mucus production, necrosis of gill and internal organs, and lethargy. KHVD has decimated major carp populations in Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan, Japan, Germany, Canada, and the USA, and has been listed as a notifiable disease in Germany since 2005, and by the World Organisation for Animal Health since 2007. KHVD is exacerbated in aquaculture because of the relatively high host stocking density, and CyHV-3 may be concentrated by filter-feeding aquatic organisms. CyHV-3 is taxonomically grouped within the family Alloherpesviridae, can be propagated in a number of cell lines, and is active at a temperature range of 15 to 28°C. Three isolates originating from Japan (KHV-J), USA (KHV-U), and Israel (KHV-I) have been sequenced. CyHV-3 has a 295 kb genome with 156 unique open reading frames and replicates in the cell nucleus, and mature viral particles are 170 to 200 nm in diameter. CyHV-3 can be detected by multiple PCR-based methods and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Several modes of immunization have been developed for KHVD; however, fish immunized with either vaccine or wild-type virus may become carriers for CyHV-3. There is no current treatment for KHVD.
Project description:One of the unique features of herpesvirus infection is latent infection following an initial exposure, which is characterized by viral genome persistence in a small fraction of cells within the latently infected tissue. Investigation of the mechanisms of herpesvirus latency has been very challenging in tissues with only a small fraction of cells that are latently infected. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3, also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is an important and deadly pathogen of koi and common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Acute infection can cause up to 100% mortality in exposed fish, and fish that survive the infection become latently infected. KHV becomes latent in a small percentage of B lymphocytes and can reactivate under stressful conditions. During latency, KHV ORF6 transcript is expressed in the latently infected B lymphocytes. In order to study KHV latent infection in cells that are only latently infected, a nanoflare probe specific to ORF6 RNA was used to separate KHV latently infected cells from total peripheral white blood cells (WBC). Using the ORF6 nanoflare probe, less than 1% of peripheral WBC was isolated from KHV latently infected koi. When this enriched population of WBC was examined by real-time PCR specific for KHV, it was estimated that about 1-2 copies of viral genome persists in the sorted cells. In addition, KHV ORF6 transcript was shown to be the major transcript expressed during latency by RNA-seq analysis. This study demonstrated that an RNA nanoflare probe could be used to enrich latently infected cells, which can subsequently be used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of KHV latency.
Project description:Worldwide koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes high mortalities in Cyprinus carpio L. aquaculture. So far, it is unknown how the different variants of KHV have developed and how they spread in the fish, but also in the environmental water bodies. Therefore, a phylogenetic method based on variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) was improved to gain deeper insights into the phylogeny of KHV and its possible worldwide distribution. Moreover, a VNTR-3 qPCR was designed which allows fast virus typing. This study presents a useful method for molecular tracing of diverse KHV types, variants, and lineages.
Project description:Koi herpesvirus (KHV), also known as Cyprinid herpes virus 3 (Cyprinid 3) is lethal disease in common carp and koi (Cyprinus carpio). Two different groups (KK and RK) were infected KHV by intraperitoneal injection. Fish for gene expression analysis were sampled at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post infection (p.i). The results showed that two immune related gene, Interferons (INFs) ?? and Interleukin (IL)-12 p35 induced a high response in RK. The IL-12 p35 cytokine and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 were significantly high expressed on 48 h post infection (p.i) in RK as compared to the KK. The histopatological examination reveals focal necrosis in liver and infiltrate of lymphocytes in spleen of KK as compared to the RK. In immunohistochemistry analysis, the KHV protein high expressed in the infected kidney cell and slenocyte of KK. Therefore, the expression of IL-12 p35, IFN ?? and TLR 9 may provide a potentially genes related with KHV resistance in Koi and red common carp × koi.
Project description:Since the mid-1990s, lethal infections of koi herpesvirus (KHV) have been spreading, threatening the worldwide production of common carp and koi (both Cyprinus carpio). The complete genome sequences of three KHV strains from Japan, the United States, and Israel revealed a 295-kbp genome containing a 22-kbp terminal direct repeat. The finding that 15 KHV genes have clear homologs in the distantly related channel catfish virus (ictalurid herpesvirus 1) confirms the proposed place of KHV in the family Herpesviridae, specifically in the branch with fish and amphibian hosts. KHV thus has the largest genome reported to date for this family. The three strains were interpreted as having arisen from a wild-type parent encoding 156 unique protein-coding genes, 8 of which are duplicated in the terminal repeat. In each strain, four to seven genes from among a set of nine are fragmented by frameshifts likely to render the encoded proteins nonfunctional. Six of the affected genes encode predicted membrane glycoproteins. Frameshifts or other mutations close to the 3' ends of coding sequences were identified in a further six genes. The conclusion that at least some of these mutations occurred in vivo prompts the hypothesis that loss of gene functions might be associated with emergence of the disease and provides a basis for further investigations into the molecular epidemiology of the virus.
Project description:Koi herpesvirus (KHV), a member of Hervesviridae, has been frequently reported to cause mass mortality (80-100%) in common carps (Cyprinus carpio L.). A unique feature of Herverviridae members is latent infection, maintaining their genetic information for an extended period in the absence of productive infection, and reactivate when environmental conditions are favorable for their growth. To prevent this occurs, a monitoring program should be done for early detection. This study aimed at detecting the presence of KHV in healthy common carps reared in West-Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. A total of 80 healthy fish was collected randomly from eight fish farms (Lingsar, Batu Kumbung, Narmada, Tanjung, Lenek, Aik Mel, Brang Rea and Rhee) across West-Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. The presence of KHV genome was detected using a PCR with a commercial kit, IQ 2000TM. The result showed that common carps collected from four farms (Aik Mel, Lenek, Rhee and Brang Rea) were positive KHV. The size of an amplified gene was ~?550 bp which was the same as positive KHV control. The obtained result suggests that KHV as other member of Hervesviridae shows a latent infection in common carps, and should be anticipated for their reactivation. Based on this result it is highly recommended that common carps cultured in this region should be vaccinated. In addition, transporting common carp out from Lombok and Sumbawa Islands should be carefully regulated to prevent the spread of the disease to other areas.
Project description:Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is an emerging disease that causes mass mortality in koi and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Its causative agent is Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV). Although data on the pathogenesis of this deadly virus is relatively abundant in the literature, still little is known about its genomic diversity and about the molecular mechanisms that lead to such a high virulence. In this context, we developed a new strategy for sequencing full-length CyHV-3 genomes directly from infected fish tissues. Total genomic DNA extracted from carp gill tissue was specifically enriched with CyHV-3 sequences through hybridization to a set of nearly 2 million overlapping probes designed to cover the entire genome length, using KHV-J sequence (GenBank accession number AP008984) as reference. Applied to 7 CyHV-3 specimens from Poland and Indonesia, this targeted genomic enrichment enabled recovery of the full genomes with >99.9% reference coverage. The enrichment rate was directly correlated to the estimated number of viral copies contained in the DNA extracts used for library preparation, which varied between ?5000 and ?2×107. The average sequencing depth was >200 for all samples, thus allowing the search for variants with high confidence. Sequence analyses highlighted a significant proportion of intra-specimen sequence heterogeneity, suggesting the presence of mixed infections in all investigated fish. They also showed that inter-specimen genetic diversity at the genome scale was very low (>99.95% of sequence identity). By enabling full genome comparisons directly from infected fish tissues, this new method will be valuable to trace outbreaks rapidly and at a reasonable cost, and in turn to understand the transmission routes of CyHV-3.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) affects both juvenile and adult common carp and koi, and is especially lethal to fry. The high mortalities caused by the disease have had a negative impact on the international koi trade. Different diagnostic techniques have been used to detect KHV, including: isolation of the virus in cell culture, electron microscopy, several PCR tests, ELISA and in situ hybridisation. All of these methods are time consuming, laborious and require specialised equipment. RESULTS:A rapid field diagnosis of KHV in common and koi carp was developed using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The LAMP reaction rapidly amplified nucleic acid with high specificity and efficiency under isothermal conditions using a simple water bath. Two methods of extracting DNA from host tissue were compared: extraction by boiling and by using a commercial extraction kit. A set of six primers--two inner primers, two outer primers and two loop primers--was designed from a KHV amplicon. The reaction conditions were optimised for detection of KHV in 60 min at 65 degrees C using Bst (Bacillus stearothermophilus) DNA polymerase. When visualised by gel electrophoresis, the products of the KHV LAMP assay appeared as a ladder pattern, with many bands of different sizes from 50 base-pairs (bp) up to the loading well. The KHV LAMP product could also be simply detected visually by adding SYBR Green I to the reaction tube and observing a colour change from orange to green. All samples positive for KHV by visual detection were confirmed positive by gel electrophoresis. The KHV LAMP had the same sensitivity as a standard PCR assay for the detection of KHV. CONCLUSION:This paper describes an accelerated LAMP assay for diagnosis of KHV. The entire procedure took only 90 minutes to produce a result: 15 minutes for DNA extraction; 60 min for the LAMP reaction; 2 min for visual detection using SYBR Green I. The test can be used under field conditions because the only equipment it requires is a water bath.
Project description:Koi herpesvirus (KHV), recently designated Cyprinid herpesvirus 3, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in koi and common carp. In the present study, we investigated the portal of entry of KHV in carp by using bioluminescence imaging. Taking advantage of the recent cloning of the KHV genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), we produced a recombinant plasmid encoding a firefly luciferase (LUC) expression cassette inserted in the intergenic region between open reading frame (ORF) 136 and ORF 137. Two viral strains were then reconstituted from the modified plasmid, the FL BAC 136 LUC excised strain and the FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain, including a disrupted and a wild-type thymidine kinase (TK) locus, respectively. In vitro, the two recombinant strains replicated comparably to the parental FL strain. The FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain was shown in vitro to induce a bioluminescent signal allowing the detection of single positive cells as early as 24 h postinfection, while in vivo, it induced KHV infection in carp that was indistinguishable from that induced by the parental FL strain. To identify the KHV portal of entry, carp were analyzed by bioluminescence imaging at different times postinfection with the FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain. These analyses demonstrated that the skin of the fish covering the fins and also the body is the major portal of entry for KHV in carp. Finally, to further demonstrate the role of the skin as the KHV portal of entry, we constructed an original system, nicknamed "U-tube," to perform percutaneous infection restricted to the posterior part of the fish. All the data obtained in the present study demonstrate that the skin, and not the gills, is the major portal of entry for KHV in carp.
Project description:Since the emergence of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), outbreaks have been devastating to Common Carp Cyprinus carpio and koi (a variant of Common Carp), leading to high economic losses. Current diagnostics for detecting CyHV-3 are limited in sensitivity and are further complicated by latency. Here we describe the detection of CyHV-3 by recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA assay can detect as low as 10 copies of the CyHV-3 genome by an isothermal reaction and yields results in approximately 20 min. Using the RPA assay, the CyHV-3 genome can be detected in the total DNA of white blood cells isolated from koi latently infected with CyHV-3, while less than 10% of the latently infected koi can be detected by a real-time PCR assay in the total DNA of white blood cells. In addition, RPA products can be detected in a lateral flow device that is cheap and fast and can be used outside of the diagnostic lab. The RPA assay and lateral flow device provide for the rapid, sensitive, and specific amplification of CyHV-3 that with future modifications for field use and validation could lead to enhanced surveillance and early diagnosis of CyHV-3 in the laboratory and field. Received September 14, 2015; accepted April 9, 2016.