Multiprefectural spread of gastroenteritis outbreaks attributable to a single genogroup II norovirus strain from a tourist restaurant in Nagasaki, Japan.
ABSTRACT: A series of gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by noroviruses (NVs) among tourist groups from several prefectures was associated with eating a lunch prepared by a restaurant in Nagasaki City, Japan, on 18 and 19 November 2003. A retrospective cohort study was performed to estimate the magnitude of the outbreak and identify the source of infection. Epidemiological information was obtained through the local public health centers in the areas where the illness occurred. Stool and vomit specimens and food and environmental samples were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR with genogroup-specific primers. Positive samples were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Of 1,492 tourists who ate a lunch prepared by the restaurant during the 2-day period, 660 (44.2%) developed illness, with an average incubation time of 31.2 h. Whereas NVs were not detected in any food samples, identical sequences most closely related to the Mexico genotype of genogroup II NV were found in specimens from case patients, restaurant staff, and the kitchen table. Food handlers were concluded to be the source of the outbreak as a result of the contamination of several meals. The series of outbreaks described here exemplifies the role of tourism as a contemporary way to distribute a single infectious agent to multiple and geographically remote areas.
Project description:An outbreak of gastroenteritis affecting 158 of 219 (72%) guests and employees at a hotel is described. Food served at the hotel restaurant is believed to have been the source of the outbreak and to have been contaminated by sick employees working in the restaurant. A secondary attack rate of 22% was seen involving 43 persons in all. In stool specimens from seven of eight patients, Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) were detected by electron microscopy. While NLV-specific PCR using primers JV12 and JV13 were negative, all specimens examined with primers NVp69 and NVp110 were positive. The failure of primers JV12 and JV13 was attributed to several mismatches in the JV12 primer. Genotyping and sequence analysis revealed that all samples had identical sequences and clustered with genogroup I, and the most closely related well-characterized genotype is Desert Shield. This is the first described food-borne outbreak associated with genogroup I virus in Sweden.
Project description:A study was undertaken to investigate the diversity of noroviruses (NVs) in fecal samples from patients from 529 outbreaks and 141 sporadic cases of gastroenteritis in the North of England from September 1998 to August 2001. NV strains were detected by electron microscopy and characterized by a combination of the Grimsby virus antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcriptase PCR, the heteroduplex mobility assay, and DNA sequencing. Twenty-one distinct NV strains, including several novel or variant strains not seen previously, were found circulating in the population studied. Genogroup II NVs were responsible for 83% of the outbreaks. Several strains cocirculated at any one time. The Bristol (Grimsby/Lordsdale) and Hawaii (Girlington) genotypes were the most prevalent among the NVs identified, detected in 49 and 20% of the outbreaks, respectively. A limited number of other genogroup II and I strains were cocirculating. The virus populations detected in hospitals and nursing homes were distinct from those found in community-based outbreaks. Outbreaks in hospitals and nursing homes were more likely to be caused by genogroup II strain Grimsby or Girlington (P < 0.0001) than by other genogroup II or I strains.
Project description:In February 2015 an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a distillery in Kinmen, Taiwan. At least 450 affected employees developed the symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting after attending a lunch banquet on 6 February. Epidemiological, laboratory and environmental investigations were conducted to identify the agent and source of this outbreak.A case-control study was carried out among lunch attendees from the distillery. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, food and beverage consumption in the lunch banquet was assessed, as well as demographic and clinical data of the exposed people. An outbreak case was defined as a diner who developed at least three following symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, nausea, chills and/or weakness in the 72 h following the lunch. Controls were defined as lunch attendees who did not have any of the above symptoms. Rectal swabs or stool samples of the symptomatic exposed diners and food handlers as well as food and environmental samples were collected to test potential bacteria and viruses. Norovirus was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. An environmental assessment, including environmental inspection of the restaurant and a review of work practices of food workers, was undertaken.Of 363 respondents with complete data, 169 met the case definition and 111 met the control definition. Consumption of pork liver in cold appetizers (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) 3.23; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.26-8.30) and lamb chops (aOR: 3.98, 95 % CI: 1.74-9.11) were each associated with increased risk of illness. No cases but two asymptomatic food handlers who prepared or cooked the implicated foods tested positive for norovirus genotype I.6. Food and environmental samples were negative for any bacteria. Environmental assessment indicated that hand washing facilities were not properly accessible to food handlers. Inappropriate hygiene practices in food handlers may have contributed to food contamination.Our investigation suggests that etiological agent of this outbreak was norovirus. The food vehicles were pork liver and lamb chops, which may have been contaminated by asymptomatic infected food handlers. Strict adherence to hand hygiene practices and access to hand washing facilities should be reinforced to prevent such foodborne outbreaks.
Project description:Worldwide, noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis. They can be transmitted from person to person directly or indirectly through contaminated food, water, or environments. To estimate the proportion of foodborne infections caused by noroviruses on a global scale, we used norovirus transmission and genotyping information from multiple international outbreak surveillance systems (Noronet, CaliciNet, EpiSurv) and from a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. The proportion of outbreaks caused by food was determined by genotype and/or genogroup. Analysis resulted in the following final global profiles: foodborne transmission is attributed to 10% (range 9%%-11%) of all genotype GII.4 outbreaks, 27% (25%-30%) of outbreaks caused by all other single genotypes, and 37% (24%%-52%) of outbreaks caused by mixtures of GII.4 and other noroviruses. When these profiles are applied to global outbreak surveillance data, results indicate that ?14% of all norovirus outbreaks are attributed to food.
Project description:Noroviruses (NVs) are common pathogens that consist of genetically divergent viruses that induce gastroenteritis in humans and animals. Between September 1999 and June 2004, 1,898 samples obtained from patients showing sporadic or outbreak gastroenteritis in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, were tested for NVs by reverse transcription-PCR. NVs were detected in 603 samples. Approximately 80% were positive for genogroup GII, 13% were positive for genogroup GI, and the remaining 7% were positive for both genogroups. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the GI and GII genogroups could be further divided into 13 and 16 genotypes (including new genotypes), respectively. The GII-4 genotype, which included five small genetic clusters (subtypes), was the most common in this study and was detected in approximately 40% of positive samples. The P2 regions of 10 strains belonging to each of the five GII-4 subtypes showed 5 to 18% amino acid diversity. The amino acid substitutions accumulated in the protruding (P) region during the 5-year study period. Our data suggest that highly variable NV strains are circulating in Chiba Prefecture, with a high rate of genetic change observed during the 5-year study period.
Project description:Norovirus is commonly associated with food and waterborne outbreaks. Genetic susceptibility to norovirus is largely dependent on presence of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA), specifically ABO, secretor, and Lewis phenotypes. The aim of the study was to determine the association between HBGAs to norovirus susceptibility during a large norovirus foodborne outbreak linked to genotype GII.6 in an office-based company in Stockholm, Sweden, 2015. A two-episode outbreak with symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting occurred in 2015. An online questionnaire was sent to all 1109 employees that had worked during the first outbreak episode. Food and water samples were collected from in-house restaurant and tested for bacterial and viral pathogens. In addition, fecal samples were collected from 8 employees that had diarrhea. To investigate genetic susceptibility during the outbreak, 98 saliva samples were analyzed for ABO, secretor, and Lewis phenotypes using ELISA. A total of 542 of 1109 (49%) employees reported gastrointestinal symptoms. All 8 fecal samples tested positive for GII norovirus, which was also detected in coleslaw collected from the in-house restaurant. Eating at the in-house restaurant was significantly associated with risk of symptom development. Nucleotide sequencing was successful for 5/8 fecal samples and all belonged to the GII.6 genotype. HBGA characterization showed a strong secretor association to norovirus-related symptoms (P?=?0.014). No association between norovirus disease and ABO phenotypes was observed. The result of this study shows that non-secretors were significantly less likely to report symptoms in a large foodborne outbreak linked to the emerging GII.6 norovirus strain.
Project description:Norovirus (NV) is the most common causative agent of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Reports of surveillance of NV in facilities that reported outbreaks are frequently found in publications, but reports of that in facilities without outbreaks are not found. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of NV isolates derived from asymptomatic food handlers working at a non-outbreak food catering facility in Hokkaido, Japan, from February to March in 2005 and January to February in 2006 by RNA polymerase gene sequencing. Approximately 12% (20/159) of the samples were positive for genogroup II (GII; 10.1% in 2005 and 14.2% in 2006). The GI genotypes were not detected. The data from the phylogenetic analysis indicated that, among the 20 strains detected, 13 strains were GII/genotype 2 (GII/2), two were GII/3, three were GII/8, and two were GII/12. GII/4, which has been found most frequently in recent outbreaks worldwide, including Japan, was not detected. We found that one individual was coinfected with two genotypes, GII/2 and GII/12. This is the first report of the detection of NV genotypes in asymptomatic food handlers working at a non-outbreak facility. The excretion of NV from healthy individuals may be an infection source of NV outbreaks as well as other food-borne diseases.
Project description:Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans worldwide. Since late 2012, a new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 has caused a significant increase in NoV epidemics in several countries. From November of 2012 to January of 2013, three gastroenteritis outbreaks occurred in two social welfare homes (Outbreaks A and B) and a factory (Outbreak C) in Shenzhen city of China. Feces and swabs were collected for laboratory tests for causative agents. While no bacterial pathogen was identified, all three outbreaks were caused by NoVs with detection rates of 26.2% (16/61) at Outbreak A, 35.2% (38/108) at Outbreak B), and 59.3% (16/27) at Outbreaks C. For Outbreak B, 25 of the 29 symptomatic individuals (86.2%) and 13 of the 79 asymptomatic individuals (16.5%) were found NoV-positive. For Outbreak C, an asymptomatic food handler was NoV-positive. All thirteen NoV sequences from the three outbreaks were classified into genogroup II and genotype 4 (GII.4), which we identified to be the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant. The genome of two isolates from Outbreaks A and B were recombinant with the opening reading frame (ORF) 1 of GII.4 Osaka 2007 and ORF2 and 3 of the GII.4 New Orleans. Our study indicated that the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant emerged and caused the outbreaks in China.
Project description:The identification and molecular epidemiology of norovirus in outbreaks of gastroenteritis were studied during a 3-year period in Germany. Specimens (n = 316) from 159 nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks from March 2001 to June 2004 were analyzed for the presence of noroviruses by reverse transcriptase PCR. Outbreaks were most frequent in elderly people's homes and care centers (43%), followed by hospitals (24%). Molecular analyses of strains from 148 outbreaks showed that there were up to 12 genotypes involved in the outbreaks. Genogroup II noroviruses were responsible for 95% of the outbreaks. Cocirculation of more than one strain in the same outbreak and cocirculation of genogroup I and II strains in the same place were observed. Genogroup II4 (Grimsby-like) was the most prevalent strain, accounting for 48% and 67% of the outbreaks in 2002 and 2003, respectively. The genogroup IIb (Castell/Suria) genotype was observed in all the years of the study. Epidemiological and molecular data indicated that there was a major shift of the predominant strain that coincided with the appearance of a new variant of genogroup II4 in 2002. By the application of reverse transcriptase PCR, this study has demonstrated the importance and dynamism of noroviruses in Germany.
Project description:Sera obtained from adult volunteers inoculated with genogroup II Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs), Hawaii virus, and Snow Mountain virus and from patients involved in outbreaks of gastroenteritis were tested for genogroup II NLV Mexico virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) by use of a monoclonal antibody, recombinant Mexico virus antigen (rMXV)-based IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sera from genogroup I Norwalk virus (NV)-inoculated volunteers and from patients involved in a genogroup I NLV outbreak were also tested. In sera from those infected with genogroup I NV or NLVs in volunteer and outbreak studies, only 3 of 25 were rMXV IgM positive; in contrast, 24 of 25 were IgM positive for recombinant NV (rNV). In sera from those infected with genogroup II NLVs in volunteer and outbreak studies, 28 of 47 were rMXV IgM positive and none were IgM positive for rNV, showing the specificity of each IgM test for its respective genogroup. In an outbreak of gastroenteritis not characterized as being of viral etiology but suspected to be due to NV, 7 of 13 persons had IgM responses to rMXV, whereas none had IgM responses to rNV, thus establishing the diagnosis as genogroup II NLV infection. The rMXV-based IgM capture ELISA developed is specific for the diagnosis of genogroup II NLV infections.